British Columbia Highway 5
Highway 5 is a 543 km north-south route in southern British Columbia, Canada. Highway 5 connects the southern Trans-Canada route with the northern Trans-Canada/Yellowhead route, providing the shortest land connection between Vancouver and both Edmonton and Calgary. A portion of Highway 5 south of Kamloops is known as the Coquihalla Highway; the Coquihalla section was a toll road until 2008. Although the Yellowhead Highway system is considered part of the Trans-Canada Highway network, the Highway 5 segment is not marked as such. However, Highway 5 is designated as a core route of Canada's National Highway System. Highway 5 begins south at the junction with Crowsnest Highway at uninhabited "Othello", 7 km east of Hope. Exit numbers on the Coquihalla are a continuation of those on Highway 1 west of Hope; the speed limit on the Coquihalla Highway south of Merritt is 120 km/h. 35 km north of Othello, after passing through five interchanges, Highway 5 reaches the landmark Great Bear snow shed. The location of the former toll booth is 13 km north of the snow shed, passing through another interchange and the 1,244 m Coquihalla Pass.
Highway 5 was the only highway in British Columbia to have tolls. Now free to drive, at the Coquihalla Lakes junction, the highway crosses from the Fraser Valley Regional District into the Thompson-Nicola Regional District. 61 km and five interchanges north of the former toll plaza, the Coquihalla enters the city of Merritt. There it joins Highway 5A and Highway 97C. Highway 5 travels 4 km through the eastern area of Merritt before reaching its northern junction with Highway 5A. From there, the Coquihalla has three more interchanges and one mountain pass – the Surrey Lake Summit – in the 72 km between Merritt and its end at a junction with Highways 1 and 97. Highway 5 continues east for 12 km concurrently through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries 97 South and 5 North on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. After separating from Highways 1 and 97, Highway 5 proceeds north for 19 km, temporarily leaving Kamloops city limits as a four-lane highway, before re-entering the city at the Rayleigh community continuing north.
It becomes a two-lane highway at Heffley Creek and the exit to Sun Peaks resorts, both of which indicate the final northern boundary of Kamloops. Highway 5 follows the North Thompson River north from Heffley Creek for 54 km, along a parallel course with a branch of the Canadian National Railway, passing through Barriere, to a junction with Highway 24 at Little Fort. 30 km north of Little Fort, while continuing to follow the North Thompson and the CN Railway, Highway 5 reaches the community of Clearwater. It proceeds northeast for another 107 km, passing Vavenby and Avola en route to the community of Blue River. South of Kamloops, Highway 5 is known as the Coquihalla Highway, 186 km of freeway, varying between four and six lanes with a posted speed limit of 120 km/h; the Coquihalla traces through the Cascade Mountains the route of the former Kettle Valley Railway, which existed between 1912 and 1958. It is so-named because near Hope, it follows the Coquihalla River, for about 60 km, uses the Coquihalla Pass.
Signs along the Coquihalla Highway warn drivers to be aware of sudden changes in weather. The highway is dangerous during winter seasons, with extreme snowfall that can exceed more than 10 centimetres per hour. While road maintenance strives to keep the roads as clear as possible, it is not unheard of for the highway to shut down, sometimes with travelers forced to stay overnight in their cars. According to ICBC there were 32 fatal crashes between 2004 and 2013, an estimated 400-500 accidents occur during the winter seasons. Global News listed the stretch between Merritt and Hope as one of the deadliest highways in BC. DriveBC keeps up to date with reports on Coquihalla Highway conditions, including live webcams in several locations; the current Highway 5 is not the first highway in B. C. to have this designation. From 1941 to 1953, the section of present-day Highway 97, Highway 97A, Highway 97B, between Kaleden, just south of Penticton, Salmon Arm, was Highway 5. In 1953, the'5' designation was moved to designate Highway 5A, south of Kamloops, to north of Kamloops.
In 1986, Highway 5 was re-routed between Merritt. The re-routed section of highway between Merritt and Kamloops was completed in 1987; the total cost for the highway between Hope and Merritt was $848 million. In 2003, Premier Gordon Campbell announced the Liberal government would turn over toll revenue to a private operator, along with responsibility for operation, maintenance of "the Coq". In response to strong opposition from the public, numerous businesses, in the Interior of British Columbia, the provincial government shelved the move three months later. On September 26, 2008, the provincial government permanently lifted the Coquihalla tolls, effective 1:00 pm that day. Subsequently, the toll station and signs were dismantled. Effective July 2, 2014, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastruct
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
The Mountaineers (club)
The Mountaineers is an alpine club serving the state of Washington. Founded in 1906, it is organized as an outdoor recreation and conservation 501 nonprofit, is based in Seattle, Washington; the Mountaineers host a wide range of outdoor activities alpine mountain climbing and hikes. The club hosts classes, training courses, social events; the club runs a publishing business, Mountaineers Books, which has several imprints and whose books are sold by major retailers. The famous manual, Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, is published by Mountaineers Books; the Mountaineers has 7 branches in Western Washington, 3 mountain lodges, 2 program centers, one in Magnuson Park in Seattle, one in Tacoma. All classes and trips are organized and led by volunteers, includes activities like hiking, scrambling, navigation skills, first aid, sailing and skiing, as well as community activities like film festivals and potlucks; the Mountaineers publishes books and guides on outdoor education and conservation.
There are no restrictions on. A Seattle-based part of the Mazamas, a Portland based group founded in 1894, The Mountaineers formed their own branch shortly after the 1906 Mazamas Mount Baker expedition and dubbed themselves "The Mountaineers" with 110 charter members—nearly half women; the club constitution was adopted in 1907 by a membership of 151. Among these original members were Henry Landes, Edmond S. Meany, the famous photographer Asahel Curtis, Seattle photographer and North Cascades guide Lawrence Denny Lindsley; the activities were local walks with the first trip being a hike through Fort Lawton to the West Point Lighthouse. The first mountain climbing trip was Mount Si. In 1907, 65 members made exploration of the Olympic Mountains; the next year a summit of Mount Baker was organized, followed by Mount Rainier in 1909. In 1915, a club outing became the first sizable group to hike around Mount Rainier and established the route that would become known as the Wonderland Trail; the club organizes thousands of trips per year, has a large library and historical archive, teaches instructional courses, advocates access and environmental causes.
From 1907 to 1995, new climbs in the Cascades were reported in the Mountaineers Annual. Since 2004, the Northwest Mountaineering Journal, hosted by the Mountaineers, has recorded this information. In the first 100 years since the club's founding it expanded to over 10,000 active members and expanded its offerings from a single annual alpine climb to over two dozen different types of activities occurring throughout the year including backpacking, folk dancing, rock climbing, snowshoeing and water sports; the organization provides a forum for members to organize their own trips and find partners for climbs. Many classes are offered beyond climbing skills including nature photography. Navigation, first aid. A thirty-hour wilderness first aid course called Mountaineering Oriented First Aid was produced by the organization; the organization is home to The Mountaineers Players which perform in the organization's Forest Theatre on the Kitsap Peninsula and The Mountaineers Books publishing which publishes outdoor related literature and guidebooks.
In 2008, the Mountaineers moved from Lower Queen Anne to an old naval building in Magnuson Park, now leased from the City of Seattle. The new facility features outdoor climbing walls, including an indoor ice climbing wall; the grounds feature native plants and a rock amphitheater for practicing scrambling and rugged hiking. The Mountaineers operates three rustic lodges in the mountains of Washington State, they are used as base-camps for activities and personal recreation trips. All have hostel-style sleeping accommodations, they can be rented for private functions, such as weddings, Meany Lodge has served as the filming location for a movie. Meany Lodge is ski area located near Stampede Pass with 3 rope tows and nordic, down hill, backcountry terrain. Baker Lodge is located adjacent to the Mt. Baker Ski Area Stevens Lodge is located adjacent to the Stevens Pass Ski Area The Mountaineers Library was founded in 1915; as of 2011 it subscribes to 40 periodicals. It specializes in studies on climbing, environmental studies, biographies of mountaineers, the history of exploratory mountaineering, natural history.
Mountaineers Books, based in Seattle, Washington, is the professional book publishing division of The Mountaineers. Mountaineers Books was informally started in 1955 when a volunteer committee was formed to create a mountaineering training text from the materials that the Club was using for its classes. According to The Mountaineers: A History, the committee was headed by member Harvey Manning, an accomplished climber who would go on to write more than 20 guidebooks during his association with the publishing business he helped found; the editorial committee created Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, which produced its ninth edition in 2017. The first edition of Freedom, as it is called, was published in April 1960; the Club's editorial committee remained a unit and began additional publishing projects focusing on both outdoor recreation—such as hiking and paddling—and on conservation topics—such as the preservation of wild places. Mountaineers Books has produced more than 1,000 titles since its foundation in 1960.
It shares the Club's 501 nonprofi
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Hope, British Columbia
Hope is a commuter town and district municipality at the confluence of the Fraser and Coquihalla rivers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Hope is at the eastern end of both the Fraser Valley and the Lower Mainland region, is at the southern end of the Fraser Canyon. To the east over the Cascade Mountains is the Interior region, beginning with the Similkameen Country on the farther side of the Allison Pass in Manning Park. Located 154 kilometres east of Vancouver, Hope is at the southern terminus of the Coquihalla Highway and the western terminus of the Crowsnest Highway, locally known as the Hope-Princeton, where they merge with the Trans-Canada Highway. Hope is at the eastern terminus of Highway 7; as it lies at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley in the windward Cascade foothills, the town gets high amounts of rain and cloud cover – throughout the autumn and winter. Hope is a member municipality of the Fraser Valley Regional District which provides certain municipal services to unincorporated settlements and rural areas.
The District of Hope includes Hope Townsite and surrounding areas including the communities of Kawkawa Lake, Silver Creek and Lake of the Woods. The history of Hope can be divided into thousands of years of First Nations settlement and a European settlement period from 1808 to present day. Hope's First Nations settlement period starts with the first traces of people living in the Fraser Valley; these first nation origins date from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, when the Sto:lo First Nations were in the area. In late 1782 a smallpox epidemic among the Stó:lō killed thousands or an estimated two thirds of the population; the European settlement period of Hope history begins in 1808. Explorer Simon Fraser arrived in what is now Hope in 1808, the Hudson's Bay Company created the Fort Hope trading post in 1848; the area was transformed by the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, beginning in 1858. The following year Governor James Douglas laid out the Fort Hope town site. Hope became part of the Colony of British Columbia when the new British colony was created on 2 August 1858.
Along with the rest of British Columbia, Hope became part of Canada in 1871. Late in 1859, Reverend Alexander St. David Francis Pringle arrived in Hope. On 1 December of that year, he founded the first library on the British Columbia mainland. Within two years, he founded Christ Church. Today, Christ Church is the oldest church on the British Columbia mainland still holding services on its original site and is a National Historic Site of Canada. Hope incorporated as a village on 6 April 1929, became a town on 1 January 1965, was reincorporated as a District Municipality named the District of Hope on 7 December 1992. During World War II an internment camp for Japanese Canadians was set up near Hope at Tashme just beyond the 100-mile exclusion zone from the coast. Hope is at the easternmost point of British Columbia's lower mainland area and is considered to be part of the Fraser Canyon area or "eastern Fraser Valley" as "Lower Mainland" is understood as synonymous with "greater Vancouver". There are significant peaks to the north and south of the townsite.
Only to the west can flat land be seen, that view is dominated by the broad lower reaches of the Fraser River. The segment from Lytton to Hope separates the Cascade Mountains and Coast Mountains, thereby forming the lower part of the Fraser Canyon, which begins far upriver near Williams Lake. At Hope, the river enters a broad flood plain extending 130 kilometres to Vancouver; the Coquihalla and Sumallo Rivers and Silverhope Creek rise in the Cascade Mountains northeast and southeast and south of Hope and empty into the Fraser River. The Skagit River begins south of Hope, across a low pass from the head of the Silverhope valley, the access to the Canadian shoreline of Ross Lake. Population: 6,181 Growth Rate: 3.6% Total Private Dwellings: 3,123 Area: 40.95 km2 Density: 151.0 people per km2 Hope's labour force works in a variety of industries. 50 percent of the labour force is involved in four main industries: accommodation and food services, health care and social assistance, retail trade, transportation and warehousing.
One of the town's largest employers is Nestlé Waters. Nestlé, the world's biggest bottler of water, packages more than 300 million litres of water from Hope aquifers annually. Nestlé pays C$675 to the provincial government for this quantity of water; the Nestlé bottling plant employs 75 people. Hope's economic development planning is rooted in the community's strategic location, telecommunications infrastructure, strong support for new development and redevelopment; the 2014 Economic Profile identifies several sectors as significant areas of opportunity within the local economy. Tourism: including development of tourism products attractive to the primary market coming from the west. Virtual commuters: professionals able to serve their clientele from off-site locations, such as consultants, graphic designers, software developers. Natural resources: sustainable and responsible development of natural resource industries. Lifestyle manufacturing or services: such as coffee roasters, sustainable agriculture, micro-brewery, other clean water-based industries.
"Gap" retailers: independent, entrepreneurial retailers who can deliver niche services for local customers and travellers. In addition, the Revitalization Tax Exemption Bylaw, adopted by the Hope District Council in 2013, enc