Batter is thin dough that can be poured into a pan. Batter is used for pancakes, light cakes, as a coating for fried foods; the word batter comes from the French word battre which means to beat, as many batters require vigorous beating or whisking in their preparation. Many batters are made by combining dry flours with liquids such as milk or eggs. Batters can be made by soaking grains in water and grinding them wet. A leavening agent such as baking powder is included to aerate and fluff up the batter as it cooks, or the mixture may be fermented for this purpose as well as to add flavour. Carbonated water or another carbonated liquid such as beer may instead be used to aerate the batter in some recipes; the liquid mixture churned and frozen in order to produce ice cream is referred to as batter, although it does not contain any dry flours or grains. The viscosity of batter may range from "heavy" to "thin". Heat is applied to the batter by frying, baking or steaming, in order to cook the ingredients and to "set" the batter into a solid form.
Batters may be sweet or savoury with either sugar or salt being added. Many other flavourings such as herbs, fruits or vegetables may be added to the mixture. Beer is a popular ingredient in batters used to coat foods before frying. One reason is that a basic batter can be made from flour and some salt; the purpose of using beer is. Depending on the type and quality of the beer, beer may add colour or some flavour to the batter; the practice of beer battering is popular in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Ireland, Germany and Russia. Some foods that are beer battered and fried are fish and onion rings. Batters are used in many cuisines under many names. Tempura in Japan, pakora in India, spoon bread in the USA, many other examples are all types of batters. All batters work by forming a crisp shell around the food, preventing scorching and retaining flavor and juices; the ideal batter for fried foods is to be thick enough to adhere to the food, but not so thick as to become heavy. Batters thicken with every second.
Strategies to reduce this effect include the use of ice water when mixing and making it at the last possible moment before use. Media related to Batter at Wikimedia Commons
Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan. A deep fryer or chip pan is used for this. Deep frying may be performed using oil, heated in a pot. Deep frying is classified as hot-fat cooking method. Deep frying foods cook quickly: all sides of a food are cooked as oil has a high rate of heat conduction; the term "deep frying" and many modern deep-fried foods were not invented until the 19th century, but the practice has been around for millennia. Early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began in certain European countries before other countries adopted the practice. Deep frying is popular worldwide, with deep-fried foods accounting for a large portion of global caloric consumption. Many foods are deep-fried and cultures surrounding deep frying have developed, most notably in the Southern United States, where many events dedicated to deep frying food and non-edible items are held.
The English expression deep-fried is attested from the early 20th century. Frying food in olive oil is attested in Classical Greece from about the 5th century BCE; the late Roman cookbook of Apicius, appears to list the ancient Romans' first use of deep frying to prepare Pullum Frontonianum, a chicken dish. The practice of deep frying spread to other parts of Arabia in the following centuries. Deep-fried foods such as funnel cakes arrived in northern Europe by the 13th century, deep-fried fish recipes have been found in cookbooks in Spain and Portugal at around the same time. Falafel arrived in the Middle East from population migrations from Egypt as soon as the 14th century. Evidence of potato frying can be found as early as the late 17th century in Europe. French fries, invented in the late 18th century, became popular in the early 19th century western Europe. In 1860 Joseph Malin combined deep fried fish with chips to open the first fish and chip shop in London. Modern deep frying in the United States began in the 19th century with the growing popularity of cast iron around the American South which led to the development of many modern deep-fried dishes.
Doughnuts were invented in the mid-19th century, with foods such as onion rings, deep-fried turkey, corn dogs all being invented in the early 20th century. In recent years, the growth of fast food has expanded the reach of deep-fried foods French fries. Deep frying food is defined as a process where food is submerged in hot oil at temperatures between 350 °F and 375 °F. One common method for preparing food for deep frying involves adding multiple layers of batter around the food, such as cornmeal, flour, or tempura. After the food is submerged in oil, the surface of it begins to dehydrate and it undergoes Maillard reactions which break down sugars and proteins, creating the golden brown exterior of the food. Once the surface is dehydrated, it forms a crust; the heat conducts throughout the food causing proteins to denature, starches to undergo starch gelatinization, dietary fiber to soften. While most foods need batter coatings for protection, it is not as necessary for cooked noodles and potatoes because their high starch content enables them to hold more moisture and resist shrinking.
Meats may be cooked before deep frying to ensure. When performed properly, deep frying does not make food excessively greasy, because the moisture in the food repels the oil; the hot oil heats the water within the food. As long as the oil is hot enough and the food is not immersed in the oil for too long, oil penetration will be confined to the outer surface. Foods deep-fried at proper temperatures absorb "no more than a couple of tablespoons per 2 1⁄2 cups of oil" used; this oil absorption rate is around the same as occurs such as in a pan. However, if the food is cooked in the oil for too long, much of the water will be lost and the oil will begin to penetrate the food; the correct frying temperature depends on the thickness and type of food, but in most cases it lies between 350–375 °F. An informal test for a temperature close to this range involves adding a tiny amount of flour into the oil and watching to see if it sizzles without burning. A second test involves adding one piece of food to deep fry and watching it sink somewhat and rise back up.
Sinking without resurfacing indicates that the oil is too cold. It is recommended that deep fryers be cleaned to prevent contamination; the process of cooking with oil can contaminate nearby surfaces as oil may splatter on adjacent areas. Oil vapors can condense on more distant surfaces such as walls and ceilings. Supplies such as dish detergent and baking soda can clean affected surfaces. Deep frying is done with a deep fryer, a pan such as a wok or chip pan, a Dutch oven, or a cast-iron pot. Additional tools include fry baskets, which are used to contain foods in a deep fryer and to strain foods when removed from the oil, cooking thermometers, used to gauge oil temperature. Tongs, slotted spoons, wooden spoons, sieves may be used to remove or separate foods from the hot oil. Japanese deep frying tools include long metal chopsticks.
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair. It is sold from a portable food booth, food cart, or food truck and meant for immediate consumption; some street foods are regional. Most street foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study from the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day. Today, people may purchase street food for a number of reasons, such as convenience, to get flavourful food for a reasonable price in a sociable setting, to try ethnic cuisines, or for nostalgia. Small fried fish were a street food in ancient Greece. Evidence of a large number of street food vendors was discovered during the excavation of Pompeii. Street food was consumed by poor urban residents of ancient Rome whose tenement homes did not have ovens or hearths. Here, chickpea soup with bread and grain paste were common meals.
In ancient China, street food catered to the poor, wealthy residents would send servants to buy street food and bring it back for them to eat in their homes. A traveling Florentine reported in the late 14th century that in Cairo, people brought picnic cloths made of rawhide to spread on the streets and sit on while they ate their meals of lamb kebabs and fritters that they had purchased from street vendors. In Renaissance Turkey, many crossroads had vendors selling "fragrant bites of hot meat", including chicken and lamb, spit-roasted. In 1502, Ottoman Turkey became the first country to standardize street food. Aztec marketplaces had vendors who sold beverages such as atolli 50 types of tamales, as well as insects and stews. Spanish colonization brought European food stocks like wheat and livestock to Peru, most commoners continued to eat their traditional diets. Imports were only accepted at the margins of their diet, for example, grilled beef hearts sold by street vendors; some of Lima's 19th-century street vendors such as "Erasmo, the'negro' sango vendor" and Na Aguedita are still remembered today.
During the American Colonial period, "street vendors sold oysters, roasted corn ears and sweets at low prices to all classes." Oysters, in particular, were a cheap and popular street food until around 1910 when overfishing and pollution caused prices to rise. Street vendors in New York City faced a lot of opposition. After previous restrictions had limited their operating hours, street food vendors were banned in New York City by 1707. Many women of African descent made their living selling street foods in America in the 18th and 19th centuries, with products ranging from fruit and nuts in Savannah, to coffee, biscuits and other sweets in New Orleans. Cracker Jack started as one of many street food exhibits at the Columbian Exposition. In the 19th century, street food vendors in Transylvania sold gingerbread-nuts, cream mixed with corn, as well as bacon and other meat fried on top of ceramic vessels with hot coals inside. French fries, consisting of fried strips of potato originated as a street food in Paris in the 1840s.
Street foods in Victorian London included tripe, pea soup, pea pods in butter, whelk and jellied eels. Street food culture in China was first developed in the Tang Dynasty and continued to evolve over millennia. Street food continues to play a major role in Chinese cuisine with regional street food generating a strong interest in culinary tourism; because of the Chinese diaspora, Chinese street food has had a major influence on other cuisines across Asia and introduced the concept of a street food culture to other countries. The street food culture of Southeast Asia was established by coolie workers imported from China during the late 19th century. Ramen brought to Japan by Chinese immigrants about 100 years ago, began as a street food for laborers and students. However, it soon became a "national dish" and acquired regional variations. In Thailand, street food was sold by the ethnic Chinese population of Thailand but it did not become popular among native Thai people until the early 1960s, because of rapid urban population growth, by the 1970s it had "displaced home-cooking."
The rise of the country's tourism industry is contributed to the popularity of Thai street food. In Indonesia — Java, travelling food and drink vendor has a long history, as they were described in temples bas reliefs dated from 9th century, as well as mentioned in 14th century inscription as a line of work. During colonial Dutch East Indies period circa 19th century, several street food were developed and documented, including satay and dawet street vendors; the current proliferation of Indonesia's vigorous street food culture is contributed by the massive urbanization in recent decades that has opened opportunities in food service sectors. This took place in the country's expanding urban agglomerations in Greater Jakarta and Surabaya. Street food vending is found all around the world, but varies between regions and cultures. For example, Dorling Kindersley describes the street food of Vietnam as being "fresh and lighter than many of the cuisines in the area" and "draw on herbs, chile peppers and lime", while street food of Thailand is "fiery" and "pungent with shrimp paste... and fish sauce."
New York City's signature street food is the hot dog, New
A microwave oven is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a process known as dielectric heating. Microwave ovens heat foods and efficiently because excitation is uniform in the outer 25–38 mm of a homogeneous, high water content food item; the development of the cavity magnetron in the UK made possible the production of electromagnetic waves of a small enough wavelength. American engineer Percy Spencer is credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. Named the "Radarange", it was first sold in 1946. Raytheon licensed its patents for a home-use microwave oven, first introduced by Tappan in 1955, but these units were still too large and expensive for general home use. Sharp Corporation introduced the first microwave oven with a turntable between 1964 and 1966; the countertop microwave oven was first introduced in 1967 by the Amana Corporation.
After Sharp introduced low-cost microwave ovens affordable for residential use in the late 1970s, their use spread into commercial and residential kitchens around the world. In addition to their use in cooking food, types of microwave ovens are used for heating in many industrial processes. Microwave ovens are a common kitchen appliance and are popular for reheating cooked foods and cooking a variety of foods, they are useful for rapid heating of otherwise prepared foodstuffs, which can burn or turn lumpy when cooked in conventional pans, such as hot butter, chocolate or porridge. Unlike conventional ovens, microwave ovens do not directly brown or caramelize food, since they attain the necessary temperatures to produce Maillard reactions. Exceptions occur in rare cases where the oven is used to heat frying-oil and other oily items, which attain far higher temperatures than that of boiling water. Microwave ovens have limited roles in professional cooking, because the boiling-range temperatures of a microwave will not produce the flavorful chemical reactions that frying, browning, or baking at a higher temperature will.
However, additional heat sources can be added to microwave ovens. The exploitation of high-frequency radio waves for heating substances was made possible by the development of vacuum tube radio transmitters around 1920. By 1930 the application of short waves to heat human tissue had developed into the medical therapy of diathermy. At the 1933 Chicago World's Fair, Westinghouse demonstrated the cooking of foods between two metal plates attached to a 10 kW, 60 MHz shortwave transmitter; the Westinghouse team, led by I. F. Mouromtseff, found that foods like steaks and potatoes could be cooked in minutes; the 1937 United States patent application by Bell Laboratories states: This invention relates to heating systems for dielectric materials and the object of the invention is to heat such materials uniformly and simultaneously throughout their mass.... It has been proposed therefore to heat such materials throughout their mass by means of the dielectric loss produced in them when they are subjected to a high voltage, high frequency field.
However, lower-frequency dielectric heating, as described in the aforementioned patent, is an electromagnetic heating effect, the result of the so-called near-field effects that exist in an electromagnetic cavity, small compared with the wavelength of the electromagnetic field. This patent proposed radio frequency heating, at 10 to 20 megahertz. Heating from microwaves that have a wavelength, small relative to the cavity is due to "far-field" effects that are due to classical electromagnetic radiation that describes propagating light and microwaves suitably far from their source; the primary heating effect of all types of electromagnetic fields at both radio and microwave frequencies occurs via the dielectric heating effect, as polarized molecules are affected by a alternating electric field. The invention of the cavity magnetron made possible the production of electromagnetic waves of a small enough wavelength; the magnetron was a crucial component in the development of short wavelength radar during World War II.
In 1937–1940, a multi-cavity magnetron was built by the British physicist Sir John Turton Randall, FRSE, together with a team of British coworkers, for the British and American military radar installations in World War II. A more high-powered microwave generator that worked at shorter wavelengths was needed, in 1940, at the University of Birmingham in England and Harry Boot produced a working prototype, they invented a valve that could spit out pulses of microwave radio energy on a wavelength of 10 cm, an unprecedented discovery. Sir Henry Tizard travelled to the U. S. in late September 1940 to offer the magnetron in exchange for their financial and industrial help. An early 6 kW version, built in England by the General Electric Company Research Laboratories, London, was given to the U. S. government in September 1940. The magnetron was described by American historian James Phinney Baxter III as "he most valuable cargo brought to our shores". Contracts were awarded to other companies for mass production of the magnetron.
In 1945, the specific heating effect of a high-power microwave beam was accidentally discovered by Percy Spencer, an American self-taught engineer from Howland, Maine. Employed by Raytheon at the time, he noticed that micr
A waffle is a dish made from leavened batter or dough, cooked between two plates that are patterned to give a characteristic size and surface impression. There are many variations based on the type of waffle recipe used. Waffles are eaten throughout the world in Belgium, which has over a dozen regional varieties. Waffles may be made fresh or heated after having been commercially precooked and frozen; the word "waffle" first appears in the English language in 1725: "Waffles. Take flower, cream..." It is directly derived from the Dutch wafel. While the Middle Dutch wafele is first attested to at the end of the 13th century, it is preceded by the French walfre in 1185. Alternate spellings throughout modern and medieval Europe include waffe, wafer, wâfel, iauffe, goffre, wafe, waffel, wåfe, wāfel, vaffel, våffla. In ancient times the Greeks cooked flat cakes, called obelios, between hot metal plates; as they were spread throughout medieval Europe, the cake mix, a mixture of flour, water or milk, eggs, became known as wafers and were cooked over an open fire between iron plates with long handles.
Waffles are preceded, in the early Middle Ages, around the period of the 9th–10th centuries, with the simultaneous emergence of fer à hosties / hostieijzers and moule à oublies. While the communion wafer irons depicted imagery of Jesus and his crucifixion, the moule à oublies featured more trivial Biblical scenes or simple, emblematic designs; the format of the iron itself was always round and larger than those used for communion. The oublie was, in its basic form, composed only of grain flour and water – just as was the communion wafer, it took until the 11th century, as a product of The Crusades bringing new culinary ingredients to Western Europe, for flavorings such as orange blossom water to be added to the oublies. Oublies, not formally named as such until ca. 1200, spread throughout northwestern continental Europe leading to the formation of the oublieurs guild in 1270. These oublieurs/obloyers were responsible for not only producing the oublies but for a number of other contemporaneous and subsequent pâtisseries légères, including the waffles that were soon to arise.
In the late 14th century, the first known waffle recipe was penned in an anonymous manuscript, Le Ménagier de Paris, written by a husband as a set of instructions to his young wife. While it technically contains four recipes, all are a variation of the first: Beat some eggs in a bowl, season with salt and add wine. Toss in some flour, mix. Fill, little by little, two irons at a time with as much of the paste as a slice of cheese is large. Close the iron and cook both sides. If the dough does not detach from the iron, coat it first with a piece of cloth, soaked in oil or grease; the other three variations explain how cheese is to be placed in between two layers of batter and mixed in to the batter, or left out, along with the eggs. However, this was a waffle / gaufre in name only. Though some have speculated that waffle irons first appeared in the 13th–14th centuries, it was not until the 15th century that a true physical distinction between the oublie and the waffle began to evolve. Notably, while a recipe like the fourth in Le Ménagier de Paris was only flour and wine – indistinguishable from common oublie recipes of the time – what did emerge was a new shape to many of the irons being produced.
Not only were the newly fashioned ones rectangular, taking the form of the fer à hosties, but some circular oublie irons were cut down to create rectangles. It was in this period that the waffle's classic grid motif appeared in a French fer à oublie and a Belgian wafelijzer – albeit in a more shallowly engraved fashion – setting the stage for the more gridded irons that were about to become commonplace throughout Belgium. By the 16th century, paintings by Joachim de Beuckelaer, Pieter Aertsen and Pieter Bruegel depict the modern waffle form. Bruegel's work, in particular, not only shows waffles being cooked, but fine detail of individual waffles. In those instances, the waffle pattern can be counted as a large 12x7 grid, with cleanly squared sides, suggesting the use of a thin batter, akin to our contemporary Brussels waffles. Earliest of the 16th century waffle recipes, Om ghode waffellen te backen – from the Dutch KANTL 15 manuscript – is only the second known waffle recipe after the four variants described in Le Ménagier de Paris.
For the first time, partial measurements were given, sugar was used, spices were added directly to the batter: Take grated white bread. Take with that the yolk of an egg and a spoonful of pot sugar or powdered sugar. Take with that half water and half wine, ginger and cinnamon. Alternately attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries, Groote Wafelen from the Belgian Een Antwerps kookboek was published as the first recipe to use leavening: Take white flour, warm cream, fresh melted butter and mix together until the flour is no longer visible. Add ten or twelve egg yolks; those who do not want them to be too expensive may add the egg white and just milk. Put the resulting dough at the fireplace for four hours to let it rise better before baking it; until this time, no recipes contained leavening and could therefore be cooked in the thin moule à oublies. Groote Wafelen, in its use of leavening, was the genesis of contempora