John Nathan Cobb
John Nathan Cobb was an American author, conservationist and educator. He attained a high position in academia without the benefit of a college education. In a career that began as a printer's aide for a newspaper, he worked as a stenographer and clerk, a newspaper reporter, a field agent for the U. S. Fish Commission and its successor the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, as an editor for a commercial fishing trade magazine of the Pacific Northwest, as a supervisor for companies in the commercial fishing industry, he took photographs during his extensive travels documenting people. In 1919, Cobb was appointed the founding director of the College of Fisheries at the University of Washington, the first such college established in the United States. John Nathan Cobb was born in Oxford, New Jersey, on February 20, 1868, the son of Samuel Spencer Cobb, a railroad engineer, Louise Catherine Richard, a native of Belfort, France, he was one of at least twelve children in the family. He discontinued his education at an early age to go to work.
His family moved in the 1880s to Pennsylvania and records indicate that in 1884, at the age of 16 years, he was working for a Pennsylvania newspaper, the Carbondale Reader. He rose to become an editor of that periodical. For the next 15 years or so, Cobb worked as a stenographer and typist, in a variety of positions for a railroad company, a law firm, a supply and machinery enterprise, a brick manufacturing company. In 1898, he married Harriet Collin Bidwell, a cousin, with whom he had a daughter, Genevieve Catherine Cobb who graduated in zoology from the University of Washington and, after receiving a degree in librarianship at the UW, became a librarian at Princeton University and remained there until her retirement. In 1895, Cobb passed a civil service examination for the U. S. Government, qualifying him for a position as stenographer and typist at a salary of $720 per year, he accepted a position in Washington, D. C. on 1 July 1895 with the U. S. Fish Commission, where he was appointed clerk in the Division of Statistics.
He was promoted to "Field Agent" on February 11, 1896 at a salary of $1,000 per annum and was responsible for collecting commercial fishery statistics. Thus, Cobb began a career in fisheries, to last until his death 35 years and one that led to his recognition as an "expert" in fisheries statistics. Cobb's position with the Fish Commission demanded considerable travel, as he was required to proceed throughout the eastern seaboard to collect statistics on the commercial catch of fish and shell fish. For example, from 1896 to 1897 Cobb visited Florida. After most of these trips he returned to the USFC headquarters in Washington, D. C; this pattern of frequent travel continued through 1900. Cobb's first publication for the Fish Commission, on the fisheries of Lake Ontario, was issued in 1898. In 1904, Cobb began to lobby the Bureau of Fisheries for a position in Alaska as a Field Agent in that territory. Cobb obtained the desired position in February 1905 and his appointment as "Assistant Agent" paid $200 per month.
Still based in Washington, D. C. Cobb traveled to Alaska each summer to observe the commercial salmon fisheries and to collect catch statistics, he was a conscientious worker and was known for his aggressive enforcement of fishery regulations. Cobb wrote reports about fisheries; these included annual reports from 1905 to 1910 on the fisheries of Alaska and a book on Alaska salmon. He produced about 18 scientific publications and books during his tenure with the Fish Commission from 1895 to 1911. By early 1911, Cobb was eager for a transfer from Washington, D. C. to the west coast. In March of that year he wrote to George Mead Bowers, Commissioner of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, asking to be transferred to Seattle, his request was denied, so Cobb turned to the private sector for employment. On March 5, 1912, Cobb wrote again to this time tendering his resignation. Cobb thus left the employ of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries to pursue greener paths, he never worked for the Bureau again, but he was always interested in returning if an attractive position became available.
In the spring of 1912, Cobb joined the Union Fish Company in San Francisco in a management position at a considerable increase in salary. The company fished for Pacific cod in Alaska, Cobb traveled north on the company boats, the Union Jack in 1912 and the Sequoia in 1913, operating out of Sand Point and Unga, Alaska. Cobb's experience with the Union Fish Company was not satisfactory, as he was not granted the freedom to manage as he had hoped, he left the company on good terms in November 1913. Cobb sought to improve his position, as he continually did, in November 1913 the commercial fishing trade magazine Pacific Fisherman, based in Seattle, hired him, although at a lower salary than that paid by the Union Fish Company. In his letter of acceptance, Cobb agreed to move to Seattle about 15 November 1913 and to accept a salary of $40 a week "for the present." His salary at the Union Fish Company was $200 a month. This monthly publication was the preeminent voice for the fishing industry of the west coast.
He was hired as the editor of the journal and his particular experience in fisheries for the Bureau of Fisheries and the Union Fish Company brought rare skills to the magazine. The owner of the periodical, Leigh Miller Freeman, became a power in the commercial fisheries industry and in fisheries conservation efforts; the Pacific Fisher
Russian River (Alaska)
The Russian River is a 13-mile-long river on the Kenai Peninsula in the U. S. state of Alaska. It flows northward from Upper Russian Lake in the Kenai Mountains through Lower Russian Lake, draining into the Kenai River at the town of Cooper Landing; the native Denaina people called this river Chunuk'tnu. Like the Kenai, the Russian River is famous for its fishing for salmon. There are two runs of sockeye salmon each year, in mid-June and mid-July, a run of silver salmon in August. There is no direct road access to the river, it can be accessed either by hiking in from several Parking lots in the Russian River Campground or by the Russian River ferry that crosses the Kenai and takes fishermen to the mouth of the Russian. There is a ferry fee; the first parking lot in the Russian River Campground is the 2.3 mile walk to the Russian River Falls. This is a moderate flat walk to great viewing platforms of the falls. Bears fish below the falls, further down stream. List of Alaska rivers
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Peter A. Micciche is an American politician and a Republican member of the Alaska Senate since January 15, 2013 representing District O. Micciche was the mayor of Soldotna, a member of its city council. Micciche earned his AA from Kenai Peninsula College at the University of Alaska and his BA in business management from Alaska Pacific University. Micciche challenged long-time incumbent Senator Tom Wagoner for the District O August 28, 2012 Republican Primary and won with 3,963 votes. Micciche was unopposed for the November 6, 2012 General election and won with 12,947 votes against write-in candidates. Official page at the Alaska Legislature Official Alaska Senate Majority page Profile at Vote Smart Peter Micciche at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
Seward is an incorporated home rule city in Alaska, United States. Located on Resurrection Bay, a fjord of the Gulf of Alaska on the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is situated on Alaska's southern coast 120 miles by road from Alaska's largest city and nearly 1,300 miles from the closest point in the contiguous United States at Cape Flattery, Washington. With an estimated permanent population of 2,831 people as of 2017, Seward is the fourth-largest city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, behind Kenai and the borough seat of Soldotna; the city is named for former U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who orchestrated the United States' purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 while serving in this position as part of President Andrew Johnson's administration. Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad and the historic starting point of the original Iditarod Trail to the Alaskan interior, with Mile 0 of the trail marked on the shoreline at the southern end of town. In 1793 Alexander Baranov of the Shelikhov-Golikov company established a fur trade post on Resurrection Bay where Seward is today, had a three-masted vessel, the Phoenix, built at the post by James Shields, an English shipwright in Russian service.
The 1939 Slattery Report on Alaskan development identified the region as one of the areas where new settlements would be established through Jewish immigration. This plan was never implemented. Seward was an important port for the military buildup in Alaska during World War II. Fort Raymond was established in Seward along the Resurrection River to protect the community. An Army airfield built in Seward during the war became Walseth Air Force Base. Both of the military facilities were closed shortly after the end of the war. A large portion of Seward was damaged by shaking and a local tsunami during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.5 square miles, of which 14.4 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. The northern city limits are demarcated by the lower reaches of the Resurrection River, but extend east past the river's mouth at the northern end of Resurrection Bay to include parts of the bay's extreme northeastern shore, including the beach at the mouth of Fourth of July Creek and the grounds of Spring Creek Correctional Center just inland.
To the south, the city limits extend to the unincorporated community of Lowell Point, while the east and west sides of the city are constrained by Resurrection Bay and the steep slopes of Mount Marathon. Nearby settlements include the aforementioned Lowell Point to the south, as well as the census-designated places of Bear Creek and Moose Pass further north; the nearest incorporated city is Soldatna, about 90 miles away by road to the northwest. By definition, Seward has a subarctic climate, but it experiences moderate temperatures compared to the rest of the state throughout the year due to the influence of the nearby Gulf of Alaska. Only one month, sees an average daily high temperature below freezing, temperatures below zero degrees Fahrenheit are rare; the oceanic influence imparts a high level of precipitation, with the heaviest amounts occurring during the fall and winter months. Seward's local economy is driven by the commercial fishing industry and seasonal tourism. Many lodging facilities and shops in the city cater to tourists, are only open for business during the summer tourist season regarded as running from mid-May through mid-September.
Other major employers in the city include the state-run Spring Creek Correctional Center, the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development's AVTEC vocational school, the local Providence Health & Services branch, which serves as the community's main medical center. Seward is among the most lucrative commercial fisheries ports in the United States, according to reports from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Per the most recent yearly data available, for 2016, commercial fishing boats in Seward offloaded 13,500 tons of fish and shellfish, valued at about $42 million USD. Over the course of the decade from 2007 to 2016, around $545 million USD in commercial seafood passed through Seward's harbor. Owing to its position at the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad and well-developed road links to Anchorage and the rest of the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is both a major northern end-port for several major cruise ship lines that host Alaskan cruises, such as Norwegian, Royal Caribbean, Holland America, Celebrity Cruises, a common destination for general Alaskan tourism.
Seward has a minor military installation and is the home port of the USCGC Mustang. Seward first appeared on the 1910 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1912. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,830 people, 917 households, 555 families residing in the city; the population density was 196.0 people per square mile. There were 1,058 housing units at an average density of 73.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.12% White, 2.44% Black or African American, 16.68% Native American, 1.84% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, 5.87% from two or more races. 2.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 917 households out of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household si
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Soldotna is a home rule city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 4,163, up from 3,759 in 2000, it is the seat of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Soldotna is located in the Southcentral portion of Alaska on the central-western portion of the Kenai Peninsula; the city limits span 7 square miles along the Kenai River, which empties into the Cook Inlet in the nearby city of Kenai. The Kenai River was selected by CNN Travel as one of the "World's 15 Best Rivers for Travelers," due to its fishing and hunting opportunities. Soldotna is located on the western edge of the vast Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, a protected area spanning nearly 2 million acres and home to bears, caribou and many fish and bird species; the city is located at the junction of the Sterling Highway and the Kenai Spur Highway, which has enabled Soldotna to develop as a service and retail hub for the Central Peninsula as well as for travelers between Anchorage and Homer.
The Central Peninsula Hospital serves the medical needs of the region's tourists. The Kenai Peninsula College, a branch of the University of Alaska Anchorage, operates the Kenai River Campus in Soldotna. Additionally, the headquarters of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, the Kenai Peninsula Borough, the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District are located in the city. In 1947, after World War II, the United States government withdrew a number of townships along Cook Inlet and the lower Kenai River from the Kenai National Moose Range, opening up the area to settlement under the Homestead Act. Veterans of the United States armed services were given a 90-day preference over non-veterans in selecting land and filing for property. In that year, the Sterling Highway right-of-way was cleared of trees from Cooper Landing to Kenai; the location of present-day Soldotna was selected as the site for the highway's bridge crossing the Kenai River. The construction of the Sterling Highway provided a link from the Soldotna area to the outside world.
More homesteads were taken and visitors came to fish in the area. The Soldotna Post Office opened in 1949 and other businesses opened in the next few years. Oil was discovered in the Swanson River region in 1957, bringing new economic development to the area. In 1960, Soldotna was incorporated as a fourth class city with a population of 332 and an area of 7.4 square miles. Seven years in 1967, Soldotna was recognized as a first class city. In 1964, the Kenai Peninsula College, the Kenai Peninsula Borough government, the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District were formed; the city experienced rapid population growth in the 1960s through the 1990s as a result of its location at the intersection of two major highways and due to development of the oil industry on the Kenai Peninsula. As the City and the oil industry have matured, population growth has somewhat slowed, although the city experienced more growth from 2000-2010 than during the previous decade. Soldotna is located at 60°29′12″N 151°4′31″W.
Soldotna is located on the banks of the Kenai River on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. It is named after nearby Soldotna Creek. There are multiple theories explaining the origin of the word "Soldotna". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which 6.9 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. As with much of Southcentral Alaska, Soldotna has a moderate subarctic climate due to the cool summers, though the diurnal temperature variation is larger than most locations in the region. Winters are snowy, long but not cold considering the latitude, with January featuring a daily average temperature of 13.4 °F. There are 46 nights of sub-0 °F lows annually, the area lies in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 4, indicating an average annual minimum in the −20 to −30 °F range. Summers are cool due with 12 days of 70 °F + highs annually. Soldotna first appeared on the 1960 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1967.
As of the US Census of 2010, there were 4,163 people residing in 1,720 households in the city. The population density was 563 people per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 86 percent White, 0.3 percent Black or African American, 4.3 percent Native American, 1.6 percent Asian, 0.3 percent Pacific Islander, 0.8 percent from other races, 6.8 percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of all races comprised 3.9 percent of the population. There were 1,720 households out of which 30.1 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44 percent were married couples living together, 11.9 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 38.7 percent were non-families. Of all households, 32 percent were made up of individuals living alone, 9.2 percent of whom were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The age distribution of the population shows 26 percent under the age of 18 and 13 percent age 65 or older.
The median age was 34.6 years. The 2012 estimated median income for a household in the city was $44,805, the median income for a family was $56,208; the per capita income for the city was $30,553. About 3 percent of families and 6.1 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9 percent of those under age 18 and 8.3 percent of those age 65 or over. Soldotna is home to the Kenai Peninsula College’s Kenai River Campus, a division of the University of Alaska Anchorage