A contralto is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type. The contralto's vocal range is rare; the contralto voice type is divided into the coloratura and dramatic contralto. "Contralto" is meaningful only in reference to classical and operatic singing, as other traditions lack a comparable system of vocal categorization. The term "contralto" is only applied to female singers; the Italian terms "contralto" and "alto" are not synonymous, "alto" technically denoting a specific vocal range in choral singing without regard to factors like tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal facility, vocal weight. However, there exists some French choral writing with a part labeled "contralto", despite the tessitura and function being that of a classical alto part; the Saracen princess Clorinde in André Campra's 1702 opera Tancréde was written for Julie d'Aubigny and is considered the earliest major role for bas-dessus or contralto voice. The contralto has the lowest vocal range of the female voice types, with the lowest tessitura.

The contralto vocal range is between mezzo-soprano. Although tenors and basses are male singers, some women can sing as low as their male counterparts and are erroneously referred to as "female tenors", "female baritones", or "female basses". Formal terminology might logically be contralto profundo and contralto basso or oktavistka, but these are not traditional; some of the rare singers who specialized in the tenor and baritone registers include film actress Zarah Leander, the Persian āvāz singer Hayedeh, the child prodigy Ruby Helder, Bavarian novelty singer Bally Prell. Within the contralto voice type category are three recognized subcategories: coloratura contralto, an agile voice specializing in florid passages; these subtypes do not always apply with precision to individual singers. True operatic contraltos are rare, the operatic literature contains few roles written for them. Contraltos sometimes are assigned feminine roles like Angelina in La Cenerentola, Rosina in The Barber of Seville, Teodata in "Flavio", Isabella in L'italiana in Algeri, Olga in Eugene Onegin, but more they play female villains or trouser roles.

Contraltos may be cast in roles written for castrati. A common saying among contraltos is that they may play only "witches, bitches, or britches."Examples of contralto roles in the standard operatic repertoire include the following: * indicates a role that may be sung by a mezzo-soprano. Category of contraltos List of operatic contraltos Fach, the German system for classifying voices Voice classification in non-classical music List of contraltos in non-classical music Coffin, Berton. Coloratura and Dramatic Soprano, Vol. 1. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-0188-2. Peckham, Anne. Vocal Workouts for the Contemporary Singer. Berklee Press Publications. ISBN 978-0-87639-047-4. Smith, Brenda. Choral Pedagogy. Plural Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59756-043-6. Media related to Contraltos at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Contralto at Wiktionary

Melanie Bromley

Melanie Bromley is an American-based British-born entertainment journalist and broadcaster, the chief correspondent for E! News, where she covers celebrity news. Bromley attended the University of Wales, Swansea where she earned a Bachelor of Science undergraduate degree in Geography, she continued her education at City University, London attaining a master's degree in Broadcast Journalism, specializing in financial journalism. Bromley became the European Bureau chief for Us Weekly in 2003, overseeing all international news coverage for the magazine. In 2007, she moved to Los Angeles. In 2012, Bromley joined E! News and E! Online as Senior Correspondent, overseeing newsgathering across both platforms. Four months after joining E!, she was promoted to Senior Managing Correspondent. In 2014, Bromley was promoted again to Chief News Correspondent. In her role Bromley appears on a variety of shows across the network from E! News, Live From E! and E! News specials, she helped spearhead coverage of the 2012 Olympic Games in London, the birth of Prince George.

Bromley appears as a pop culture expert on other U. S. networks and in her native UK. She has been featured on CNN, Good Morning America, The Today Show, BBC, Sky News and Daybreak among many others. Bromley has been quoted in the Washington Post,Financial Times, The Sunday Times of London, Vanity Fair and other international print publications

Roger Wilmans

Franz Friedrich Roger Wilmans was a German historian and archivist. From 1832 he studied philology and history at the University of Berlin, receiving his doctorate in 1835 with a dissertation on Cassius Dio, De Dionis Cassii fontibus et auctoritate. Afterwards, he worked as a schoolteacher at the Cadet Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1851 he succeeded Heinrich August Erhard as director of the provincial archives in Münster, a position he maintained up until his death in 1881, he made important contributions to the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, that included editions of works by Otto von Freising. Among his other principal writings are the following: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Reichs unter der Herrschaft König und Kaiser Otto's III. 983-1002, – Yearbooks on the German Empire under the rule of King and Emperor Otto III, 983–1002. Die Kaiserurkunden der Provinz Westfalen 777–1313 – The royal register of the province of Westphalia 777–1313. Die Urkunden des Karolingischen Zeitalters 777–900, – Documents of the Carolingian era 777–900.

Die Urkunden der Jahre 901–1254, – Records of the years 901–1254. Die Schicksale der Reichskleinodien und des Kirchenschatzes des Aachener Krönungsstiftes während der französischen Revolution, – Fates of the imperial ministries and church treasuries of the Aachen Krönungsstift during the French Revolution. Zur Geschichte der Universität Münster in den Jahren 1802–1818. Nach archivalischen Quellen, – History of the University of Münster in the years 1802–1818. In the Westfälisches Urkundenbuch he published: Index zu H. A. Erhardts Regesta historiae Westfaliae, – Index to Erhardt's Regesta historiae Westfaliae. Die Urkunden des Bisthums Münster von 1201–1300, – Records of the Bishopric of Münster from 1201–1300. Die Urkunden des Bistums Paderborn 1201–1300 – Documents of the Diocese of Paderborn 1201–1300. Book 1: Die Urkunden der Jahre 1201–1240, – Records from the years 1201–1240. Book 2: Die Urkunden der Jahre 1241–1250, – Records from the years 1241–1250