Corned beef

Corned beef is salt-cured brisket of beef. The term comes from the treatment of the meat with large-grained rock salt called "corns" of salt. Sometimes and spices are added to corned beef recipes. Corned beef is featured as an ingredient in many cuisines. Most recipes include nitrates or nitrites, which convert the natural myoglobin in steak to nitrosomyoglobin, giving it a pink color. Nitrates and nitrites reduce the risk of dangerous botulism during curing by inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum bacteria spores, but have been shown to be linked to increased cancer risk. Beef cured without nitrates or nitrites has a gray color, is sometimes called "New England corned beef". Corned beef was popular during both World Wars, it remains popular in Canada and the U. S. as an ingredient in a variety of deli-type dishes, as a modern field rations of various armed forces across the world. Although the exact beginnings of corned beef are unknown, it most came about when people began preserving meat through salt-curing.

Evidence of its legacy is apparent in numerous cultures, including ancient Europe and the Middle East. The word corn is used to describe any small, hard particles or grains. In the case of corned beef, the word may refer to the granular salts used to cure the beef; the word "corned" may refer to the corns of potassium nitrate known as saltpeter, which were used to preserve the meat. Although the practice of curing beef was found locally in many cultures, the industrial production of corned beef started in the British Industrial Revolution. Irish corned beef was used and traded extensively from the 17th century to the mid-19th century for British civilian consumption and as provisions for the British naval fleets and North American armies due to its nonperishable nature; the product was traded to the French for use in Caribbean sugar plantations as sustenance for the colonists and the slave laborers. The 17th-century British industrial processes for corned beef did not distinguish between different cuts of beef beyond the tough and undesirable parts such as the beef necks and shanks.

Rather, the grading was done by the weight of the cattle into "small beef", "cargo beef", "best mess beef", the former being the worst and the latter the best. Much of the undesirable portions and lower grades were traded to the French, while better parts were saved for British consumption or shipped to British colonies. Ireland produced a significant amount of the corned beef in the Atlantic trade from local cattle and salt imported from the Iberian Peninsula and southwestern France. Coastal cities, such as Dublin and Cork, created vast beef curing and packing industries, with Cork producing half of Ireland's annual beef exports in 1668. Although the production and trade of corned beef as a commodity was a source of great wealth for the colonial nations of Britain and France, in the colonies themselves, the product was looked upon with disdain due to its association with poverty and slavery. Increasing corned beef production to satisfy the rising populations of the industrialised areas of Great Britain and Atlantic trade worsened the effects of the Irish Famine and the Great Potato Famine: The Celtic grazing lands of... Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries.

The British colonized... the Irish, transforming much of their countryside into an extended grazing land to raise cattle for a hungry consumer market at home... The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of... Ireland. Pushed off the best pasture land and forced to farm smaller plots of marginal land, the Irish turned to the potato, a crop that could be grown abundantly in less favorable soil. Cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population dependent on the potato for survival. Despite being a major producer of beef, most of the people of Ireland during this period consumed little of the meat produced, in either fresh or salted form, due to its prohibitive cost; this was because most of the farms and its produce were owned by wealthy Anglo-Irish who were absentee landlords and that most of the population were from families of poor tenant farmers, that most of the corned beef was exported. The lack of beef or corned beef in the Irish diet is true in the north of Ireland and areas away from the major centres for corned beef production.

However, individuals living in these production centres such as Cork did consume the product to a certain extent. The majority of Irish who resided in Ireland at the time consumed dairy products and meats such as pork or salt pork and cabbage being a notable example of a traditional Irish snack. Corned beef became a less important commodity in 19th-century Atlantic trade, due in part to the abolition of slavery, but corned beef production and its canned form remained an important food source during the Second World War. Much of the canned corned beef came from Fray Bentos in Uruguay, with over 16 million cans exported in 1943. Now, significant amounts of the global canned corned beef supply comes from South America. Today, around 80% of the global canned corned beef supply originates from Brazil. In North America, corned beef dishes are associated with traditional Irish cuisine. However, considerable debate remains about the association of corned beef with Ireland. Mark Kurlansky, in his book Salt, states that the Irish produced a salted beef around the Middle Ages, the "forerunner of what today is known as Irish corned beef" and in the 17th century, the English named the Irish salted beef "corned beef".

Some say until the wave of 19th-century Irish immigration to the

Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762)

The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement of 1762 in which France ceded Louisiana to Spain. The treaty followed the last battle in the French and Indian War in North America, the Battle of Signal Hill in September 1762, which confirmed British control of Canada. In Europe, the associated Seven Years' War continued to rage. Having lost Canada, King Louis XV of France proposed to King Charles III of Spain that France should give Spain "the country known as Louisiana, as well as New Orleans and the island in which the city is situated." Charles accepted on November 13, 1762. This agreement covered all of Louisiana: the entire valley of the Mississippi River, from the Appalachians to the Rockies; the Treaty of Fontainebleau was kept secret during the French negotiation and signing of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war with Britain. The Treaty of Paris, made between France and Great Britain following the Seven Years' War, divided Louisiana at the Mississippi; the eastern half was ceded to Britain, the western half and New Orleans were nominally retained by France.

Spain did not contest Britain's control of eastern Louisiana, as it knew that it would rule in western Louisiana. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain had ceded Florida to Britain for which western Louisiana was its compensation; the Treaty of Paris provided a period of 18 months in which French colonists who did not want to live under British rule could emigrate to other French colonies. Many of the emigrants moved to Louisiana, where they discovered that France had ceded Louisiana to Spain; the cession to Spain was revealed in 1764. In a letter dated April 21, 1764, Louis informed the governor, Jean-Jacques Blaise D'Abbadie, of the transition: Hoping, that His Catholic Majesty will be pleased to give his subjects of Louisiana the marks of protection and good will which only the misfortunes of war have prevented from being more effectual; the colonists in western Louisiana did not accept the transition and expelled the first Spanish governor in the Rebellion of 1768. Alejandro O'Reilly, an Irish émigré, suppressed the rebellion and formally raised the Spanish flag in 1769.

The acquisition of Louisiana consolidated the Spanish Empire in North America. When Great Britain returned Florida to Spain in 1783, after the American Revolutionary War, Spanish territory encircled the Gulf of Mexico and stretched from Florida west to the Pacific Ocean, north to Canada west of the Mississippi River

Engel classification

To classify postoperative outcomes for epilepsy surgery, Jerome Engel proposed the following scheme, the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale, which has become the de facto standard when reporting results in the medical literature: Class I: Free of disabling seizures Class II: Rare disabling seizures Class III: Worthwhile improvement Class IV: No worthwhile improvement Surgery for epilepsy patients has been used for over a century, but due to technological restrictions and insufficient knowledge of brain surgery, this treatment approach was rare until the 1980s and 90s. Prior to the 1980s, no classification system existed due to the lack of operations performed up until the time; as surgery as a treatment grew more prevalent, a classification system became a necessity. The appropriate evaluation of patients following epilepsy surgery is important, as medical professionals must know the appropriate course of action to follow in order to achieve seizure freedom for patients. Accordingly, the Engel classification guidelines were devised by UCLA neurologist Jerome Engel Jr. in 1987 and made public at the 1992 Palm Desert Conference on Epilepsy Surgery.

The Engel classification system has since become the standard in reporting postoperative outcomes of epilepsy surgery. In Engel's 1993 summary of the 1992 Palm Desert Conference on Epilepsy Surgery, he annotated his classification system with more detail; the annotation was as follows: Class I: Seizure free or no more than a few early, nondisabling seizures. While many have noted the disadvantages of a classification system where the patients are involved in determining the evaluation, others have praised it. Proponents of the Engel classification guidelines argue that the patients are best able to perceive the worth of the operation because they are the ones experiencing the seizures before and after the treatment; as is the case for all current methods of reviewing epilepsy surgery outcomes, the Engel classification system has subjective components. A "disabling seizure" can vary in definition from person to person. While one epileptic experiencing a seizure when driving a car may find the seizure "disabling," the same magnitude of seizure may be interpreted as mild, thus "nondisabling," by an epileptic resting in bed.

Every class other than class I is subjective because there is no quantitative definition of what determines a rare occurrence or method to measure worthwhileness. One doctor and patient may consider 2 seizures in a year as a rare occurrence while another doctor may consider 10 in a year as occurring; the worthwhileness of the operation is ambiguous because worth can be interpreted differently by various patients and healthcare professionals. Keeping those caveats in mind, most neurologists and neurosurgeons who specialize in epilepsy would most agree, as would many epileptics and laypeople, that any seizure that leads to a period of status epilepticus is a medical emergency, objectively a major problem, cannot be considered a satisfactory outcome. Continuing to have to endure a large number of tonic-clonic seizures over a period of days, months, or over the course of a year or two, would make it impossible to drive and hard to hold a job away from home entailing much stress, would pose limits on one's abilities to safely carry out the activities of daily living without at least some monitoring or assistance.

The Engel classification system has been thought of as a cross-sectional grading system by medical professionals because it does not account for long term changes in patients. It has been proposed that it would be more beneficial to reevaluate patients on an annual basis, the International League Against Epilepsy devised a separate rating scale in 2001 that reevaluates patients on every annual anniversary of their surgery; the ILAE developed their system in hopes of avoiding many of the subjective components found in the Engel system