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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can be referred to ambiguously as the European continent – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and by some the Continent; the most common definition of continental Europe excludes continental islands, encompassing the Greek Islands, Malta, Sardinia, the Balearic Islands, Great Britain and Ireland and surrounding islands, Novaya Zemlya and the Nordic archipelago, as well as nearby oceanic islands, including the Canary Islands, the Azores, the Faroe Islands, Svalbard. The Scandinavian Peninsula is sometimes excluded, as though it is technically part of "mainland Europe", the de facto connections to the rest of the continent are across the Baltic Sea or North Sea; the old notion of Europe as a cultural and European unification term was centred on core Europe, the continental territory of the historical Carolingian Empire, corresponding to modern France, Italy and the Benelux states.

This historical core of "Carolingian Europe" was consciously invoked in the 1950s as the historical ethno-cultural basis for the prospective European integration. In both Great Britain and Ireland, the Continent is and used to refer to the mainland of Europe. An amusing British newspaper headline once read, "Fog in Channel, it has been claimed that this was a regular weather forecast in Britain in the 1930s. In addition, the word Europe itself is regularly used to mean Europe excluding the islands of Great Britain and Ireland; the term mainland Europe is sometimes used. Usage may reflect cultural allegiances. Pro-European UK citizens are much less to use "Europe" in ways that exclude the UK and Ireland. Derivatively, the adjective continental refers to the social practices or fashion of continental Europe. Examples include breakfast, topless sunbathing and long-range driving known as Grand Touring. Differences include electrical plugs, time zones for the most part, the use of left-hand traffic, for the United Kingdom and the continued use of imperial units alongside metric.

Britain is physically connected to continental Europe through the undersea Channel Tunnel, which accommodates both the Getlink and Eurostar services. These services were established to transport passengers and vehicles through the tunnel on a 24/7 basis between England and continental Europe, while still maintaining passport and immigration control measures on both sides of the tunnel; this route is popular with refugees and migrants seeking to enter the UK. In Germanic studies, continental refers to the European continent excluding the Scandinavian peninsula, Britain and Iceland; the reason for this is that although the Scandinavian peninsula is attached to continental Europe, accessible via a land route along the 66th parallel north, it is reached by sea. Kontinenten is a vernacular Swedish expression that refers to an area excluding Sweden and Finland but including Denmark and the rest of continental Europe. In Norway one speaks about Kontinentet as a separate entity. In Denmark, Jutland is referred to thereby a part of continental Europe.

The Scandinavian peninsula is now connected to the Danish mainland by several tunnels. The Continent may sometimes refer to the continental part of Italy, the continental part of Spain, the continental part of France, the continental part of Portugal, or the continental part of Greece; the term is used from the perspective of the island residents of each country to describe the continental portion of their country or the continent as a whole. Continental France is known as l'Hexagone, "the Hexagon", referring to its approximate shape on a map. Continental philosophy Geopolitical divisions of Europe Geographical midpoint of Europe Mainland Western Europe Hajnal line

Kevin Palmer (basketball)

Kevin Palmer is an American professional basketball player who last played for Akita Northern Happinets of the B. League. Palmer began his college career at Cecil College. After leading the team with 18 points per game and 80 3-pointers for the season he decided to transfer to Texas A&M-Corpus Christi. During his senior year with the Texas A&M-Corpus Christi he averaged 19.7 points per game, 5.4 rebounds per game, 2.4 steals per game. NABC All-District First Team - 2009, 2010 All-Southland First Team - 2009, 2010 Southland All-Tournament Team - 2009 Southland Newcomer of the Year - 2009 On Jul 15, 2013 Palmer signed to play with Hapoel Eilat after playing for KAO Dramas during the 2012-13 season. On June 6, 2015, Palmer re-signed with Hapoel Eilat after playing the 2014-2015 season with the team after that he moved to Maccabi Rishon Lezion. On August 15, 2016, Palmer signed with the Akita Northern Happinets in Japan, replacing Richard Roby. In the summer of 2017, Palmer played in The Basketball Tournament on ESPN for team A Few Good Men.

