Conversion therapy is the pseudoscientific practice of trying to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual or bisexual to heterosexual using psychological or spiritual interventions. There is no reliable evidence that sexual orientation can be changed and medical institutions warn that conversion therapy practices are ineffective and harmful. Medical and government organizations in the United States and United Kingdom have expressed concern over the validity and ethics of conversion therapy. Various jurisdictions around the world have passed laws against conversion therapy; the American Psychiatric Association opposes psychiatric treatment "based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon the a priori assumption that a patient should change his/her sexual homosexual orientation" and describes attempts to change a person's sexual orientation by practitioners as unethical. It states that the advancement of conversion therapy may cause social harm by disseminating unscientific views about sexual orientation.
In 2001, United States Surgeon General David Satcher issued a report stating that "there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed". Techniques used in conversion therapy in the United States and Western Europe have included ice-pick lobotomies. More recent clinical techniques used in the United States have been limited to counseling, social skills training, psychoanalytic therapy, spiritual interventions such as "prayer and group support and pressure", though there are some reports of aversive treatments through unlicensed practice as late as the early 2000s; the term reparative therapy has been used as a synonym for conversion therapy in general, but it has been argued that speaking it refers to a specific kind of therapy associated with the psychologists Elizabeth Moberly and Joseph Nicolosi. The National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality was the main organization advocating for conversion therapy. Fundamentalist Christian groups, some other organizations, have used religious justification for the therapy.
The history of conversion therapy can be divided broadly into three periods: an early Freudian period. During the earliest parts of psychoanalytic history, analysts granted that homosexuality was non-pathological in certain cases, the ethical question of whether it ought to be changed was discussed. By the 1920s analysts assumed that homosexuality was pathological and that attempts to treat it were appropriate, although psychoanalytic opinion about changing homosexuality was pessimistic; those forms of homosexuality that were considered perversions were held to be incurable. Analysts' tolerant statements about homosexuality arose from recognition of the difficulty of achieving change. Beginning in the 1930s and continuing for twenty years, major changes occurred in how analysts viewed homosexuality, which involved a shift in the rhetoric of analysts, some of whom felt free to ridicule and abuse their gay patients. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud stated that homosexuality could sometimes be removed through hypnotic suggestion, was influenced by Eugen Steinach, a Viennese endocrinologist who transplanted testicles from straight men into gay men in attempts to change their sexual orientation, stating that his research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homo-eroticism".
Freud cautioned that Steinach's operations would not make possible a therapy that could be applied, arguing that such transplant procedures would be effective in changing homosexuality in men only in cases in which it was associated with physical characteristics typical of women, that no similar therapy could be applied to lesbianism. Steinach's method was doomed to failure because the immune system rejects transplanted glands, was exposed as ineffective and harmful. Freud's main discussion of female homosexuality was the 1920 paper "The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman", which described his analysis of a young woman who had entered therapy because her parents were concerned that she was a lesbian, her father wanted. In Freud's view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which she entered therapy, because homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict. Freud wrote that changing homosexuality was difficult and possible only under unusually favourable conditions, observing that "in general to undertake to convert a developed homosexual into a heterosexual does not offer much more prospect of success than the reverse".
Success meant making heterosexual feeling possible, not eliminating homosexual feelings. Gay people could be convinced that heterosexual sex would provide them with the same pleasure they derived from homosexual sex. Patients wanted to become heterosexual for reasons Freud considered superficial, including fear of social disapproval, an insufficient motive for change; some might have no real desire to become heterosexual, seeking treatment only to convince themselves that they had done everything possible to change, leaving them free to return to homosexuality after the f
The Piper's Stones or the Athgreany stone circle is a Bronze Age stone circle at Athgreany, County Wicklow. It sits on a low hillock overlooking the N81, 2 km south of Hollywood; the stone circle sits on the end of a low ridge, enclosed at a distance by high ground on all sides. It is thought that someone attempted to remove the circle unsuccessfully, disturbing the stones placement in the process. Now the site is composed with 5 remaining in their original placements. In the Ordnance Survey of 1941 reported 29 stones originally; the stones range in height from 1.3 m to 1.92 m. There has been no archaeological investigation of the site, so the construction date is only estimated to be from the late Bronze Age 1400–500 BCE; the circle is 23 m in diameter. An outlying larger stone, 2 m in height, stands outside the circle to the north east; some of the stones show signs of degraded carved megalithic art, consisting of grooves and cup-marks. The stone's name, The Piper's Stones, is believed to have derived from a local folk tale that said those caught dancing there on a Sunday would turn to stone, with the stones representing such revellers.
