Congee or conjee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular in many Asian countries. When eaten as plain rice congee, it is most served with side dishes; when additional ingredients such as meat and flavorings are added while preparing the congee, it is most served as a meal on its own for persons who are ill. Names for congee are as varied as the style of its preparation. Despite its many variations, it is a thick porridge of rice disintegrated after prolonged cooking in water; the word congee comes from a prominent food of ancient Tamil people. The English form may have arrived in the language via Portuguese traders; the food may have its origins attributed to Koozh, a porridge made of millet,that was the staple dish of the ancient Tamil people. In East Asia during ancient times, people named the watery one chi or mi; the characteristics of congee are that it is easy to digest and simple to cook. Congee has thousands of years of history in China; the Book of Zhou says "Emperor Huangdi was first to cook congee with millet", which may be the earliest record of congee.
In other Asian cultures, it is called hsan pyok, kanji, kaṇhji, baw baw, muay, zhōu, cháo, jok or khao tom, kayu, lúgaw, Bubur or kanji, jaulo or jaou, which derives directly from the Chinese character 粥, canja. To prepare the dish, rice is boiled in a large amount of water. Congee can be made in a rice cooker; some rice cookers have a "congee" setting. The type of rice used can be either short- or long-grain, depending on what is available and regional cultural influences. Culture often dictates the way congee is cooked and eaten. In some cultures, congee is eaten as a breakfast food or late supper, it is considered suitable for the sick as a mild digestible food. In Burma, rice congee is called ဆန်ပြုတ် hsan byok "boiled rice", it is thin and plain porridge made with just rice and water, but sometimes with chicken or pork stock and served with a simple garnish of chopped spring onions and crispy fried onions. As in other Asian countries, rice congee is considered food for the unwell. While congee is a staple breakfast dish in China, it is called congee only in Guangdong, is known by other local names such as báizhōu in Central and Northern China.
Chinese congees vary by region. For example, to make Cantonese congee, white rice is boiled in many times its weight of water for a long time until the rice breaks down and becomes a thick, white porridge. Congees made in other regions may use different types of rice with different quantities of water, producing congees of different consistencies. Congee is eaten with zhacai, salted duck eggs and dace paste, bamboo shoots, rousong, pickled tofu, wheat gluten, with other condiments, meat or century eggs. Other seasonings, such as white pepper and soy sauce, may be added. Grilled fish may be mixed in to provide a different texture. Congee is eaten with fried bread sticks known as youtiao. Congee with youtiao is eaten as breakfast in many areas in China. Congee can be left watery, or can be drained so it has a texture similar to Western oatmeal porridge. Congee can be made from brown rice, although this is less common and takes longer to cook. Besides being an everyday meal, congee is considered to be food therapy for the unwell.
Ingredients can be determined by their supposed therapeutic value as well as flavor. The origin of congee is unknown, but from many historical accounts, it was served during times of famine, or when numerous patrons visited the temples, as a way to stretch the rice supply to feed more people. In China, congee has been used to feed young infants. However, the congee is not seasoned with any other flavoring, it is mixed with steamed and deboned fish. Congee made from other grains, such as cornmeal, millet and sorghum, are common in the north of China where rice does not grow as well as other grains suited for a colder climate. Multigrain congee mixes are sold in the health food sections of Chinese supermarkets. Congee with mung beans is eaten with sugar, like red bean congee. A village called Lingshuicun to the West of Beijing celebrates Liu Maoheng, a Qing-era Juren who helped villagers during a period of famine, through the autumn porridge festival; the Autumn porridge festival is eating congee on that day together, the meaning is that the villagers pray for everything to go smoothly and to build a good relationship with the neighborhood.
In Cambodia, បបរ congee in Khmer, is one of the options for breakfast along with Kuy teav noodle soup another popular Cambodian breakfast dish. Bobar is eaten throughout Cambodia from the countryside to the city. Bobar can be eaten plain or with a variety of side dishes and toppings such as soy sauce, added to enhance taste eaten with dried salted fish or chhakhvay. There are two main versions of bobar, plain congee, chicken congee, rice soup; the chicken rice soup, Bobor Sach Mon, is the same as bobar but is filled with more herbs and chicken. Us
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
Uganda the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken including Runyoro, Rukiga and Lusoga. The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential term limits and the presidential age limit, becoming president for life. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms.
Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.
Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.
The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that had roots in the Catholic Church. The bitterness between these two parties was intense especiall
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder
Mantou referred to as Chinese steamed bun, is a type of cloud-like steamed bread or bun popular in Northern China. Folk etymology connects the name mantou to a tale about Zhuge Liang. Mantou are eaten as a staple food in northern parts of China where wheat, rather than rice, is grown, they are made with milled wheat flour and leavening agents. In size and texture, they range from 4 centimetres and fluffy in the most elegant restaurants, to over 15 centimetres and dense for the working man's lunch; as white flour, being more processed, was once more expensive, white mantou were something of a luxury in pre-industrial China. Traditionally, mantou and wheat noodles were the staple carbohydrates of the northern Chinese diet, analogous to rice, which forms the mainstay of the southern Chinese diet, they are known in the south, but are served as street food or a restaurant dish, rather than as a staple or home cooking. Restaurant mantou are smaller and more delicate and can be further manipulated, for example, by deep frying and dipping in sweetened condensed milk.
They are sold pre-cooked in the frozen section of Asian supermarkets, ready for preparation by steaming or heating in the microwave oven. A similar food, but with a savory or sweet filling inside, is baozi. Mantou is the older word, in some regions mantou can be used to indicate both the filled and unfilled buns, while in Japan the equivalent local reading of the word refers only to filled buns. Mantou may have originated in the Qin State of the Zhou Dynasty during the reign of King Zhaoxiang. Mantou as well as other wheat derived foodstuffs such as noodles and Baozi became popular during the Han Dynasty and collectively were known as 餅. During the Western Jin dynasty, Shu Xi wrote about steamed cakes in his "Ode to boiled cakes", written around 300 CE, he first called them mantou. In this book, it was advised to eat this in a banquet during the approach of spring; the Mongols are thought to have taken the filled style of mantou to many countries of Central and East Asia about the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The name mantou is cognate to manty and mantı. A popular Chinese legend relates that the name mantou originated from the homophonous word mántóu, which means "barbarian's head"; the legend was set in the Three Kingdoms period when Zhuge Liang, the Chancellor of the state of Shu Han, led the Shu army on a campaign against Nanman forces in the southern lands of Shu, which correspond to present-day Yunnan and northern Myanmar. After subduing the Nanman king Meng Huo, Zhuge Liang led the army back to Shu, but met a swift-flowing river which defied all attempts to cross it. A barbarian lord informed him that in olden days, the barbarians would sacrifice 50 men and throw their heads into the river to appease the river deity and allow them to cross; as Zhuge Liang did not want to cause any more of his men to lose their lives, he ordered his men to slaughter the livestock the army brought along, fill their meat into buns shaped like human heads. The buns were thrown into the river. After a successful crossing, he named the bun "barbarian's head".
Another version of the story relates back to Zhuge Liang's southern campaign when he instructed that his soldiers who had fallen sick from diarrhea and other illnesses in the swampy region be fed with steamed buns with meat or sweet fillings. Prior to the Song dynasty, the word mantou meant unfilled buns; the term baozi arose in the Song dynasty to indicate filled buns only. As a result, mantou came to indicate only unfilled buns in Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese. In many areas, mantou still retains its meaning of filled buns. In the Jiangnan region where Wu Chinese is spoken, it means both filled and unfilled buns. In Shanxi, where Jin Chinese is spoken, unfilled buns are called momo, the character for "steamed bun"; the name momo spread to Tibet and Nepal and now refers to filled buns or dumplings. The name mantou is cognate to manty and mantı. In Japan, manjū indicates filled buns, which traditionally contain bean paste or minced meat-vegetable mixture. Filled mantou are called siyopaw in Philippine derived from Chinese shāobāo.
In Thailand, they called filled mantou as "salapao". In Korea, mandu can refer to both jiaozi. In Mongolian cuisine, manty or mantu are steamed dumplings and a steamed variation is said to have led to the Korean mandu. In Singapore, the dish chilli crab is served with a fried version of mantou. Chinese Steamed Bun 饅頭
A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something a culinary dish. It is used in medicine or in information technology. A doctor will begin a prescription with recipe, Latin for take abbreviated to Rx or an equivalent symbol; the earliest known written recipes date from 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia. There are works in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs depicting the preparation of food. Many ancient Greek recipes are known. Mithaecus's cookbook was an early one. Athenaeus mentions many other cookbooks, all of them lost. Roman recipes are known starting in the 2nd century BCE with Cato the Elder's De Agri Cultura. Many authors of this period described eastern Mediterranean cooking in Latin; some Punic recipes are known in Latin translation. The large collection of recipes De re coquinaria, conventionally titled Apicius, appeared in the 4th or 5th century and is the only complete surviving cookbook from the classical world, it lists the courses served in a meal as Primae Mensae and Secundae Mensae.
Each recipe begins with the Latin command "Take..." "Recipe...."Arabic recipes are documented starting in the 10th century. The earliest recipe in Persian dates from the 14th century. Several recipes have survived from the time of Safavids, including Karnameh by Mohammad Ali Bavarchi, which includes the cooking instruction of more than 130 different dishes and pastries, Madat-ol-Hayat by Nurollah Ashpaz. Recipe books from the Qajar period are numerous, the most notable being Khorak-ha-ye Irani by prince Nader Mirza. King Richard II of England commissioned a recipe book called Forme of Cury in 1390, around the same time, another book was published entitled Curye on Inglish, "cury" meaning cooking. Both books give an impression of how food for the noble classes was prepared and served in England at that time; the luxurious taste of the aristocracy in the Early Modern Period brought with it the start of what can be called the modern recipe book. By the 15th century, numerous manuscripts were appearing detailing the recipes of the day.
Many of these manuscripts give good information and record the re-discovery of many herbs and spices including coriander, parsley and rosemary, many of, brought back from the Crusades. With the advent of the printing press in the 16th and 17th centuries, numerous books were written on how to manage households and prepare food. In Holland and England, competition grew between the noble families as to who could prepare the most lavish banquet. By the 1660s, cookery progressed to an art form and good cooks were in demand. Many families published their own books detailing their recipes in competition with their rivals. Many of these books are available online. By the 19th century, the Victorian preoccupation for domestic respectability brought about the emergence of cookery writing in its modern form. Although eclipsed in fame and regard by Isabella Beeton, the first modern cookery writer and compiler of recipes for the home was Eliza Acton, her pioneering cookbook, Modern Cookery for Private Families published in 1845, was aimed at the domestic reader rather than the professional cook or chef.
This was immensely influential. It introduced the now-universal practice of listing the ingredients and suggested cooking times with each recipe, it included the first recipe for Brussels sprouts. Contemporary chef Delia Smith called Acton "the best writer of recipes in the English language." Modern Cookery long survived Acton, remaining in print until 1914 and available more in facsimile. Acton's work was an important influence on Isabella Beeton, who published Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management in 24 monthly parts between 1857 and 1861; this was a guide to running a Victorian household, with advice on fashion, child care, animal husbandry, the management of servants, science and industrialism. Of the 1,112 pages, over 900 contained recipes. Most were illustrated with coloured engravings, it is said that many of the recipes were plagiarised from earlier writers such as Acton, but the Beetons never claimed that the book's contents were original. It was intended as a reliable guide for the aspirant middle classes.
The American cook Fannie Farmer published in 1896 her famous work The Boston Cooking School Cookbook which contained some 1,849 recipes. Modern culinary recipes consist of several components The name of the recipe Yield: The number of servings that the dish provides. List all ingredients in the order of its use. Describe it in step by step instructions. Listing ingredients by the quantity. How much time does it take to prepare the dish, plus cooking time for the dish. Necessary equipment used for the dish. Cooking procedures. Temperature and bake time if necessary. Serving procedures. Review of the dish. Photograph of the dish. Nutritional Value: Helps for dietary restrictions. Includes number of calories or grams per serving. Earlier recipes included much less information, serving more as a reminder of ingredients and proportions for someone who knew how to prepare the dish. Recipe writers sometimes list variations of a traditional dish, to give different tastes of the same recipes. By the mid 20th century, there were thousands of recipe books available.
The next revolution came with the
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat