The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro coins or notes were not yet available. The lira was the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814, L, sometimes in a double-crossed script form, was the symbol most often used. Until the Second World War, it was subdivided into 100 centesimi, the lira was established at 4.5 grams of silver or 290.322 milligrams of gold. This was a continuation of the Sardinian lira. Other currencies replaced by the Italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia pound, the Two Sicilies piastra, the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and this practice has obviously ended with the introduction of the euro in 2002. World War I broke the Latin Monetary Union and resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy, in 1927, the lira was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 1 dollar =19 lire.
This rate lasted until 1934, with a separate tourist rate of US$1 =24.89 lire being established in 1936, in 1939, the official rate was 19.8 lire. After the Allied invasion of Italy, a rate was set at US$1 =120 lire in June 1943. In German occupied areas, the rate was set at 1 Reichsmark =10 lire. After the war, the value of the lira fluctuated, before Italy set a peg of US$1 =575 lire within the Bretton Woods System in November 1947, following the devaluation of the pound, Italy devalued to US$1 =625 lire on 21 September 1949. This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s, several episodes of high inflation followed until the lira was replaced by the euro. The lira was the unit of currency in Italy until January 1,1999. Old lira denominated currency ceased to be legal tender on February 28,2002, the conversion rate is 1,936.27 lire to the euro. All lira banknotes in use immediately before the introduction of the euro, originally Italys central bank pledged to redeem Italian coins and banknotes until 29 February 2012, but this was brought forward to 6 December 2011.
Italys Constitutional Court has now declared the law that shortening the period of Italian Lira unlawful. Currently, studies are being conducted by the Banca dItalia and the Ministry of Economy, in 1863, silver coins below 5 lire were debased from 90% to 83. 5% and silver 20 centesimi coins were introduced. Minting switched to Rome in the 1870s, apart from the introduction in 1894 of cupro-nickel 20 centesimi coins and of nickel 25 centesimi pieces in 1902, the coinage remained essentially unaltered until the First World War
Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence, Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as Ziz, Palermo became a possession of Carthage, before becoming part of the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire, for over a thousand years. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning complete port, from 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Balarme, the root for Palermos present-day name, eventually Sicily would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. The population of Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, in the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people.
The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, panormiti, the languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language, Sicilian language and the Palermitano dialect. Palermo is Sicilys cultural and touristic capital and it is a city rich in history, art and food. Palermo is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center, the industrial sectors include tourism, commerce. Palermo currently has an airport, and a significant underground economy. In fact, for cultural and economic reasons, Palermo was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy and Europe. It is the seat of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Arab-Norman Palermo. The city is going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro-Mediterranean area. Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palermitano culture, the Patron Saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia whose Feast Day is celebrated on 15 July. The area attracts significant numbers of each year and is widely known for its colourful fruit and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò.
Palermo lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto, the basin was named the Conca dOro by the Arabs in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a range which is named after the city itself. These mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea, Palermo is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea, especially from Monte Pellegrino
Ballot was a French manufacturer, initially of engines, that made automobiles between 1919 and 1932. Édouard Ballot became well known as a designer of reliable engines and he helped Ettore Bugatti in developing his first engines. The Ballot brothers, Édouard and Maurice, founded their company beside the Boulevard Brune in south-central Paris, Edouard Ballot was a former naval officer, which explains the anchor that featured in the badges on the cars. Before World War I the factory concentrated on marine and industrial engines, the company was re-founded as Etablissements Ballot SA in 1910. There is little sign that Edouard Ballot himself took much interest in automobiles until December 1918 and that was the month in which he had a significant conversation René Thomas, a leading racing driver who back in 1914 had won the Indianapolis 500 race driving a Delage. Ballot was persuaded to build four 4. 8-litre cars that would carry the Ballot name and compete in the forthcoming Indianapolis 500 race, Ballots cars competed in the 1919 race, two of them finishing in 4th and 11th places.
