Types of chocolate
Chocolate is a range of foods derived from cocoa, mixed with fat and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. There are several types of chocolate, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation; the use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation. Some governments assign chocolate ranges of chocolate differently; the cocoa bean products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world. In the American chocolate industry: chocolate liquor is the ground or melted state of the nib of the cacao bean, containing equal parts cocoa butter and solids. Cocoa butter is the fatty component of the bean. Cocoa solids are the remaining nonfat part of the cocoa bean. Different forms and flavours of chocolate are produced by varying the quantities of the different ingredients. Other flavours can be obtained by varying the temperature when roasting the beans. Milk chocolate is solid chocolate made with milk added in the form of powdered milk, liquid milk, or condensed milk.
In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, invented by Henri Nestlé, Peter's neighbour in Vevey. The US Government requires a 10% concentration of chocolate liquor. EU regulations specify a minimum of 25% cocoa solids. However, an agreement was reached in 2000 that allowed an exception from these regulations in the UK, Malta, where "milk chocolate" can contain only 20% cocoa solids; such chocolate is labelled as "family milk chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union. Cadbury is the leading brand of milk chocolate in the United Kingdom; the Hershey Company is the largest producer in the US. The actual Hershey process is a trade secret, but experts speculate that the milk is lipolyzed, producing butyric acid, the milk is pasteurized, stabilizing it for use; this process gives the product a particular taste, to which the US public has shown to have an affinity, to the extent that some rival manufacturers now add butyric acid to their milk chocolates.
Dark chocolate known as "plain chocolate", is produced using a higher percentage of cocoa with all fat content coming from cocoa butter instead of milk, but there are "dark milk" chocolates and many degrees of hybrids. Dark chocolate can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker baking bars with high cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 100%, are sold. Baking chocolate containing no added sugar may be labeled "unsweetened chocolate". Semisweet and bittersweet are terms for dark chocolate traditionally used in the United States to indicate the amount of added sugar. Bittersweet chocolate has less sugar than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable when baking. Both must contain a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Couverture chocolate is a high-quality class of dark chocolate, containing a high percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter, tempered. Couverture chocolate is used by professionals for dipping, coating and garnishing. Popular brands of couverture chocolate used by pastry chefs include: Valrhona, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger and Guittard.
White chocolate is made of sugar and cocoa butter, without the cocoa solids. It is pale ivory colour, lacks many of the compounds found in milk and dark chocolates, it remains solid at room temperature as, below the melting point of cocoa butter. Cocoa powder is the pulverized cocoa solids left after extracting all the cocoa butter, it is used to add chocolate flavour in baking, for making chocolate drinks. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa produced by the Broma process, with no additives, Dutch process cocoa, additionally processed with alkali to neutralize its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat, is used in recipes that use baking soda. Dutch cocoa is milder in taste, with a darker colour, it is used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids. However, Dutch processing destroys most of the flavonoids present in cocoa. Raw chocolate is chocolate that has not been heated, or mixed with other ingredients.
It is sold in chocolate-growing countries, to a much lesser extent in other countries promoted as healthy. Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fat tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter, it is used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not be called "chocolate". Modeling chocolate is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn syrup, glucose syrup, or golden syrup, it is used by cakemakers and pâtisseries to add decoration to cakes and pastries. Ruby chocolate is a type of chocolate created by Barry Callebaut; the variety was in development from 2004, was released to the public in 2017. The chocolate type is made from the Ruby cocoa bean, resulting in a distinct red colour and a different flavour, described as "sweet yet sour". Flavours such as mint, coffee, orange, or strawberry are sometimes added to chocolate in a creamy form or in small pieces. Chocolate bars contain added ingredients such as peanuts, fruit and crisped rice.