He competed for the $2 million prize, helped take team A Few Good Men to the Super 16 round, where they lost to Team Challenge ALS 77-60. Greek HEBA A1 Round 20 MVP - 2012-2013 Greek HEBA A1 Round 22 MVP - 2012-2013 Israeli BSL 1st Team - 2013-2014 His hero is Carmelo Anthony, he is honored to be decorated on the wall at the new arena of Texas A&M–Corpus Christi Islanders. Palmer is Jermaine Dixon, basketball players. Highlights 2016 Kevin Palmer on Twitter Kevin Palmer on Instagram

Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge (1890)

The Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge was a crossing of the Anacostia River in Washington, DC at the site of the present John Philip Sousa Bridge. It was constructed in 1890 and demolished around 1939; the 1890 Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge was upstream from the location of an earlier 1815 bridge. It had two northwestern abutments made of stone, both of which rose 38 feet above the low-water mark; the single southwestern abutment was made of compacted earth covered with stone slabs. There were nine piers in the river itself, each made of brownstone masonry and rising 10 feet above the low-water mark; because bedrock could not be located in the riverbed, the piers rested on pilings and grillage. The substructure of the bridge consisted of iron Pegram trusses. On the northwestern side of the bridge, the trusses from the shore to the first and second abutments were above the bridge, so as not to interfere with the passage of the B&PR trains below the bridge; the other trusses were all slung below the bridge.

Each of the 10 trusses over the piers painted dark red. They had a clearance of just 2 to 3 feet over the high-water mark; the roadway was just 24 feet wide, consisted of oak plans over iron beams. Unlike the previous bridges, there was no draw span. A watchman's hut was constructed near the northwestern terminus; because of the concern that pedestrians might interfere with vehicular traffic, causing carriages to drive off the bridge and land on the railway tracks below, a 5-foot wooden fence was erected on the first two city-side spans to separate the carriageway and pedestrian walkway. For the rest of the bridge, a timber curb separated the two paths; the edges of the bridge had a 5-foot ornamental iron fence to keep people or carriages from falling into the river. Coal gas-lit lampposts providing lighting along the bridge. Fences lined the side of the roadway on the southwestern abutment to prevent carriages from driving off the embankment; the bridge was served on its city-side by Pennsylvania Avenue.

Although the avenue was paved only to within 0.25 miles of the bridge, cement sidewalks on both sides of the avenue provided improved pedestrian access to the bridge. Kentucky Avenue SE, which met Pennsylvania Avenue SE just before the bridge, was graded prior to the bridge's dedication. East of the river, the state of Maryland constructed a new road along the old Upper Marlboro Turnpike to link to Pennsylvania Avenue SE. To many observers, the bridge seemed isolated. There were no homes close to either end of the structure, the area on east side was goat pasture and clay bottom land; the nearest streetcar line was more than 0.5 miles away, although area streetcar companies were hoping to build a rail line over the new Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge to serve the area. No bridge connected the east and west ends of Pennsylvania Avenue SE over the Anacostia River between 1845 and 1890. Benning Bridge, erected upstream in 1805, the 11th Street Bridges, built downstream in 1820 carried vehicular and foot traffic over the Ancostia.

But the Uniontown "suburb" was platted in the Anacostia area in 1854, development began to turn the agricultural land into businesses and residences. The destruction of the Eastern Branch Bridge in 1846, however slowed growth in the area for five decades; the first push for a new bridge connecting the two sides of Pennsylvania Avenue occurred in 1870. The effort was led by John S. Gallaher, an auditor for the Commissioner of Pensions in the United States Department of the Interior, he had the support of Lieutenant R. M. Hall, assistant quartermaster in the U. S. Army, Army Colonel Henry Naylor. Hall's idea was for a large and beautiful bridge, one which would carry large pipes of fresh water to the eastern part of the city; the area of the city east of the Anacostia suffered extensively from lack of fresh water, Hall called for extending the Washington Aqueduct east of the river. A large reservoir would be constructed atop the Washington Heights to receive this water, the flow of gravity would inexpensively deliver it to homes throughout the area.

But Hall's idea was opposed by the citizens of Uniontown, who feared the loss of retail and carriage trade. Hall abandoned the proposal, moved away in 1872. About 1871, a real estate development known as "East Washington Heights" began. Intended to be a "suburb" of "the city" catering to wealthy individuals, it never took off. Citizens in the areas that would become Dupont Park, Fairfax Village, Fort Davis, Penn Branch, Randle Highlands wanted a bridge to reconnect "their" Pennsylvania Avenue with the Pennsylvania Avenue "in the city"; the citizens of "East Washington" were interested in issues like more clean water, better roads, improved sewers. On January 31, 1879, they formed the East Washington Citizen's Association to lobby for action, but building a new bridge over the Anacostia River only became an issue for them, it was not until 1875 that the EWCA began agitating for one. A new bridge, the EWCA pointed out, would save residents of East Washington 4 to 5 miles in travel every time they visited the city center on the other side of the river.

On February 19, 1886, the EWCA formed a committee to lobby the Commissioners of the District of Columbia and Congress on the issue. That year, Representative Barnes Compton introduced legislation in Congress to build a $60,000 bridge of wood on wooden piers; the bill was co-sponsored in the House of Representatives by Representa