An outlying stone on the north east represents the piper. There is an old hawthorn tree growing around the stone's circumference, this tree is associated with fairies and other folklore. There are four other circles that have been given the same name, another in County Wicklow, two in County Kildare, one more in County Kerry; these others have a similar folk tale associated with them, has been seen as a way of classifying such circles. The site is sign-posted, there is parking on a hard-shoulder; the circle is accessed over a wooden stile. From the stile the circle is 200 m up a low hill. Media related to Athgreany stone circle at Wikimedia Commons
IV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army, formed in both the First World War and the Second World War. During the First World War the corps served on the Western Front throughout its existence. During the Second World War it served in Norway and Britain until, after Japan entered the war and India was threatened with attack, it was transferred there. In 1876 a Mobilisation Scheme for eight army corps was published, with'4th Corps' headquartered at Dublin and comprising the regular units of Irish Command, supported with militia. In 1880, it was organised. 22nd Foot, 82nd Foot, 3rd Bn. Rifle Brigade 2nd Brigade Edinburgh Militia, 1st Lanark Militia, 2nd Lanark Militia Divisional Troops Highland Light Infantry Militia, 3rd Dragoon Guards, 19th Company Royal Engineers Artillery O/3rd Brigade RA 2nd Division 1st Brigade 1st Bn. 16th Foot, 38th Foot, 95th Foot 2nd Brigade 1st West York Militia, 2nd West York Militia, 3rd West York Militia Divisional Troops 4th West York Militia, 2nd Dragoon Guards, 6th Company Royal Engineers Artillery P/3rd Brigade RA, K/2nd Brigade RA, I/2nd Brigade RA 3rd Division 1st Brigade 1st Somerset Militia, 2nd Somerset Militia, Hereford Militia 2nd Brigade 1st Warwick Militia, 2nd Warwick Militia, Glamorgan Militia Divisional Troops 1st Bn. 7th Foot, 19th Hussars, 18th Company Royal Engineers Artillery N/3rd Brigade RA, M/3rd Brigade RA, H/2nd Brigade RA Cavalry Brigade 2nd Dragoons, 7th Hussars, 20th Hussars, I Battery B Brigade RHA Corps Artillery H Battery B Brigade RHA, B Battery A Brigade RHA, G Battery B Brigade RHA This scheme had been dropped by 1881.
The 1901 Army Estimates allowed for six army corps based on the six regional commands: IV Corps was to be formed by Eastern Command with headquarters in London. It was to comprise 25 infantry battalions. Under Army Order No 38 of 1907 the corps titles disappeared, but Eastern Command continued to be a major administrative organisation, controlling two cavalry brigades and one infantry division; the Corps had its origin in a force operating independently in Belgium under the command of Lieut-Gen Sir Henry Rawlinson. It was transferred from War Office control to the BEF on 9 October 1914, the BEF"s commander, Sir John French, constituted it as IV Corps, it bore part of the brunt of the defence in the early stages of the First Battle of Ypres. It comprised the 7th Infantry Division and 3rd Cavalry Division, but these were transferred in late October. IV Corps was reconstituted on 6 November, it fought at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle and subsidiary actions, the Battle of Aubers Ridge, The Battle of Festubert, the Battle of Loos and associated actions.
In 1916 the corps was commanded by Wilson. The corps was holding a stretch of five miles from Loos to just south of Givenchy, between Gough's I Corps in the north and French IX Corps in the south. Wilson, noting the difference in quality between his divisions, took a keen interest in training and did much lecturing. In March the British took over line from French Tenth Army. IV Corps was moved south of Givenchy, opposite Vimy Ridge, which gave the Germans the advantage of height. 47th Division conducted effective mining operations on 15 May. A surprise German attack on the evening of Sunday 21 May moved forward 800 yards, capturing 1,000 yards of the British front line; the subsequent counterattack failed and Wilson was "degummed". Wilson resisted pressure from Haig to conduct a limited attack until after 1 September. With another "Big Push" due on the Somme in September, Wilson's attack was postponed until October, GHQ now wanted the whole of Vimy Ridge taken, which would mean a joint attack with XVII Corps.
Edmonds wrote that Wilson's preparations had laid the foundations for the successful capture of Vimy Ridge in April 1917. The attack at Vimy never took place as IV Corps was incorporated into Gough's Reserve Army, where it remained in reserve during the Battle of the Ancre; the corps took part in the German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line, the Battle of Cambrai and associated actions, the First Battles of the Somme and associated actions, the Second Battle of the Somme, the Battle of St. Quentin Canal and associated actions, the final advance in Picardy; the composition of army corps changed frequently. Some representative orders of battle for IV Corps are given here. Order of Battle at Ypres 10 November 1914:General Officer Commanding: Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Rawlinson Brigadier-General, General Staff: R. A. K. Montgomery Brigadier-General, Royal Artillery: A. H. Hussey Colonel, Royal Engineers: R. U. H. Buckland 7th Division 8th DivisionBy the time of the battles of Aubers Ridge and Festubert, IV Corps still had 7th and 8th Divisions under command, but had been reinforced by 49th Division of the Territorial Force.
Order of Battle in 1916 Once the era of trench warfare had set in on the Western Front, the BEF left its army corps in position for long periods, so that they became familiar with their sector, while rotating divisions
Leslie J. Schirato, nicknamed “Australia’s Coffee King”, is an Australian entrepreneur and the Chief Executive Officer of Vittoria Food & Beverage, an Australian supplier and distributor of European food. Leslie J. Schirato was born Australia in 1955 to Italian immigrants. At the age of 16, he started working in the Cantarella Bros as a part-time employee over the school holidays, began working full-time with the company in 1972. In 1976, Schirato left the company to work for David’s Holding and on he secured a position with Fiat Australia as a sales manager. After a 5-year absence, he returned to the Cantarella Group in 1981. At this point, Schirato was working in a sales and marketing capacity, one of his first projects was to introduce espresso coffee to the Australian market; this was challenging at a time when coffee was viewed as an instant beverage and luxury European coffee like espresso was not demanded by consumers. Schirato was laughed at when he tried to promote the company’s Vittoria Coffee brand to supermarkets and many of his peers in the coffee industry said that pure coffee would be too strong for Australians.
Today, the pure coffee industry is worth over $135 million and it is estimated that Australians consume coffee at about 2.9 kg per capita annually. In 1993, Schirato was promoted to Group Managing Director and today, Vittoria Food & Beverage supplies over a third of the pure coffee consumed by Australian's in their homes, with Vittoria Coffee dominating in supermarkets as the leader in fresh coffee. Les Schirato is still involved in charitable causes and he is recognised for his community work involving youth, social welfare and religion. In 2008, he was awarded with the Member of the Order of Australia for his positive contributions to the Australian community. Ernst & Young National Entrepreneur of the Year 2001 Young Presidents’ Organisation International Legacy Honour Member of the Order of Australia
A Marine expeditionary force known as a Marine amphibious force, is the largest type of a Marine air-ground task force. A MEF is the largest building block of United States Marine Corps combat power. A MEF is larger than a Marine expeditionary Marine expeditionary brigade; each MEF consists of a MEF Information Group as the command element, a Marine division as the ground combat element, a Marine aircraft wing as the aviation combat element, a Marine logistics group as the logistics combat element. The MEF contains a Special Operations Training Group and is the training section component for the MEU and MEB; the SOTG oversees the training and evaluation exercises for the MEU's annual Special Operations Capable Certification. A MEF commands several smaller MAGTFs, including MEBs and MEUs. Camp Pendleton, California Camp Lejeune, North Carolina Camp Butler, Japan New Orleans, Louisiana
Long Load is a village and parish in Somerset, situated on the River Yeo 5 miles south of Somerton in the South Somerset district. The village has a population of 332. Long Load was recorded as ‘Lade’ in the late 12th century and ‘La Lade’ in 1285 meaning The watercourse or drainage channel from the Old English ‘lād’ or The long route where goods were carried from the Old English lang and laed, it has been suggested that the name derives from O. E. lad meaning a water-course. Long Load's association with the river is long standing. A bridge over the river is known to have existed by 1335, while by 1448 there were wharves for the loading and unloading of cargoes from boats using the river; the current five arch bridge has medieval origins, but was rebuilt in the 18th century and widened in 1814 it cost of £452. It has been designated as a grade II * Listed building; the river was the subject of the abortive Ivelchester and Langport Navigation in 1795, although the works were never completed, traffic on the river was sufficient for the coal merchants Stukey and Bagehot to establish a coal yard near the bridge by 1824.
Water levels were improved by work on the river below Langport, the 1841 census records that a salt house had been constructed. By 88 households lived in Long Load, including a boatman called William Gillett and his family, while another boatman lived near the bridge. Cargoes arriving at the wharves included slates, bricks and coal, while the main export was timber; the parish was created from the northern parts of the Martock parish in 1895, was originally'called Lade', or'La Lade' taken from the Saxon word lade, meaning water course. The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny; the parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic. The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning.
Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council. The village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of South Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Yeovil Rural District; the district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, it is part of the Somerton and Frome county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. In 1548 Long Load chapel was first mentioned, when it was one of the tithings of the parish of Martock.
The first solid evidence of a church on the present site is a tablet in the vestry dated 1733, which states that lands were added here at that time. The Anglican parish Christ Church was built in 1854-1856, by Charles Edmund Giles, replacing a chapel on the site, first recorded 1418; the church at Long Load is no longer in use as a church by the parish and has now been sold and is in the process of being redeveloped into a family home. Media related to Long Load at Wikimedia Commons