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Cork (material)

Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue, harvested for commercial use from Quercus suber, endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Cork is composed of a hydrophobic substance; because of its impermeable, buoyant and fire retardant properties, it is used in a variety of products, the most common of, wine stoppers. The montado landscape of Portugal produces half of cork harvested annually worldwide, with Corticeira Amorim being the leading company in the industry. Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide. Annual production is about 200,000 tons. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is traditionally stripped from the trunks every nine years, with the first two harvests producing lower quality cork; the trees live for about 300 years. The cork industry is regarded as environmentally friendly. Cork production is considered sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down to obtain cork.

The tree continues to grow. The sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork products and by-products are two of its most distinctive aspects. Cork oak forests prevent desertification and are a particular habitat in the Iberian Peninsula and the refuge of various endangered species. Carbon footprint studies conducted by Corticeira Amorim, Oeneo Bouchage of France and the Cork Supply Group of Portugal concluded that cork is the most environmentally friendly wine stopper in comparison to other alternatives; the Corticeira Amorim’s study, in particular, was developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, according to ISO 14040. Results concluded that, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, each plastic stopper released 10 times more CO2, whilst an aluminium screw cap releases 26 times more CO2 than does a cork stopper; the cork oak is unrelated to the "cork trees", which have corky bark but are not used for cork production. Cork is extracted only from early May to late August, when the cork can be separated from the tree without causing permanent damage.

When the tree reaches 25–30 years of age and about 24 in in circumference, the cork can be removed for the first time. However, this first harvest always produces poor quality or "virgin" cork. Bark from initial harvests can be used to make flooring, shoes and other industrial products. Subsequent extractions occur at intervals of 9 years, though it can take up to 13 for the cork to reach an acceptable size. If the product is of high quality it is known as "gentle" cork, ideally, is used to make stoppers for wine and champagne bottles; the workers who specialize in removing the cork are known as extractors. An extractor uses a sharp axe to make two types of cuts on the tree: one horizontal cut around the plant, called a crown or necklace, at a height of about 2–3 times the circumference of the tree, several vertical cuts called rulers or openings; this is the most delicate phase of the work because though cutting the cork requires significant force, the extractor must not damage the underlying phellogen or the tree will be harmed.

To free the cork from the tree, the extractor pushes the handle of the axe into the rulers. A good extractor needs to use a firm but precise touch in order to free a large amount of cork without damaging the product or tree; these freed portions of the cork are called planks. The planks are carried off by hand since cork forests are accessible to vehicles; the cork is stacked in piles in the forest or in yards at a factory and traditionally left to dry, after which it can be loaded onto a truck and shipped to a processor. Cork's elasticity combined with its near-impermeability makes it suitable as a material for bottle stoppers for wine bottles. Cork stoppers represent about 60% of all cork based production. Cork has an zero Poisson's ratio, which means the radius of a cork does not change when squeezed or pulled. Cork is an excellent gasket material; some carburetor float bowl gaskets are made for example. Cork is an essential element in the production of badminton shuttlecocks. Cork's bubble-form structure and natural fire retardant make it suitable for acoustic and thermal insulation in house walls, floors and facades.

The by-product of more lucrative stopper production, corkboard is gaining popularity as a non-allergenic, easy-to-handle and safe alternative to petrochemical-based insulation products. Sheets of cork often the by-product of stopper production, are used to make bulletin boards as well as floor and wall tiles. Cork's low density makes it a suitable material for fishing floats and buoys, as well as handles for fishing rods. Granules of cork can be mixed into concrete; the composites made by mixing cork granules and cement have lower thermal conductivity, lower density and good energy absorption. Some of the property ranges of the composites are density, compressive strength and flexural strength; as late as the mid-17th century, French vintners did not use cork stoppers, using instead oil-soaked rag

Bridgend & District League

The Bridgend & District League is a football league covering the town of Bridgend and surrounding areas in South Wales. The leagues are at the eighth and tenth levels of the Welsh football league system; the radius of the league covers Ogmore Valley, the Llynfi Valley, the Garw Valley and Gilfach. The league's eastern side is Llanharry and its western side is Cefn Cribwr; the league is composed of three divisions. Promotion from the Premier Division is possible to the South Wales Alliance League, with the champion of the league playing the other Tier 8 champions from the South Wales regional leagues via play-off games to determine promotion. Bridgend & District League Bridgend & District League Twitter

Best in the World 2013

Best in the World 2013 was a professional wrestling internet pay-per-view event produced by Ring of Honor. It took place on June 2013, at the Du Burns Arena in Baltimore, Maryland, it was the fourth ROH Best in the World event. Best in the World 2013 featured professional wrestling matches, which involved different wrestlers from pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines that played out on ROH's television programs. Wrestlers portrayed villains or heroes as they followed a series of events that built tension and culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches. Best in the World 2013 would be Ring of Honor's final live internet pay-per-view. Following the live broadcast of the event, which like many ROH iPPVs was marred by technical difficulties, Ring of Honor announced it would cease streaming live shows. Instead, all future major shows would be recorded live and made available via the internet the following day as a Video-On-Demand

Blunt-toothed giant hutia

The blunt-toothed giant hutia is an extinct species of giant hutia from Anguilla and Saint Martin, estimated to have weighed between 50 and 200 kg. It was discovered by Edward Drinker Cope in 1868 in a sample of phosphate sediments mined in an unknown cave in Anguilla and sent to Philadelphia to estimate the value of the sediments, it is the sole species of the genus Amblyrhiza in the fossil family Heptaxodontidae. Some authors have suggested that its extinction may have resulted from overhunting by pre-Columbian humans. However, it is unknown. Fossil specimens discovered at the end of the 20th century on Anguilla have been dated to the last interstadial period, while recent discoveries made on Coco Islet are dated to 400,000 - 500,000 years. Paleontologist A. R. Biknevicius and his team have estimated body size for Amblyrhiza inundata based upon 5 femora and 9 humeri from adult Amblyrhiza remains, they concluded based upon these specimens that Amblyrhiza ranged from just under 50 kg in mass to over 200 kg in mass.

These calculations were based on comparisons with extant caviomorphs of 16 different species. The blunt teeth of Amblyrhiza inundata suggest an herbivorous lifestyle, consistent with that of the other genera within Heptaxodontidae. Known colloquially as the “Blunt Toothed Hutia,” this animal’s scientific name reflects a similar narrative. “Amblyrhiza” translates to “blunt root,” and “inundata” has been speculated to be in reference to Cope’s disbelief that such a large rodent could evolve in an isolated region such as the islands of the northern Lesser Antilles. It is now accepted that Cope thought that the animal was cosmopolitan in nature, moving from island to island due to the lowered sea levels of the interval, which enabled Amblyrhiza to develop such an impressive body size. Amblyrhiza is considered to be a close relative of Elasmodontomys obliquus, a smaller yet similar rodent found in the Quaternary deposits of Puerto Rico. Although it has yet to be decided where Amblyrhiza fits in a phylogenetic context, it is thought that they belong to a paraphyletic group of giant caviomorphs known as Heptaxodontidae.

Paleontology work began in the northeastern area of the Caribbean in the mid nineteenth century, when phosphate mining boomed in the region and fossils were coincidentally found in associated strata. In 1868, samples of fossils and their overlying sediments were sent from the islands to the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences to estimate the potential scientific value of said specimens; these fossils were given to famed paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope, serving as the academy’s secretary at that time. Cope is said to have taken particular interest in their notably large size; the fossilized remains of this remarkably large rodent are found within Quaternary cave deposits, all of which are located on the islands of the northern Lesser Antilles Anguilla and St. Martin

Guddan Tumse Na Ho Payega

Guddan Tumse Na Ho Payega is an Indian Hindi television series broadcast on Zee TV. The show stars Kanika Mann and Nishant Malkani, it is the story of 20-year old who becomes India's youngest mother-in-law and how she shows how anyone can do anything if they try. The show is produced by Ved Raj's Shoonya Square Productions; the show follows the story of Guddan, who due to unforeseen circumstances finds herself getting married to a widower, Akshat Jindal and becoming India's youngest mother-in-law to her three daughters-in-law. Guddan lost her mother early as a child and was brought up by her father and evil-stepmother. In a series of flashbacks, it was revealed that Guddan considers herself guilty of not being able to save her birth mother, her stepmother left no chance trying to put Guddan down and break her confidence by telling her " Guddan tumse na ho payega". Guddan's support system in her family constitutes of her father, Bhushan Gupta and half-sister Revati Gupta; when she gets married to Akshat though Akshat does not love her, he protects her and always stands with her in her time of need.

As a result, she starts regaining her confidence and believing in herself. In her marital home, Guddan's mother in law is an ardent supporter of Guddan and adores her as she believes that Guddan is the perfect life partner for her beloved son Akshat and is the only one who can bring colours back to his life. In the beginning Guddan seems to think that Akshat kidnapped Revati to marry her but as she starts living with him, she realizes he is a good person who can never do such a thing. In the beginning she used to call Akshat as "Uncle" but she starts respecting him and starts calling him "Jindal Sahab", she seems to be able to read Akshat's emotions better than anyone else in his family his mother. Guddan is very protective of Akshat. In order to save Akshat, she burned her hands while doing aarti on his late wife's death anniversary. On the other hand, Akshat lost his first wife early in a traumatic accident and seems to have closed off himself from the entire outside world, he is a serious-no nonsense kind of person who does not believe in emotions.

He wears dark colours and the only time he is seen emotional is when he talks to his late first wife's portrait. Early in the series, audience finds out that the three sons are adopted and not Akshat's own sons, he seems to have adopted them after an accident. In a series of flashbacks, it was revealed that Akshat considers himself guilty of not being able to save his first wife Antara; however things start changing. He starts experiencing emotions, he is over protective towards Guddan and is always there to make sure she is safe. In the early stages of their marriage, Akshat seems to think that Guddan married him through deceit and is after his money, so he doesn't trust her, but as they start living together, he begins to realize that she is kind-hearted. During their reception he finds out that it was Guddan's step-mother who got them married through deceit, he begins to appreciate her for being good to his mother. On the surface he always seems angry with Guddan but he cares about her. Though he hates colours, he wore a pink shirt to his and Guddan's reception on Guddan's insistence.

When the family goes to an amusement park on Republic day, he first refuses to accompany Guddan on the rides but when he realizes she is scared, he jumps into the moving ride to give her company. He has risked his life multiple times in order to save Guddan; the story starts with Akshat's daughter-in-laws searching for a wife for Akshat. Guddan and Akshat first meet at Akshat's birthday party thrown by Akshat's daughter in laws where Guddan comes to deliver a cake. Akshat mistakenly thinks Guddan's step mother is one of the prospective candidates to be his wife and insults her. Guddan livid at her step-mother's insult smashes the cake on Akshat's face. In the meanwhile, Akshat receives a letter from his late wife Antara where she asks him to get married within 15 days of receiving that letter. So Akshat agrees to get married. Akshat's daughter-in-laws start scouting candidates for the hold interviews. Guddan accidentally lands up in one of these interviews as she assumes it is an audition for Ramleela and pretends to be Seetha.

The DILs are impressed with Seetha aka Guddan and take her picture along with few other pictures to Akshat. Akshat angrily picks a random picture from the pile without looking and it is revealed to the audience that he selected Guddan's picture. Akshat's mother seems to love Seetha and approves the match by giving her ancestral bangles to Guddan; however Guddan's disguise gets discovered and Guddan realizes that the interview was not a Ramleela audition but Akshat's prospective wife interview. On discovering this, she declares that if Akshat was the last man on earth, she would never marry him. Akshat seems to be impressed with Guddan at this point, it is revealed that Revati, Guddan's sister is in love with Parv Singh, married to Akshat's friend's daughter Siddhi. When Revati tries to commit suicide, Akshat helps Guddan out by forcing the doctors to admit Revati. Guddan thanks Akshat for his help but get irritated with his high and mighty attitude and vows never to see him again; however Parv keeps blackmailing Revati and Guddan so Guddan goes to Akshat to ask for his help in getting rid of Parv from her sister's life in exchange for anything he wants.

So Akshat decides to help her and in exchange asks her to marry him because he is running out of time to fulf

Mary Packer Harris

Mary Packer Harris D. A. was a Scottish art teacher with a considerable career in South Australia. Mary was born in Middlesbrough, Yorkshire the only daughter of musician and beekeeper Clement Antrobus Harris and his wife Mary Elizabeth Harris. Educated in Scotland she attended Morrison's Academy and Perth Academy before graduating with a diploma from the Edinburgh College of Art. In 1913 she did a post-graduate course in woodblock printing with F. Morley Fletcher, director of the College, she trained as a teacher with the Scottish Education Department and taught at Buckie, Scotland from 1918 at the Ayr Academy. An elder brother, was killed in the Flanders trenches in 1916. Another brother, John Brocas Harris had earlier emigrated to South Australia, served at Gallipoli with the Army Medical Corps and was badly wounded, he married Gwendoline Mary Colyer in 1917, settled in Gawler, where he was a noted horticulturist. In response to his urging and her parents emigrated in 1921. In 1922 she accepted a position with the SA School of Arts and Crafts, where she was to teach for 30 years in a wide range of mediums: oil and watercolor and woodblock printing and embroidery.

She was a longtime member of the Royal SA Society of Arts and exhibited with the Contemporary Art Society. Fellow teachers included her friend Ruth Tuck. Students included Jacqueline Hick and John Olday, she lived at "Bundilla", 116 Walkerville Terrace, which she filled with her own and her students' art, with a lovingly tended native bird garden punctuated with sculptures by William Ricketts and her nephew Quintin Gilbert Harris, son of J. B. Harris, her bequest of this home to the Town of Walkerville was declined, but the Council did accept the many works of art, including sculptures by her friend Ola Cohn. She was a member of the Society of Friends, worshipping at the Friends Meeting House, North Adelaide. In common with a great number of Quakers she was active in the peace movement, was a vegetarian, she lectured for nine years at the Art Gallery of South Australia She was a prolific writer. She was a leading member of Adelaide's Lyceum Club, her first one-woman show was held in March 1927 at the Society of Arts' gallery at the Institute building, North Terrace, which brought her versatility to public attention.

"The Testament of Beauty" with nine of her students, including Ivor Francis and David Dallwitz in November 1939 was held at the Australian Art. Gallery, Rundle street; the exhibition's title comes from a poem by Dr. Robert Bridges. A one-woman show in April 1946 attracted a predominantly female audience. A retrospective exhibition of her work was held in 1986 PhysicalMany of her works are held by the Town of Walkerville Several of her woodcut and linocut prints are held by the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery The Art Gallery of South Australia has one item: an embroidered firescreen The Indian upon God, carved frame by Edwin Newsham. BibliographyThe Skyline, a one act play in four scenes written after the death of her brother in Flanders during World War I. Harris, Mary Packer, In One Splendour Spun: autobiography of a Quaker artist, M. P. Harris, retrieved 1 September 2016 Harris, Mary Packer, The Cosmic Rhythm of Art and Literature, retrieved 1 September 2016