Pieces of chocolate, in various flavours, are
Butterfinger is a candy bar created in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois by Otto Schnering, manufactured by Ferrero. The bar consists of a crispy peanut butter core coated in milk chocolate. Butterfinger has become known for its marketing and a roster of spokespersons, including Bart Simpson, Top Cat, Seth Green, Erik Estrada, Rob Lowe, Jaime Pressly. Other memorable advert campaigns include counting down the end of the world or BARmageddon, with evidence such as the first QR shaped crop circle in Kansas, a Butterfinger comedy-horror movie called “Butterfinger the 13th,” the first interactive digital graphic novel by a candy brand starring the Butterfinger Defense League, several attention grabbing April Fool’s Day pranks, including the renaming of the candy bar to “The Finger.”With 2010 sales of $598 million, Butterfinger has become popular and has ranked as the eleventh most popular candy bar sold in the $17.68 billion United States chocolate confectionery market between 2007 and 2010. The Curtiss Candy Company was founded near Chicago, Illinois, in 1922 by Otto Schnering, using his mother's maiden name.
He invented the Butterfinger candy bar in 1923. The company held a public contest to choose the name of this candy. In an early marketing campaign, the company dropped Butterfinger and Baby Ruth candy bars from airplanes in cities across the United States as a publicity stunt that helped increase its popularity; the candy bar was promoted in Baby Take a Bow, a film from 1934 featuring Shirley Temple. In 1964, Standard Brands Inc. purchased the Curtiss Candy Company. It merged with Nabisco in 1981. RJR Nabisco was formed in 1985 by the merger of Nabisco Brands and R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. In 1988, RJR Nabisco was purchased by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in what was at the time, the largest leveraged buyout in history. In 1990, Nestlé, a Swiss multinational food and beverage company, bought Baby Ruth and Butterfinger from RJR Nabisco; when measured by revenues, Nestlé is considered the largest food company in the world. In January 2018, Nestlé announced plans to sell over 20 of its U. S. confectionery brands to Italian chocolatier Ferrero SpA for $2.8 billion.
This deal was finalized in March 2018. In February 2019, "Fun Size" Butterfinger began to display "Improved Recipe" on its packaging. A comparison of listed ingredients between the current and former products shows that molasses is no longer used, that sodium content has increased 20 percent; the candy no longer has a caramelized molasses flavor, but instead has a discernable salty flavor and salty after taste."Better" Butterfinger, as it's identified in advertising, uses a larger peanut in its core and more cocoa and milk in its chocolate coating, without the used hydrogenated oils, using a double layered wrapper instead of the TBHQ preservative. Two of the slogans used to advertise the candy bar are "Follow the Finger" and "Break out of the ordinary!" Prior to these, Bart Simpson, Homer Simpson, other characters from Fox's The Simpsons, appeared in numerous advertisements for the product from 1988 to 2001, featuring the slogans "Nobody better lay a finger on my Butterfinger!", "Bite my Butterfinger!", "Nothin' like a Butterfinger!"
Butterfinger, for unknown reasons, terminated a long standing advertising contract with The Simpsons in the end of 2001. Reacting to this, the January 2002 Simpsons episode "Sweets and Sour Marge" included a scene depicting Butterfinger bars as nonflammable. In February 2003, in the episode "Barting Over", Bart claims he does not recall being in any commercials in the past, eats a Butterfinger just as he did in the commercials. In the November 2014 episode Simpsorama, a crossover with Futurama, Butterfingers are used to lure the Bart creatures into Madison Cube Garden. On April 1, 2008, Nestlé launched an April Fool's Day prank in which they claimed that they had changed the name of the candy bar to "The Finger", citing consumer research that indicated that the original brand was "clumsy" and "awkward"; the prank included a fake Web site promoting the change. When the joke was revealed, the website redirected visitors to the fictitious "Butterfinger Comedy Network". In 2009, a new advertisement for Butterfinger was produced that appeared to be a homage to the earlier The Simpsons commercials.
In 2010, Butterfinger revived its "Nobody better lay a finger..." slogan as "Nobody's gonna lay a finger on my Butterfinger." In 2011, a comedy horror film entitled Butterfinger The 13th, was made to promote the product. In April 2013, an official announcement via the Twitter account of The Simpsons stated that the "Nobody better lay a finger" advertising campaign featuring Bart Simpson would be returning. In the opening sequence of "Treehouse of Horror XXVIII", the family appeared as candy in a bowl. Bart, a Butterfinger bar, tells his mother he is scared, she comforts him by stating he's always the last taken. Bites: A product with small, bite sized pieces of Butterfinger is called Butterfinger Bites. Snackerz: Butterfinger Snackerz is another bite sized, smooth centered version of the candy bar. BB's: Starting in 1992, another form of Butterfinger bars was available called BB's. Similar to Whoppers and Maltesers, they were the size of marbles and sold in bags, they were advertised by the Simpsons.
They were discontinued in 2006. In 2009, the product was brought back as Butterfinger Mini Bites. Buzz: During the height of the energy drink craze in 2009, a two piece ‘king size’ version of the candy bar containing 80 milligrams of caffeine was released with limited distribution; the wrapper bears this warning: "Contains 80 mg per package
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination, distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the mid-19th century and it was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church. Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to common Protestant Christian teachings, such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment; the church is known for its emphasis on diet and health, its "holistic" understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, its conservative principles and lifestyle. The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences, local conferences.
It has a worldwide baptized membership of over 20 million people, 25 million adherents. As of May 2007, it was the twelfth-largest religious body in the world, the sixth-largest international religious body, it is ethnically and culturally diverse, maintains a missionary presence in over 215 countries and territories. The church operates over 7,500 schools including over 100 post-secondary institutions, numerous hospitals, publishing houses worldwide, as well as a humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency; the Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s in upstate New York, a phase of the Second Great Awakening. William Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14–16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth between the spring of 1843 and the spring of 1844. In the summer of 1844, Millerites came to believe that Jesus would return on October 22, 1844, understood to be the biblical Day of Atonement for that year.
Miller's failed prediction became known as the "Great Disappointment". Hiram Edson and other Millerites came to believe that Miller's calculations were correct, but that his interpretation of Daniel 8:14 was flawed as he assumed Christ would come to cleanse the world; these Adventists came to the conviction that Daniel 8:14 foretold Christ's entrance into the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary rather than his Second Coming. Over the next few decades this understanding of a sanctuary in heaven developed into the doctrine of the investigative judgment, an eschatological process that commenced in 1844, in which every person would be judged to verify their eligibility for salvation and God's justice will be confirmed before the universe; this group of Adventists continued to believe that Christ's Second Coming would continue to be imminent, however they resisted setting further dates for the event, citing Revelation 10:6, "that there should be time no longer." As the early Adventist movement consolidated its beliefs, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised.
The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine through a tract written by Millerite preacher Thomas M. Preble, who in turn had been influenced by Rachel Oakes Preston, a young Seventh Day Baptist; this message was accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication The Present Truth, which appeared in July 1849. For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a small, loosely knit group of people who came from many churches and whose primary means of connection and interaction was through James White's periodical The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, they embraced the doctrines of the Sabbath, the heavenly sanctuary interpretation of Daniel 8:14, conditional immortality, the expectation of Christ's premillennial return. Among its most prominent figures were Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White. Ellen White came to occupy a central role; the church was formally established in Battle Creek, Michigan, on May 21, 1863, with a membership of 3,500.
The denominational headquarters were moved from Battle Creek to Takoma Park, where they remained until 1989. The General Conference headquarters moved to its current location in Silver Spring, Maryland; the denomination in the 1870s turned to missionary work and revivals, tripling its membership to 16,000 by 1880 and establishing a presence beyond North America during the late 19th century. Rapid growth continued, with 75,000 members in 1901. By this time the denomination operated two colleges, a medical school, a dozen academies, 27 hospitals, 13 publishing houses. By 1945, the church reported 210,000 members in the US and Canada, 360,000 elsewhere; the church's beliefs and doctrines were first published in 1872 in Battle Creek Michigan as a brief statement called "A Synopsis of our Faith". The church experienced challenges as it formed its core beliefs and doctrines as a number of the early Adventist leaders came from churches that held to some form of Arianism. This, along with some of the movement's other theological views, led to a consensus among conservative evangelical Protestants to regard it as a cult.
The teachings and writings of White proved influential in shifting the church from semi-Arian roots tow
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry-roasted peanuts. It contains additional ingredients that modify the taste or texture, such as salt, sweeteners, or emulsifiers. Peanut butter is popular in many countries; the United States is a leading exporter of peanut butter and itself consumes $800 million of peanut butter annually. Peanut butter is served as a spread on bread, toast, or crackers, used to make sandwiches, it is used in a number of breakfast dishes and desserts, such as peanut-flavored granola, crepes, brownies, or croissants. It is similar to other nut butters such as almond butter; the use of peanuts dates to the Incas. Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Canada obtained a patent for a method of producing peanut butter from roasted peanuts using heated surfaces in 1884. Edson's cooled product had "a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment" according to his patent application which described a process of milling roasted peanuts until the peanuts reached "a fluid or semi-fluid state".
He mixed sugar into the paste to harden its consistency. A businessman from St. Louis named George Bayle produced and sold peanut butter in the form of a snack food in 1894. John Harvey Kellogg, known for his line of prepared breakfast cereals, was issued a patent for a "Process of Producing Alimentary Products" in 1898, used peanuts, although he boiled the peanuts rather than roasting them. Kellogg's Western Health Reform Institute served peanut butter to patients because they needed a food that contained a lot of protein, yet which could be eaten without chewing. At first, peanut butter was a food for wealthy people, as it became popular as a product served at expensive health care institutes. Early peanut-butter-making machines were developed by Joseph Lambert, who had worked at John Harvey Kellogg's Battle Creek Sanitarium, Dr. Ambrose Straub who obtained a patent for a peanut-butter-making machine in 1903. "In 1922, chemist Joseph Rosefield invented a process for making smooth peanut butter that kept the oil from separating by using hydrogenated oil".
Under the Skippy brand, Rosefield developed a new method of churning creamy peanut butter, giving it a smoother consistency. He mixed fragments of peanut into peanut butter, creating the first "chunky"-style peanut butter. In 1955, Procter & Gamble launched a peanut butter named Jif, sweeter than other brands, due to the use of "sugar and molasses" in its recipe; as the US National Peanut Board confirms, "Contrary to popular belief, George Washington Carver did not invent peanut butter." Carver was given credit in popular folklore for many inventions. By the time Carver published his document about peanuts, entitled "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it For Human Consumption" in 1916, many methods of preparation of peanut butter had been developed or patented by various pharmacists and food scientists working in the US and Canada. January 24 is National Peanut Butter Day in the United States; the two main types of peanut butter are smooth. In crunchy peanut butter, some coarsely-ground peanut fragments are included to give extra texture.
The peanuts in smooth peanut butter are ground uniformly. In the US, food regulations require that any product labelled "peanut butter" must contain at least 90% peanuts. In the US, no product labelled as "peanut butter" can contain "artificial sweeteners, chemical preservatives, natural or artificial coloring additives." Some brands of peanut butter are sold without emulsifiers that bind the peanut oils with the peanut paste, so require stirring after separation. Most major brands of peanut butter add white sugar, but there are others that use dried cane syrup, agave syrup, or coconut palm sugar. Organic and artisanal peanut butters are available. Due to weather conditions, peanuts are planted in Spring; the peanut comes from a yellow flower which bends over and infiltrates the soil after blooming and wilting, the peanut starts to grow in the soil. Peanuts are harvested from late August to October; this weather allows for dry soil so that when picked, the soil does not stick to the pods. The peanuts are removed from vines and transported to a peanut shelling machine for mechanical drying.
After cropping, the peanuts are delivered to warehouses for cleaning, where they are stored unshelled in silos. Shelling must be conducted lest the seeds be damaged during the removal of the shell; the moisture of the unshelled peanuts is controlled to avoid excessive frangibility of the shells and kernels, which in turn, reduces the amount of dust present in the plant. After, the peanuts are sent to a series of rollers set for the batch of peanuts, where they are cracked. After cracking, the peanuts go through a screening process where they are inspected for contaminants; the dry roasting process employs either continuous method. In the batch method, peanuts are heated in large quantities in a revolving oven at about 800 °F. Next, the peanuts in each batch are uniformly held and roasted in the oven at 320 °F for about 40 to 60 minutes; this method is good to use. In the continuous method, a h
Will Keith Kellogg
Will Keith Kellogg referred to as W. K. Kellogg, was an American industrialist in food manufacturing, best known as the founder of the Kellogg Company, which to this day produces a wide variety of popular breakfast cereals, he was a member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and practiced vegetarianism as a dietary principle taught by his church. He founded the Kellogg Arabian Ranch and made it into a renowned establishment for the breeding of Arabian horses. Kellogg started the Kellogg Foundation in 1934 with $66 million in Kellogg company stock and investments, a donation that would be worth over a billion dollars in today's economy. Kellogg continued to be a major philanthropist throughout his life; as a young businessman, Kellogg started out selling brooms, before moving to Battle Creek, Michigan, to help his brother John Harvey Kellogg run the Battle Creek Sanitarium. The Sanitarium the Western Health Reform Institute, was part of a pioneering effort based on the health principles advocated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
John Kellogg described the Sanitarium system as "a composite physiologic method comprising hydrotherapy, thermotherapy, mechanotherapy, physical culture, cold-air cure, health training". The Kelloggs pioneered the process of making flaked cereal; because of the commercial potential of the discovery, Will wanted. However, John allowed anyone in the sanitarium to observe the flaking process and one sanitarium guest, C. W. Post, copied the process to start his own company; that company became Post Cereals and General Foods, the source of Post's first million dollars. This upset Will to the extent. With the help of his brother John, Will Kellogg promoted cereals corn flakes, as a healthy breakfast food, they started the Sanitas Food Company around 1897, focusing on the production of their whole grain cereals. At the time, the standard breakfast for the well-off was eggs and meat, while the poor ate porridge, farina and other boiled grains; the brothers argued over the addition of sugar to their product.
In 1906, Will founded the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company becoming the Kellogg Company. In 1930, he established the W. K. Kellogg Foundation donating $66 million to it, his company was one of the first to put nutrition labels on foods. He offered the first inside-the-box prize for children. Kellogg said, "I will invest my money in people." During the Great Depression, Kellogg directed his cereal plant to work four shifts, each lasting six hours. This gave more people in Battle Creek the opportunity to work during that time. Kellogg had a longtime interest in Arabian horses. In 1925, he purchased 377 acres for $250,000 in Pomona, California, to establish an Arabian horse ranch. Starting with breeding stock descended from the imports of Homer Davenport and W. R. Brown, Kellogg looked to England, where he purchased a significant number of horses from the Crabbet Arabian Stud, making multiple importations during the 1920s; the Kellogg ranch became well known in southern California not only for its horse breeding program but for its entertaining, weekly horse exhibitions, open to the public and visited by assorted Hollywood celebrities.
Among many other connections to Hollywood, the actor Rudolph Valentino borrowed the Kellogg stallion "Jadaan" for his 1926 movie Son of the Sheik, along with a Kellogg employee, Carl Raswan, who rode in certain scenes as Valentino's stunt double. In 1932, Kellogg donated the ranch, to the University of California. In 1933, the ranch obtained some of the horses sold in the dispersal of Brown's Maynesboro stud. During World War II, the ranch was taken over by the U. S. War Department and was known as the Pomona Quartermaster Depot. In 1948, the ranch was transferred to the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Kellogg Foundation. In 1949, title to the 813-acre ranch and horses was passed to the State of California, with the provision that the herd of Arabian horses must be maintained; the ranch became part of the Voorhis unit of what was known as the California Polytechnic State College in San Luis Obispo. This became known as the Kellogg Campus, in 1966, it was separated to form California State Polytechnic College Pomona.
The ranch was the location of the W. K. Kellogg Airport, it operated from 1928 to 1932, was the largest owned airport in the country. Some of Kellogg's property near Battle Creek was donated to Michigan State College and is now the Kellogg Biological Station. Will Keith Kellogg died at the age of 91 in Battle Creek, Michigan, on October 6, 1951, of heart failure. Kellogg outlived most of his children, but was survived by two of them, Karl Hugh and Elizabeth Ann, as well as grandson Norman Williamson, Jr. and Will Keith Kellogg II. The Kellogg Foundation quotes W. K. as follows: It is my hope that the property that kind Providence has brought me may be helpful to many others, that I may be found a faithful steward. The philanthropy of W. K. Kellogg is recognized as instrumental to the founding of California State Polytechnic University and Kellogg College, Oxford. Cereal box prize Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University Premium "W. K Kellogg Foundation: Founder". Retrieved 2006-10-06.