Ballot was sufficiently encouraged to return the next year, and in the 1920 Indianapolis 500 race a Ballot driven by René Thomas finished in 2nd place, a Ballot vehicle driven by René Thomas finished second in the 1919 Targa Florio. More successes followed, on sides of the Atlantic. Ralph DePalma, an American national champion and winner of the 1915 Indianapolis 500, finished second in the 1921 French Grand Prix, Goux went on to win the inaugural Italian Grand Prix at Brescia, Italy in 1921, driving a Ballot. Second place was taken by the team leader Jean Chassagne on a sister car, a Ballot with a straight-eight-cylinder 4. 9-litre engine competed in the 1921 French Grand Prix. As well as racing engines, the made a range of road engines which were fitted to their own production cars. The first of Ballots own road cars was the 1921 2-litre Ballot 2-litre sports tourer, in 1923 the Ballot 2 LT and a sport version, Ballot 2 LTS followed. By the time of the 19th Paris Motor Show in October 1924, the 2-litre sports tourer again appeared on the manufacturers stand at the show The car still used a four cylinder overhead camshaft 1,994 cc engine, and it sat on a 3,110 mm wheelbase.
It was priced, in base form, at 33,000 francs. From 1927, eight-cylinder engines were used, in 1931 the company was taken over by Hispano-Suiza. Swift decline followed, the last model was practically a Hispano-Suiza, and only the chassis was provided by Ballot
The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is governed by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, in 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom, following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular, after World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established, motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations. Open-wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, with their wheels outside of.
However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series, more recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the Formula moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former Formula series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two, the formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. In the United States, Indy Car is a class of single seat paved track racing and its premier race is the Indianapolis 500. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June, sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles, that race over a speedway track, while once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. NASCAR was organised in 1947, to flat track oval racing of production cars.
Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Motorsport was an event at the 1900 Summer Olympics
San Giovanni in Persiceto
San Giovanni in Persiceto is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, northern Italy. The most ancestral records claim the town was first populated by Gauls, the area appears to have been depopulated after the fall of the Roman Empire. The flooded plain remained uncultivated until under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Byzantines built a defensive line in the territory against the Lombards, but c. 727, under King Liutprand, the Lombards overran the Castrum Persiceta, in the 728 Liutprand created the duchy of Persiceto. It is likely that the village formed as the traditional Borgo Rotondo under this new rule, likely that around the half of that century the parish church of San Giovanni was built by the Bishops of Bologna. After a brief autonomy, San Giovanni in Persiceto again came under control of Bologna, till at the beginning of the 16th century. In the 13-14th centuries, the castle or land of S, Giovanni in Persiceto was enlarged by a second circle of walls outside the Borgo Rotondo and by expanded settlements, like the castle, by ditches and palisades.
The ring villages were destroyed by 1481, under the rule of Giovanni II Bentivoglio, while over the years the castle expanded to its present shape with new bastions and embankments the shape. At the end of the 15th century, the Bentivoglio using designs of Gaspare Nadi, built the present city hall, in the final years of their rule, a canal to help drain the boggy lowlands of S. The inhabitants of the Persiceto thankfully donated to Giovanni Bentivoglio a vast piece of land, on the mansion. Between the 15-16th century hemp culture and weaving expanded, and new crops such as mulberry, landownership became more concentrated and sharecropping system consolidated, though the latter has been limited by the existence of its participants. The local oligarchy of new families faithful to the Church and subject to the Reggimento of Bologna, in the following two centuries, the castle interior underwent reconstruction, many broletti among the buildings disappeared in favor of new houses. Old medieval buildings were destroyed, while some others were irreversibly modified.
New churches and convents were built, Salvatore was built on the grounds of the old fortress. The surplus production of cloth was exported to Venice. Later it became the seat of the District of the Samoggia, between 1798 and 1799 the community life was upset by plunderings and seizures. In 1799, after the retreat of the French and of their allies of the Cisalpine republic, Persiceto was invaded by Russians and Austrians, however, in 1800 the District of Samoggia was restored. With the establishment of the Italian Republic San Giovanni in Persiceto was again under the Deputy Prefecture established in Cento, within the same years the feudal privileges and the tithe were abolished, the pieces of land belonging to the Church were forfeited and the landed property was accumulated
Castelfranco Emilia is a town and comune in Italy in the province of Modena, region of Emilia-Romagna. The town lies about 25 kilometres northwest of Bologna, castelfranco either occupies or lies near the site of the ancient Forum Gallorum, a place on the Via Aemilia between Modena and Bologna, where in 43 BC Octavian and Hirtius defeated Mark Antony. In 1861 it was joined with the comune of Piumazzo. This town is famous for inventing tortellini, a typical Italian food, in this region lambrusco wine is produced. The church of Santa Maria Assunta houses a picture of the Assumption of Mary by Guido Reni, castelfranco has a fortress built in 1628–34 by Urban VIII as a northern defensive bastion for the Papal States
Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S. p. A. which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, Fiats main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on two segments. Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat owns. Fiats share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004, at this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiats chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent, Fiats built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europes largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, in Turin, to prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968.
Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino. Fiats 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols. The second generation Punto was a seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday. Fiat has invested for a time in South America, mainly in Brazil. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched, the Fiat Uno. Other European models are imported to Brazil, Fiat 500. Some others are still in production, Idea, Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P.
Chrysler, the New Jersey factory was closed when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917. Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, for example the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9
Saint-Brieuc is a commune in the Côtes-dArmor department in Brittany in northwestern France. Saint-Brieuc is named after a Welsh monk Brioc, who Christianised the region in the 6th century, bro Sant-Brieg/Pays de Saint-Brieuc, one of the nine traditional bishoprics of Brittany which were used as administrative areas before the French Revolution, was named after Saint-Brieuc. It dates from the Middle Ages when the pays de Saint Brieuc, the town is located by the English Channel, on the Bay of Saint-Brieuc. Two rivers flow through Saint-Brieuc, the Goued/Gouët and the Gouedig/Gouédic, other towns of notable size in the département of Côtes dArmor are Gwengamp/Guingamp and Lannuon/Lannion all sous-préfectures. In 2009, large amounts of sea lettuce, a type of algae, washed up on beaches of Brittany. A horse and some died and a council worker driving a truckload of it fell unconscious at the wheel. The beach at Saint-Brieuc suffered bad damage and had to be shut, langueux, La Méaugon, Plérin, Ploufragan, Trégueux and Trémuson.
Saint-Brieuc is one of the towns in Europe that host the IU Honors Program, the Cemetery of Saint Michel contains graves of several notable Bretons, and sculptures by Paul le Goff and Jean Boucher. Outside the wall is Armel Beaufilss statue of Anatole Le Braz, the town of St. Brieux in Saskatchewan, Canada is named after Saint-Brieuc of Brittany. It was founded by immigrants from this region in Brittany and it was settled in the early 1900s. Inhabitants of Saint-Brieuc are called briochins in French, in 2008,3. 98% of primary school children attended bilingual schools. The Saint-Brieuc railway station, situated on the Paris–Brest railway, is connected by TGV Atlantique to Paris Montparnasse station in about 3 hours, there are no scheduled air services from Saint-Brieuc – Armor Airport. maville Saint-Brieuc Tourism French Ministry of Culture list for Saint-Brieuc
Vincenzo Florio, Jr. was an Italian industrialist in the wine industry of Sicily, famous for establishing the Targa Florio race. He was born in Palermo and was named after Vincenzo Florio, Sr. who founded the Florio wine, in 1909 he married principessa Annina Alliata di Montereale. After her death to cholera in 1911, he married Lucie Henry of Épernay, an automobile enthusiast, he initiated the financial basis and the engineering plans for the Coppa Florio in 1900. His greatest fame came from creating the Targa Florio race in 1906, based on discussions with Gordon Bennett cup, Florio raced, achieving 9th in a Mercedes-Benz 120 hp. His best result was the win in «Targa Rignano»1903, named after Count Rignano and his own racing team, got Felice Nazzaro to leave Fiat and join as driver. The exhibition Vincenzo Florio – A taste for modernity was on display in Palermo in 2003, the name has been commemorated in the Via Vincenzo Florio in Marsala, as well as the Vincenzo Florio Airport at Trapani. The ferry M/T Vincenzo Florio runs Palermo - Naples, and the S/S Vincenzo Florio ran Napoli - New York City in the early 1900s
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, after 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns. It has since run as a rallying event, and is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europes most important races, Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like todays F1. The wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany, especially that of German Christian Werner in 1924, rudolf Caracciola repeated a similar upset win at the Mille Miglia a couple of years later. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history.
In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced, the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title. They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia, pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used and it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a lap of 975 kilometres. The 148 km Grande circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930. From 1951-1958, the coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia.
The start and finish took place at Cerda, the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, and the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. Like a rally event, the cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight