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Sausage

Sausages are a meat product made from ground meat pork, beef, or poultry, along with salt and other flavourings. Other ingredients such as grains or breadcrumbs may be included as extenders; some sausages include other ingredients for flavour. The word "sausage" can refer to the loose sausage meat, which can be formed into patties or stuffed into a skin; when referred to as "a sausage," the product is cylindrical and encased in a skin. A sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways, including pan-frying and barbecuing; some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may be removed. Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, smoking, or freezing; some cured or smoked sausages can be stored without refrigeration. Most fresh sausages must be frozen until they are cooked. Sausages come in a huge range of national and regional varieties, which differ by their flavouring or spicing ingredients, the meat used in them and their manner of preparation.

The word "sausage" was first used in English in the mid-15th century, spelled "sawsyge". This word came from Old North French saussiche"; the French word came from salsicus. Sausage making is an outcome of efficient butchery. Traditionally, sausage makers salted various tissues and organs such as scraps, organ meats and fat to help preserve them, they stuffed them into tubular casings made from the cleaned intestines of the animal, producing the characteristic cylindrical shape. Hence, sausages and salami are among the oldest of prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten or dried to varying degrees. An Akkadian cuneiform tablet records a dish of intestine casings filled with some sort of forcemeat; the Chinese sausage làcháng, which consists of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. The Greek poet Homer mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, Epicharmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage, Aristophanes' play The Knights is about a sausage vendor, elected leader. Evidence suggests that sausages were popular both among the ancient Greeks and Romans and most with the various tribes occupying the larger part of Europe.

The most famous sausage in ancient Italy was from Lucania and was called lucanica, a name which lives on in a variety of modern sausages in the Mediterranean. During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival. Early in the 10th century during the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wise outlawed the production of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning. Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs in the case of haggis and other traditional puddings. Today, natural casings are replaced by collagen, cellulose, or plastic casings in the case of industrially manufactured sausages; some forms of sausage, such as sliced sausage, are prepared without a casing. Additionally, luncheon meat and sausage meat are now available without casings in tin jars. A sausage consists of meat cut into pieces or ground, mixed with other ingredients, filled into a casing. Ingredients may include a cheap starch filler such as breadcrumbs or grains and flavourings such as spices, sometimes others such as apple and leek.

The meat may be from any animal but is pork, beef or veal, or poultry. The lean meat-to-fat ratio depends upon the producer; the meat content as labelled may exceed 100%. In some jurisdictions foods described. For example, in the United States The Department of Agriculture specifies that the fat content of different defined types of sausage may not exceed 30%, 35% or 50% by weight. Many traditional styles of sausage from Asia and mainland Europe use no bread-based filler and include only meat and flavorings. In the United Kingdom and other countries with English cuisine traditions, many sausages contain a significant proportion of bread and starch-based fillers, which may comprise 30% of ingredients; the filler in many sausages helps them to keep their shape. As the meat contracts in the heat, the filler absorbs moisture and fat from the meat; when the food processing industry produces sausages for a low price point any part of the animal can end up in sausages, varying from cheap, fatty specimens stuffed with meat blasted off the carcasses and rusk.

On the other hand, the finest quality contain only choice cuts of seasoning. In Britain, "meat" declared on labels could in the past include fat, connective tissue, MRM; these ingredients may still be used but must be labelled as such, up to 10% water may be included without being labelled. Sausages are emulsion-type products, they are composed of solid fat globules, dispersed in protein solution. The proteins function by stabilizing them in water. Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various metrics such as types of ingredients and preparation are used. In the English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh and dry s

Private Cemeteries Act (Minnesota)

The Private Cemeteries Act is a state Act, which provides legislation respecting private cemeteries, human remains and burial sites in the state of Minnesota, United States. The Act is divided into fourteen sections, including: Plat and Record Effect of Recorded Plat Religious Corporations may Acquire Existing Cemeteries Conveyance of Lots Gifts for Proprietary Care of Lots Transfer to Association. 1976 Revision 1980 Revision 1983 Revision 1984 Revision 1985 Revision 1986 Revision 1989 Revision 1993 Revision 1994 Revision 1999 Revision 2003 Revision 2005 Revision 2007 Revision 2010 Revision 2013 Revision The Passage of the Private Cemeteries Act impacted the practice of archaeology and treatment of human remains in Minnesota in several ways. The Act: legislates the creation and transfer of private cemeteries, as well as the sale of burial plots within them. To submit their plans to the State Archaeologist at the MOSA for review; the provisions of this section shall apply to all human burials, human remains, or human burial grounds found on or in all public or private lands or waters in Minnesota" Penalties for contraventions against the Act are detailed in Section 307.08 of the Act, include: A person who intentionally and knowingly does any of the following …: destroys, mutilates, or injures human burials or human burial grounds.

A person who, without the consent of the appropriate authority and the landowner, intentionally and knowingly does any of the following: removes any tombstone, monument, or structure placed in any public or private cemetery or authenticated human burial ground. The Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist oversees a portion of the Act and has the following duties stemming from the legislation: Authenticates all unrecorded burial sites over 50 years old; the MOSA has adopted an internal policy, called the State Archaeologists Procedures for Implementing Minnesota’s Private Cemeteries Act, which helps guide the implementation and execution of the Act, within MOSA operations. This procedural manual provides detailed sections on: Authentication. There are four kinds of licenses, including: Yearly license for reconnaissance/Phase I survey. Site-specific license for site evaluations/Phase II. Site-specific license for major excavations/Phase III. Site-specific license for burial authenticationsBurial authentication licenses governed by Section MS 307.08 of the Private Cemeteries Act, are issued by the MOSA.

These authentications determine the absence or presence of human remains at a site, involve extensive sampling of a sp

Thomas-Simon Gueullette

Thomas-Simon Gueullette was a French lawyer, playwright and man of letters, who wrote fairy tales and works on the theatre itself. A lawyer at the Châtelet de Paris substitute for the procureur du roi, Gueullette was a bibliophile and collector who collected several placards and journals of his time, His several works on the Théâtre-Italien, which survive in manuscript, formed the basis for the Parfaict brothers in their Histoire de l'ancien Théâtre Italien. Gueullette was above all known for the publication of several amusing fairy tales: les Soirées bretonnes, nouveaux contes de fées. Gueullette was the author of over 60 plays, many of which he put on at the Théâtre-Italien, where some had great success: La vie est un songe in 1717, Arlequin-Pluton, he worked as an editor: Histoire du petit Jehan de Saintré. The Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal has nine volumes of manuscripts by Gueullette. Notes et souvenirs sur le Théâtre-Italien au XVIIIe siècle, publiés par J.-E. Gueullette, Paris, E. Droz, 1938.

Pascal Bastien, L'Exécution publique à Paris au XVIIIe siècle, imprimerie Champ Vallon, 2006. J. E. Gueullette, Thomas-Simon Gueullette: un magistrat du XVIIIe siècle, ami des lettres, du théâtre et des plaisirs Genève, Slatkine Reprints, 1977, 1938. Le Chapeau de Fortunatus Arlequin Pluton Nocrion, conte allobroge La Confiance des cocus Gustave Vapereau, Dictionnaire universel des littératures, Hachette, 1876, p. 950 Thomas-Simon Gueullette on Data.bnf.fr His plays and their productions on CESAR The Thousand and One Quarters of an Hour at Internet Archive The Transmigrations of the Mandarin Fum-Hoam at Internet Archive Mogul Tales.