"Inventor of the Week: Archive". Lemelson-MIT Program. Retrieved 2006-10-06. "Will Keith Kellogg – People of Michigan". NSTATE, LLC. Retrieved 2006-10-06
Frosted Flakes or Frosties is a breakfast cereal, produced by the Kellogg Company and consisting of sugar-coated corn flakes. It was introduced in the United States as Sugar Frosted Flakes; the word "sugar" was dropped from the name in 1983. Generic versions, such as store brands, are available. Unlike many cereals, Frosted Flakes shares its name with generic competitors. Frosted Flakes Frosties Zucaritas in Hispanic America Sucrilhos in Brazil Corn Frosty in Japan Corn Frost in South Korea Frosted Flakes was the second best selling cereal in the first half of 2017 within the US in gross sales, after Honey Nut Cheerios. Tony the Tiger has been the mascot of Frosted Flakes since its introduction. Tony is known for uttering the cereal's slogan: "They're Gr-r-reat!". Tony the Tiger was voiced by Dallas McKennon, but Thurl Ravenscroft voiced him for more than 50 years, until his death in 2005. Tony was voiced by former professional wrestling play-by-play announcer Lee Marshall until his passing on April 27, 2014.
After Marshall's death, he was replaced with Tex Brashear. Van Horne voiced Tony in a 1997 television commercial. In the UK, Tom Hill voiced Tony after Ravenscroft's death. Tony is drawn wearing a red bandana on all Frosted Flakes cereal boxes. Kellogg's was a major sponsor of Adventures of Superman throughout most of the 1950s. Many of the Frosted Flakes commercials featuring the show's star George Reeves are available on the DVD release of the series' first season. Frosted Flakes is a sponsor of Challenger Sports British Soccer Camps. From the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s, Frosted Flakes was a sponsor of children's programming on PBS, including Sagwa, Dragon Tales and Barney and Friends. In Canada and the United States: Frosted Rice, a crisped rice variant introduced in 1977, similar to Frosted Rice Krispies and Ricicles. Featured a younger, similar mascot named Tony Jr. Birthday Confetti Frosted Flakes, a 1997 cake-flavored version. Discontinued in 1997. Cocoa Frosted Flakes, a 1997 cocoa-flavored version.
Discontinued in 2000. Tony's a 2003 cinnamon-flavored variant. Discontinued around 2005. Whole Grain Tiger Power, a 2005 version with added protein and calcium similar to Start. Discontinued in 2006. Tony's Turboz, a 2005 meal replacement variant similar to Whole Grain Tiger Power, available only in Canada. Frosted Flakes Gold, a 2008 honey-flavored variant. Frosted Flakes Chocolate, a 2011 chocolate-flavored version. Reintroduced in 2013. Banana Frosted Flakes, a variant with flakes containing banana introduced in 1981. Discontinued in 1984. Cinnamon Frosted Flakes, a 2016 cinnamon flavored version. Banana Creme Frosted Flakes, a limited edition banana creme flavored version introduced in 2019. In the UK and Ireland: Toffee Flavoured Frosties - Frosties with the taste of toffee Frosties Chocolate - Frosties with the taste of chocolate (Tony - New Kelloggs Frosties Chocolate, discover the dark side! Frosties Stripes - Frosties in the shape of thunderbolt symbols Reduced Sugar Frosties - Frosties with a third less sugar than regular FrostiesIn Brazil and Sweden: Sucrilhos Sabor Chocolate, chocolate-flavoured Frosted Flakes.
Sucrilhos Sabor Banana, banana-flavoured Frosted Flakes. Sucrilhos Power, chocolate-flavoured puffs, as opposed to flakes. In Argentina: Zucaritas Frutilla, strawberry-flavoured Frosted Flakes. Choco Zucaritas, chocolate-flavoured Frosted Flakes. In Mexico: Choco Zucaritas, chocolate-flavoured Frosted Flakes. In Colombia: Zucaritas Arequipe, caramel-flavoured Frosted Flakes. Zucaritas Power Balls, Sphere-shaped Frosted Flakes. Frosties received 2 stars out of 5 on the Australian Government's health star ratings. Official website of Frosted Flakes Official website of Frosties Advert on The Link Portal