SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Emnilda

Emnilda, was a Slavic princess and Duchess of the Polans from 992 by her marriage with the Piast ruler Bolesław I the Brave. She was a daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic ruler who in a 1013 entry was named venerabilis senior by the contemporary chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg. Most historians believe that Emnilda's father was a ruler over Lusatia and the Milceni lands which since 963 were part of the Saxon Eastern March; the German chronicler referred to him as senior which in this context most meant "prince", showed a certain familiarity with the person. This suggests that Dobromir was someone well known to Thietmar, Bishop of Merseburg from 1009, hence Emnilda's father was from the area of the Polabian Slavs close to his episcopal see. In view of her German name, Emnilda's mother was the member of a Saxon comital dynasty. However, other historians have argued for a different background. Henryk Łowmiański believed Emnilda to have been a daughter of the last independent prince of the Vistulans in the Kraków area.

Tadeusz Wasilewski saw in her a Moravian princess. The wedding of Emnilda and the heir of the Polish throne, Bolesław, took place around 987, it was the third marriage for the young prince: his previous two wives, the daughter of Margrave Rikdag of Meissen and the Hungarian princess Judith, were repudiated after few years, but both produced offspring to Bolesław, a daughter and a son, Bezprym. During her marriage, Emnilda bore her husband five children, two sons and three daughters, one of them became an abbess and the other two and another whose name is unknown were married to Margrave Herman I of Meissen and Grand Prince Sviatopolk I of Kiev, respectively, she was mentioned by Gallus Thietmar of Merseburg. It is claimed that Emnilda had a great influence on her husband, also in the Polish state affairs, she accompanied Bolesław to the meeting with Henry II at Merseburg on 23 May 1013 and she promoted the recognition of their son Mieszko II as a vassal of the Emperor for his government over Moravia, a fact who put in jeopardy the succession rights of Bolesław I's eldest son Bezprym, who at the end was excluded in favor of his younger half-brother.

The exact date of Emnilda's death is unknown, but is assumed that this happened in 1017 at the latest, or, more at the end of 1016, because on 3 February 1018 Bolesław I married with his fourth and last wife, Oda of Meissen

Alice Amsden

Alice Hoffenberg Amsden was a political economist and scholar of state-led economic development. For the last two decades of her career, she was the Barton L. Weller Professor of Political Economy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Amsden was known best for her work on the developmental state, which argued that state-led industrialization was a viable alternative to the market-oriented industrialization of North America and Europe, she argued that the "catching up" of late-industrializing economies the "Asian Tigers," was accomplished through government intervention that established price control and import substitution policies, promoted organizational learning, arranged "reciprocal control mechanisms" between states and private firms. Her work is viewed as a rebuttal of the Washington Consensus and neoclassical economic theories that sought to restrain state intervention in the developmental process. Born in New York City, Amsden received her undergraduate degree from Cornell University and her PhD from the London School of Economics.

Amsden began her career as an economist at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and taught at University of California, Los Angeles, Barnard College at Columbia University, Harvard Business School and The New School before being appointed professor at MIT in 1994. She remained in MIT's Department of Urban Studies and Planning until her death in 2012. In addition to teaching and writing, she was a consultant to the World Bank, OECD and various organizations within the United Nations. In 2002, she was awarded the Leontief Prize by the Global Development and Environment Institute and was named one of the top 50 visionaries by Scientific American for her premise that one-size-fits-all economic policies are ill-suited for poor countries looking to become industrialized. In 2009, she was appointed by the United Nations secretary-general to a 3-year seat on the U. N. Committee on Development Policy, a subsidiary of the U. N. Economic and Social Council; the 24-member committee provides inputs and independent advice to the council on emerging cross-sectoral development issues and on international cooperation for development.

Amsden wrote several books about the industrialization of developing countries. Her work emphasized the importance of the state as a guide of economic development, she saw knowledge as a crucial determinant of economic growth. Her books include Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialisation and The Rise of the Rest. In the former she concentrated on the development of South Korea and in the latter she compared the experiences of several developing countries—mostly East Asian and Latin American countries. In 2012, Amsden died at her home in Cambridge at the age of 68. In addition to numerous journal articles, Amsden published: The Role of Elites in Economic Development, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780198716433 Escape from Empire: The Developing World's Journey through Heaven and Hell, MIT Press, 2007. ISBN 9780262513159 Beyond Late Development: Taiwan's Upgrading Policies, MIT Press, 2003; the Rise of "The Rest": Challenges to the West From Late-Industrializing Economies, Oxford University Press, 2001.

The Market Meets Its Match: Restructuring the Economies of Eastern Europe, Harvard University Press, 1994. ISBN 9780674549845 Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1989. Awarded "Best Book in Political Economy," American Political Science Association, 1992. ISBN 9780195076035 Winner of the 2002 Leontief Prize for Advancing the Frontiers of Economic Thought Column archive at The Nation Works by or about Alice Amsden in libraries MIT 2012 Memorial Symposium Special Issue of Journal of Regions and Society on Amsden's contributions