A wine accessory is any equipment that may be used in the storing or serving of wine. Wine accessories include many items such as wine glasses and wine racks. Wine glasses are a type of glass stemware that are used to taste wine from. Selection of a particular wine glass for a wine style is important, as the glass shape can influence its perception. Wine bottle openers are required to open wine bottles, they are being supplanted by the screwcap closure. There are many different inceptions of the wine bottle opener ranging from the simple corkscrew, the screwpull lever, to complicated carbon dioxide driven openers; the most popular is the wine key, sommelier knife or "waiter's friend" which resembles a pocket knife and has a small blade for cutting foil and a screw with a bottle brace. Wine poppers are another means of opening wine. A hollow spike is driven through the cork of a bottle. A cartridge of carbon dioxide is pressed to release a short burst of gas; the sudden increase of pressure dislodges the cork and the wine can be served.
Two problems can arise with this method: synthetic "corks" may be too dense to penetrate, bottles not intended for pressure may break. Wine coolers may include: Small table-top units that chill a single bottle, using ice or an electric cooling device; these can usefully achieve the desired wine-serving temperature in warmer climates. This style of wine cooler operates most appropriately for white, rosé or sparkling wines which are served chilled. Larger refrigerator-style units that store dozens of bottles at selected temperatures; these are useful for those who do not have access to a wine cellar, as temperature and humidity conditions can be replicated. Most units allow the user to select the ideal temperature for wine, some have options to control two separate areas for different wines; some units are controlled by a thermostat. A simple, double-walled or otherwise insulated container that keeps a chilled bottle of wine cold called a glacette. A ring of ice having an inside surface which matches the curvature of the neck of a bottle of wine.
The ring cools the wine. Convection causes cool wine to sink within the bottle drawing warm wine up to the cold neck. Continuous flow within bottle ensures cooling of the wine and achieves a consistent temperature. A wine decanter is a glass serving vessel into, they are used to remove sediment, aerate the wine, facilitate pouring, provide elegant presentation. Decanters are important when serving older vintages which are more to accumulate potassium bitartrate crystal sediment in the process of aging. Decanters promote the aeration of wine by having a flared bottom, hence large surface area of wine, maximising the wine-air interface, thereby introducing more oxygen which changes the wine's bouquet and taste – it allows the evaporation of undesirable organic compounds sulfides and sulfites; because they are a serving vessel, not a storage vessel, they can make wine pouring easier by preventing dribbling, elegantly display the wine's color in clear glass, rather than the green glass used for storage.
Wine funnels aid the decanting process by funnelling the wine into a decanter. Wine funnels are mesh to trap natural deposits in the bottle. Wine racks are storage devices that hold wine bottles in an orientation facilitating long term wine aging. Most wine racks are designed for a bottle to be stored on its side, with a slight slant downward towards the bottle's neck; this ensures that wine is always in contact with the cork, preventing the cork from drying out and the subsequent ingress of oxygen, which would spoil the wine. Wine racks can be made of many materials such as wood and stone, holding just several bottles to thousands; these racks serve as decorative pieces in many homes. A wine collar is a wine accessory; when in place it absorbs any drip that may run down the bottle after pouring. This is beneficial for preventing stains to surfaces that the bottle comes in contact with such as table cloths or counter tops. Wine collars are called drip rings or drip collars. There are two branded wine collars, one called a Drip Dickey and the other called a "Winewoggle".
S. Patent and Trademark Office. Designs for this simple accessory have varied for over a hundred years. In 1872, W. R. Miller was issued a patent for a "drip cup", which formed a circular gutter that would catch the fluid; the most recognized wine collar today is a plastic or silver ring with an interior lining of red or black felt. When slipped over the neck of the bottle the felt absorbs the drip. A wine stopper is an essential wine accessory to close leftover wine bottles before refrigerating them. Wine stoppers are used. Wine stoppers vary in shapes and materials; the three typical types are the cork wine stopper, rubber wine stopper, plastic wine stopper. All these wine stoppers look different the top; the top part can be made from plastic, wood, or precious metals and crystals. However the bottom part of the stoppers are made of the above 3
A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression. Gaskets allow for "less-than-perfect" mating surfaces on machine parts where they can fill irregularities. Gaskets are produced by cutting from sheet materials. Gaskets for specific applications, such as high pressure steam systems, may contain asbestos. However, due to health hazards associated with asbestos exposure, non-asbestos gasket materials are used when practical, it is desirable that the gasket be made from a material, to some degree yielding such that it is able to deform and fill the space it is designed for, including any slight irregularities. A few gaskets require an application of sealant directly to the gasket surface to function properly; some gaskets are made of metal and rely on a seating surface to accomplish the seal. This is typical of some other metal gasket systems; these joints are known as E-con compressive type joints.
Gaskets are made from a flat material, a sheet such as paper, silicone, cork, neoprene, nitrile rubber, polytetrafluoroethylene or a plastic polymer. One of the more desirable properties of an effective gasket in industrial applications for compressed fiber gasket material is the ability to withstand high compressive loads. Most industrial gasket applications involve bolts exerting compression well into the 14 MPa range or higher. Speaking, there are several truisms that allow for better gasket performance. One of the more tried and tested is: "The more compressive load exerted on the gasket, the longer it will last". There are several ways to measure a gasket material's ability to withstand compressive loading; the "hot compression test" is the most accepted of these tests. Most manufacturers of gasket materials will publish the results of these tests. Gaskets come in many different designs based on industrial usage, chemical contact and physical parameters: When a sheet of material has the gasket shape "punched out" of it, it is a sheet gasket.
This can lead to a crude and cheap gasket. In previous times the material was compressed asbestos, but in modern times a fibrous material or matted graphite is used; these gaskets can fill various different chemical requirements based on the inertness of the material used. Non-asbestos gasket sheet is durable, of multiple materials, thick in nature. Material examples are carbon or nitrile synthetic rubber. Applications using sheet gaskets involve corrosive chemicals, steam or mild caustics. Flexibility and good recovery prevent breakage during installation of a sheet gasket; the idea behind solid material is to use metals which cannot be punched out of sheets but are still cheap to produce. These gaskets have a much higher level of quality control than sheet gaskets and can withstand much higher temperatures and pressures; the key downside is that a solid metal must be compressed in order to become flush with the flange head and prevent leakage. The material choice is more difficult. An additional downside is that the metal used must be softer than the flange — in order to ensure that the flange does not warp and thereby prevent sealing with future gaskets.
So, these gaskets have found a niche in industry. Spiral-wound gaskets comprise a mix of filler material; the gasket has a metal wound outwards in a circular spiral with the filler material wound in the same manner but starting from the opposing side. This results in alternating layers of metal; the filler material in these gaskets acts as the sealing element, with the metal providing structural support. These gaskets have proven to be reliable in most applications, allow lower clamping forces than solid gaskets, albeit with a higher cost; the constant seating stress gasket consists of two components. The sealing elements are made from a material suitable to the process fluid and application. Constant seating stress gaskets derive their name from the fact that the carrier ring profile takes flange rotation into consideration. With all other conventional gaskets, as the flange fasteners are tightened, the flange deflects radially under load, resulting in the greatest gasket compression, highest gasket stress, at the outer gasket edge.
Since the carrier ring used in constant seating stress gaskets take this deflection into account when creating the carrier ring for a given flange size, pressure class, material, the carrier ring profile can be adjusted to enable the gasket seating stress to be radially uniform across the entire sealing area. Further, because the sealing elements are confined by the flange faces in opposing channels on the carrier ring, any in-service compressive forces acting on the gasket are transmitted through the carrier ring and avoid any further compression of the sealing elements, thus maintaining a'constant' gasket seating stress while in-service. Thus, the gasket is immune t
Aracena is a town and municipality located in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain. As of 2012, the city has a population of 7,814 inhabitants; the town derived its name from the Sierra de Aracena, part of the Sierra Morena system. Aracena is the largest town in the Parque Natural Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche. In 2006, Aracena was named a Tourist Municipality of Andalucía and became the first town in the province of Huelva to achieve this status. Prominent attractions in the town include Aracena Castle and the Priory Church, together known as the Castillo-Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, built between the 13th and 15th centuries over the ruins of an earlier castle; the oldest sections are of late Gothic-Mudéjar style. Aracena Castle was erected in the thirteenth century, during the Islamic period, was itself built on the site of an ancient Moorish castle; the walled enclosure was partitioned inside, with the tower of homage, or castle keep, defending the barrier that divided its interior.
The population of Aracena settled around this structure. During the late Middle and Modern Ages, Aracena continued growing from the Cerro del Castillo into the valley, first as unattached land dependent on Seville and in the seventeenth century, as a feudal estate under the jurisdiction of the Count-Duke of Olivares. Still it was under the Count of Altamira, who carried the title of Prince of Aracena; the fortress consists of the alcazaba, or citadel, with its watch tower and walls. When Aracena was ceded by the Crown of Castile to the Knights Templar, that Order authorized the raising of the current Moorish-style church, noted for the glazed clay sculptures of Pedro Vazquez and which takes its name from the local patron saint, Nuestra Señora del Mayor Dolor; the church is the oldest church in the town. It consists of three naves of equal height with its choir at the feet and a polygonal presbytery to which, on the side of the chapel, there is attached its Mudéjar-style tower. In the town is the church of Santa María de la Asunción, built in 1522.
Located in the town is the Gruta de las Maravillas, one of the most spectacular cave systems in Spain. The caves are located below the hill on. Opened to the public in 1913, it includes a total of 2130 meters of subterranean passages. Several caverns and lakes are linked by these narrow passages. Coloured lighting adds to the effects of its unusual mineral formations. In the complex is a geological museum; the caves are said to have been found by a boy looking for a lost pig. El Museo del Jamón de Aracena consists of 7 rooms which trace the history and traditions surrounding the famous Iberian pigs. Official Web of Aracena in Internet - The Official Web of Aracena in Internet Aracena - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía - Natural Park Sierra de Aracena and Picos de Aroche http://www.discoverhuelva.com/town/aracena-0
Linoleum called Lino, is a floor covering made from materials such as solidified linseed oil, pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate, most on a burlap or canvas backing. Pigments are added to the materials to create the desired colour finish; the finest linoleum floors, known as "inlaid", are durable, were made by joining and inlaying solid pieces of linoleum. Cheaper patterned linoleum came in different grades or gauges, were printed with thinner layers which were more prone to wear and tear. High quality linoleum is flexible and thus can be used in buildings where a more rigid material would crack. Linoleum was invented by Englishman Frederick Walton. In 1855, Walton happened to notice the rubbery, flexible skin of solidified linseed oil that had formed on a can of oil-based paint and thought that it might form a substitute for India rubber. Raw linseed oil oxidizes slowly, but Walton accelerated the process by heating it with lead acetate and zinc sulfate.
This made the oil form a resinous mass into which lengths of cheap cotton cloth were dipped until a thick coating formed. The coating was scraped off and boiled with benzene or similar solvents to form a varnish. Walton planned to sell his varnish to the makers of water-repellent fabrics such as oilcloth, patented the process in 1860. However, his method had problems: the cotton cloth soon fell apart, it took months to produce enough of the linoxyn. Little interest was shown in Walton's varnish. In addition, his first factory burned down, he suffered from persistent and painful rashes. Walton soon came up with an easier way to transfer the oil to the cotton sheets, by hanging them vertically and sprinkling the oil from above, he tried mixing the linoxyn with sawdust and cork dust to make it less tacky. In 1863 he applied for a further patent, which read: "For these purposes canvas or other suitable strong fabrics are coated over on their upper surfaces with a composition of oxidized oil, cork dust, gum or resin... such surfaces being afterward printed, embossed, or otherwise ornamented.
The back or under surfaces of such fabrics are coated with a coating of such oxidized oils, or oxidized oils and gum or resin, by preference without an admixture of cork." At first Walton called his invention "Kampticon", deliberately close to Kamptulicon, the name of an existing floor covering, but he soon changed it to Linoleum, which he derived from the Latin words "linum" and "oleum". In 1864 he established the Linoleum Manufacturing Company Ltd. with a factory at Staines, near London. The new product did not prove popular due to intense competition from the makers of Kamptulicon and oilcloth; the company operated at a loss for its first five years, until Walton began an intensive advertising campaign and opened two shops in London for the exclusive sale of Linoleum. Walton's friend Jerimiah Clarke designed the linoleum patterns with a Grecian urn motif around the borders. Other inventors began their own experiments after Walton took out his patent, in 1871 William Parnacott took out a patent for a method of producing linoxyn by blowing hot air into a tank of linseed oil for several hours cooling the material in trays.
Unlike Walton's process, which took weeks, Parnacott's method took only a day or two, although the quality of the linoxyn was not as good. Despite this, many manufacturers opted to use the less expensive Parnacott process. Walton soon faced competition from other manufacturers, including a company which bought the rights to Parnacott’s process, launched its own floor covering, which it named Corticine, from the Latin "cortex". Corticine was made of cork dust and linoxyn without a cloth backing, became popular because it was cheaper than linoleum. By 1869 Walton's factory in Staines, England was exporting to the United States. In 1877, the Scottish town of Kirkcaldy, in Fife, became the largest producer of linoleum in the world, with no fewer than six floorcloth manufacturers in the town, most notably Michael Nairn & Co., producing floorcloth since 1847. Walton opened the American Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1872 on Staten Island, in partnership with Joseph Wild, the company's town being named Linoleumville.
It was the first U. S. linoleum manufacturer, but was soon followed by the American Nairn Linoleum Company, established by Sir Michael Nairn in 1887, in Kearny, New Jersey. Congoleum now no longer has a linoleum line. In 2016 a Dutch flooring producer changed the old concept of a factory manufactured linoleum in rolls or tiles to a liquid poured version of the linoleum, applied seamlessly on site. By adding a hybrid extra vegetable based binder the liquid lino sets overnight; this hybrid bindersystem makes the liquid lino chemical resistant and permanently flexible. Walton was unhappy with Michael Nairn & Co's use of the name Linoleum and brought a lawsuit against them for trademark infringement. However, the term had not been trademarked, he lost the suit, the court opining that if the name had been registered as a trademark, it was by now so used that it had become generic, only 14 years after its invention, it is considered to be the first product name to become a generic term. Between the time of its invention in 1860 and its being superseded by other hard floor coverings in the 1950s, linoleum was considered to be an excellent, inexpensive material for high-use areas.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was favoured in hallwa
A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. Its name comes from the Latin'defensa', referring to land, fenced, destined for pasture. Dehesas may be communal property. Used for grazing, they produce a variety of products, including non-timber forest products such as wild game, honey and firewood, they are used to raise the Spanish fighting bull and the Iberian pig. The main tree component is oaks holm and cork. Other oaks, including melojo and quejigo, may be used to form dehesa, the species depending on geographical location and elevation. Dehesa is an anthropogenic system that provides not only a variety of foods, but wildlife habitat for endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle. By extension, the term can be used for this style of rangeland management on estates; the dehesa is derived from the Mediterranean forest ecosystem, consisting of grassland featuring herbaceous species, used for grazing cattle and sheep, tree species belonging to the genus Quercus, such as the holm oak, although other tree species such as beech and pine trees may be present.
Oaks are protected and pruned to produce acorns, which the famous black Iberian pigs feed on in the fall during the montanera. Ham produced from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and air-dried at high elevations is known as Jamón ibérico, sells for premium prices if only acorns have been used for fattening. In a typical dehesa, oaks are managed to persist for about 250 years. If cork oaks are present, the cork is harvested about every 9 to 12 years, depending on the productivity of the site; the understory is cleared every 7 to 10 years to prevent the takeover of the woodland by shrubs of the rock rose family referred to as "jara", or by oak sprouts. Oaks are spaced to maximize overall productivity by balancing light for the grasses in the understory, water use in the soils, acorn production for pigs and game. There is debate about the origins and maintenance of the dehesa, whether or not the oaks can reproduce adequately under the grazing densities now prevailing; the dehesa system has great economic and social importance on the Iberian Peninsula because of both the large amount of land involved and its importance in maintaining rural population levels.
The major source of income for dehesa owners is cork, a sustainable product that supports this ancient production system and old growth oaks. High end black iberian pigs and sale of hunting rights represent significant income sources. Periodic hunts in the dehesa are known as the monteria. Groups attend a hunt at a private estate and wait at hunting spots for game to be driven to them with dogs, they pay well for the privilege, hunting wild boar, red deer and other species. The area of dehesa coincides with areas that could be termed "marginal" because of both their limited agricultural potential and a lack of local industry, which results in isolated agro-industries and low capitalization. Dehesa covers nearly 20,000 square kilometers on the Iberian Peninsula in: PortugalAlentejo The AlgarveSpainCórdoba Extremadura Salamanca Sierra Morena Sierra Norte de Sevilla Sierra de Aracena Cabañeros National Park List of types of formally designated forests Satoyama Silvopasture Wood pasture Fra. Paleo, Urbano..
