Continental Congress

The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from a number of British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution, who acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen Colonies that became the United States of America. After declaring the colonies independent from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, it acted as the provisional governing structure for the collective United States, while most government functions remained in the individual states; the term most refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–1781. More broadly, it refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, thus covering the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States that met between 1774 and the inauguration of a new government in 1789 under the United States Constitution. Convened in response to the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament in 1774, the First Continental Congress sought to help repair the frayed relationship between the British government and its American colonies while asserting the rights of colonists.

The Second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, proclaiming that the 13 colonies were now independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. This body functioned as the provisional government for the U. S. until the nation's first Frame of Government, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, came into force on March 1, 1781, at which time it became the Congress of the Confederation. Styled "The United States in Congress Assembled," this unicameral governing body would convene in eight sessions prior to being disbanded in 1789, when the 1st United States Congress under the new constitution took over the role as the nation's legislative branch of government. Much of what is known today about the daily activities of these congresses comes from the journals kept by the secretary for all three congresses, Charles Thomson. Printed contemporaneously, the Papers of the Continental Congress contain the official congressional papers, treaties and records; the delegates to the Continental and Confederation congresses had extensive experience in deliberative bodies, with "a cumulative total of nearly 500 years of experience in their Colonial assemblies, a dozen of them had served as speakers of the houses of their legislatures."

The idea of a congress of British American Colonies was first broached in 1754 at the start of the French and Indian War, which started as the North American front of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France. Known as the Albany Congress, it met in Albany, New York from June 18 to July 11, 1754, was attended by representatives from seven colonies. Among the delegates was Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia, who proposed that the colonies join together in a confederation. In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act requiring that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp; the Act provoked the ire of merchants in New York and Philadelphia, who responded by placing an embargo on British imports until the Stamp Act was repealed. To present a united front in their opposition, delegates from several provinces met in the Stamp Act Congress, which convened in New York City from October 7 through 25, 1765.

It issued a Declaration of Grievances, which it sent to Parliament. Subsequently, under pressure from British companies hurt by the embargo, the government of Prime Minister Lord Rockingham and King George III relented, the Stamp Act was repealed in March 1766; the colonists' resistance to the Stamp Act served as a catalyst for subsequent acts of resistance. The Townshend Acts, passed by Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768, sparked renewed animosity in the colonies, which resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Three years the Tea Act became law, exacerbating the colonists' resentment toward the British government, inciting the December 1773 Boston Tea Party, inspiring the September 1774 Suffolk Resolves; the First Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, from September 5 to October 26, 1774. Delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that would join in the Revolutionary War participated. Only Georgia, where Loyalist feelings still outweighed Patriotic emotion, which relied upon Great Britain for military supplies to defend settlers against possible Indian attacks, did not.

Altogether, 56 delegates attended, including George Washington, Patrick Henry, John Adams. Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay, along with Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Pennsylvania. Peyton Randolph of Virginia was its president. Benjamin Franklin had put forth the idea of such a meeting the year before, but he was unable to convince the colonies of its necessity until the British Navy instituted a blockade of Boston Harbor and Parliament passed the punitive Intolerable Acts in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. During the congress, delegates organized an economic boycott of Great Britain in protest and petitioned the King for a redress of grievances; the colonies were united in their effort to demonstrate to the mother country their authority by virtue of their common causes and their unity. Most d

Typist Gopu

Gopalarathinam, known by his stage name Typist Gopu, was an Indian actor known for comedy and supporting roles. He acted in over 600 stage plays and 400 films. A native of Manakkal, Lalgudi in Trichy district, Gopalarathinam was active in college dramas during his B. Com from Vivekananda College and got introduced to the stage through his friend Nagesh in his drama troupe in 1955. In the 1959 play Nenje Nee Vaazhga, he played the role of a typist, praised and he got his name "Typist" Gopu. In 1965, he made his film debut in K. Balachandar's movie Naanal and went on to act alongside major actors in the period, he joined Y. G. Mahendran's United Amateur Artists, he received Kalaimamani in 2002. He acted on comedy television serials after acting opportunities ceased to come; this is partial filmography. You can expand it. Vasool Chakravarthy Veetukku Veedu Looty Mr. Brain Thuppariyum Sambu Typist Gopu on IMDb


A GP8 is a four-axle road switcher diesel locomotive rebuilt by Illinois Central's Paducah shops using a General Motors Electro-Motive Division GP7, GMD GP7 or GP9 as a start. It is similar to the GP10 and GP11. A total of 111 units were rebuilt to "GP8" for the Illinois Illinois Central Gulf. Core units used in the construction of these units were Illinois Central GP7, GP9, a GP8, C&O GP9, D&RGW GP9, DT&I GP7, N&W GP7, P&LE GP7, QNS&L GP7, RDG GP7, St. J&LC GP9, SLSF GP7, SP GP9; the Paducah Shops rebuilt 16 Conrail GP7s to GP8s. Nine were rebuilt in 1976 and another seven in 1978. Rock Island's Silvis Shops rebuilt 20 Conrail GP7s into GP8s in 1978. Morrison-Knudsen's Boise Shops rebuilt 13 Conrail GP7s into GP8s in 1978; the 1976 Conrail units rebuilt at Paducah were the equivalent of the Illinois Central rebuilds. The 1978 rebuilds were engine and electrical gear only rebuilds with no carbody modifications