A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy, is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, change, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. It is traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, or the causal argument.. Whichever term is employed, there are three basic variants of the argument, each with subtle yet important distinctions: the arguments from in causa, in esse, in fieri; the basic premises of all of these are the concept of causality. The conclusion of these arguments is first cause, subsequently deemed to be God; the history of this argument goes back to Aristotle or earlier, was developed in Neoplatonism and early Christianity and in medieval Islamic theology during the 9th to 12th centuries, re-introduced to medieval Christian theology in the 13th century by Thomas Aquinas. The cosmological argument is related to the principle of sufficient reason as addressed by Gottfried Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, itself a modern exposition of the claim that "nothing comes from nothing" attributed to Parmenides.
Contemporary defenders of cosmological arguments include William Lane Craig, Robert Koons, Alexander Pruss, William L. Rowe. Plato and Aristotle both posited first cause arguments. In The Laws, Plato posited that all movement in the world and the Cosmos was "imparted motion"; this required a "self-originated motion" to maintain it. In Timaeus, Plato posited a "demiurge" of supreme wisdom and intelligence as the creator of the Cosmos. Aristotle argued against the idea of a first cause confused with the idea of a "prime mover" or "unmoved mover" in his Physics and Metaphysics. Aristotle argued in favor of the idea of several unmoved movers, one powering each celestial sphere, which he believed lived beyond the sphere of the fixed stars, explained why motion in the universe had continued for an infinite period of time. Aristotle argued the atomist's assertion of a non-eternal universe would require a first uncaused cause – in his terminology, an efficient first cause – an idea he considered a nonsensical flaw in the reasoning of the atomists.
Like Plato, Aristotle believed in an eternal cosmos with no end. In what he called "first philosophy" or metaphysics, Aristotle did intend a theological correspondence between the prime mover and deity. According to his theses, immaterial unmoved movers are eternal unchangeable beings that think about thinking, but being immaterial, they are incapable of interacting with the cosmos and have no knowledge of what transpires therein. From an "aspiration or desire", the celestial spheres, imitate that purely intellectual activity as best they can, by uniform circular motion; the unmoved movers inspiring the planetary spheres are no different in kind from the prime mover, they suffer a dependency of relation to the prime mover. Correspondingly, the motions of the planets are subordinate to the motion inspired by the prime mover in the sphere of fixed stars. Aristotle's natural theology admitted no creation or capriciousness from the immortal pantheon, but maintained a defense against dangerous charges of impiety.
Plotinus, a third-century Platonist, taught that the One transcendent absolute caused the universe to exist as a consequence of its existence. His disciple Proclus stated "The One is God". Centuries the Islamic philosopher Avicenna inquired into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence and existence, he argued that the fact of existence could not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, that form and matter by themselves could not originate and interact with the movement of the Universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Thus, he reasoned that existence must be due to an agent cause that necessitates, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing. Steven Duncan writes that it "was first formulated by a Greek-speaking Syriac Christian neo-Platonist, John Philoponus, who claims to find a contradiction between the Greek pagan insistence on the eternity of the world and the Aristotelian rejection of the existence of any actual infinite".
Referring to the argument as the "'Kalam' cosmological argument", Duncan asserts that it "received its fullest articulation at the hands of Muslim and Jewish exponents of Kalam. Thomas Aquinas adapted and enhanced the argument he found in his reading of Aristotle and Avicenna to form one of the most influential versions of the cosmological argument, his conception of First Cause was the idea that the Universe must be caused by something, itself uncaused, which he claimed is that which we call God: The second way is from the nature of the efficient cause. In the world of sense we find. There is no case known in. Now in efficient cau
The Boss SP-303 Dr. Sample is a discontinued digital sampler from Boss, based upon the Roland MS-1 Digital Sampler and Boss SP-202 Dr. Sample; the SP-303 was revamped and redesigned in 2005, released as the SP-404. While the SP-303 Dr. Sample may lack some of the features seen on other hip hop production samplers such as the Ensoniq ASR-10, the Akai MPC, SP installments, it however has many other unique features that make up for that; the sampler provides up to twelve seconds of sampling. The sample time can be expanded by the use of SmartMedia cards; the SP-303 features twenty-six internal effects that can be applied to samples and external sources as well. Another notable feature is the built-in pattern sequencer, where loops and patterns can be programmed; the SP-303 is praised by various musicians for its unique sound qualities. Frequent SP-303 user Dibiase said of the sampler, "The difference between the 303 and SP-404 is that the vinyl sound compression sounds way different in the 303, it has a grittier sound."
The sampler has been used live and in the studio by artists such as Animal Collective, Panda Bear, Four Tet, Madlib and J Dilla. Dilla famously used only the SP-303 and a 45 record player to create 29 of the 31 tracks from Donuts while hospitalized. Boss SP-202 BOSS SP-303 Dr. Sample | Vintage Synth Explorer BOSS Global Official site Boss SP-303 Sound On Sound review SP-Forums.com - An active forum dedicated to Roland's SP range
Rocket Science is a BBC television documentary series, first broadcast in March 2009 on BBC Two, exploring new ways to teach science to children. Across the UK, fewer and fewer youngsters want to study chemistry and physics, so with the help of physics teacher Andy Smith, Rocket Science sets out to convert a small sample by teaching them everything safe there is to know about fireworks; the series was filmed over a period of nine months. Andy Smith won the secondary school teacher of the year for the north west region in 2005, he has filmed shows for the digital channel Teacher's TV. He is a big Doctor Who fan and has assisted in many conventions in which previous stars of the series attend, notably the Who in the Cavern, which raises money for the Liverpool children's hospital Alder Hey, he once famously presided over a quiz between fifth doctor Peter Davison and sixth doctor Colin Baker. Rocket Science at BBC Programmes Homepage of the director Andy Robbins with more information about the documentary: http://www.andyrobbins.info