"The dehesa/montado landscape". Pp. 149–151 in Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes, eds. Bélair, C. Ichikawa, K. Wong, B. Y. L. and Mulongoy, K. J. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Technical Series no. 52. Huntsinger, Lynn. "Oak woodland ranchers in California and Spain: Conservation and diversification". In Advances in Geoecology, ed. S. F. A. Schnabel. Joffre, R. "The dehesa system of southern Spain and Portugal as a natural ecosystem mimic," Journal of Agroforestry 45: 57-79. McGrath, Susan.. "Corkscrewed," Audubon magazine, January–February. Media related to Dehesas at Wikimedia Commons Plataforma integralDehesa - Página web de agentes del sector Proyecto Biodehesa Foro encinal Acción por la dehesa Dehesas ibéricas Observatorio de la dehesa y el montado
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. PwC ranks as the largest professional services firm in the world after Deloitte, is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG. PwC is a network of firms in 721 locations, with 250,930 people; as of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and the Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The company's global revenues were $37.7 billion in FY 2017, of which $16 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.46 billion by its Tax practice and $12.25 billion by its Advisory practice. PwC provides services to 420 out of 500 Fortune 500 companies; the firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century; the trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding effort. As of 2017, PwC is the 5th-largest owned company in the United States; the firm was created in 1998 when Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse.
In 1854 William Cooper founded an accountancy practice in London, which became Cooper Brothers seven years when his three brothers joined. In 1898, Robert H. Montgomery, William M. Lybrand, Adam A. Ross Jr. and his brother T. Edward Ross formed Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery in the United States. In 1957 Cooper Brothers. In 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Lybrand. In 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency by acquiring Cork Gully, a leading firm in that field in the UK. In 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte: in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand. Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded an accountancy practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Edwin Waterhouse. Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co.
The original partnership agreement, signed by Price and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, one of PwC's important legacy offices. By the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm; as a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. The original British firm opened an office in Liverpool in 1904 and elsewhere in the United Kingdom and worldwide, each time establishing a separate partnership in each country: the worldwide practice of PW was therefore a federation of collaborating firms that had grown organically rather than being the result of an international merger. In a further effort to take advantage of economies of scale, PW and Arthur Andersen discussed a merger in 1989 but the negotiations failed because of conflicts of interest such as Andersen's strong commercial links with IBM and PW's audit of IBM as well as the radically different cultures of the two firms.
It was said by those involved with the failed merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business, the potential merger was scrapped. In 1998, Price Waterhouse merged with Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers. After the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services was the fastest growing and most profitable area of the practice, though it was cyclical; the major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services financial systems design and implementation, to its audit clients. Since it audited a large proportion of the world's largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting market; these conflicts increased as additional services including outsourcing of IT and back office operations were developed.
For these reasons, in 2000, Ernst & Young was the first of the Big Four to sell its consulting services, to Capgemini. The fallout from the Enron and other financial auditing scandals led to the passage of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act limiting interaction between management consulting and auditing services. PwC Consulting began to conduct business under its own name rather than as the MCS division of PricewaterhouseCoopers. PwC therefore planned to capitalize on MCS's rapid growth through its sale to Hewlett Packard but negotiations broke down in 2000. In 2000, PwC acquired Canada's largest SAP consulting partner Omnilogic Systems. In March 2002 Arthur Andersen, LLP affiliates in Hong Kong and China completed talks to join PricewaterhouseCoopers, China. PwC announced in May 2002 that its consulting activities would be spun off as an independent entity and hired an outside CEO to run the global firm. An outside consultancy, Wolff Olins, was hired to create a brand image for the new entity, called "Monday".
The firm's CEO, Greg Brenneman described the unusual name as "a real word, recognizable and the right fit for a company that works hard to deliver results." These plans were soon revised, however. In October 2002, PwC sold
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p