SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cosmology

Cosmology is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to today and on into the future. It is the scientific study of the origin and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe's origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, its ultimate fate, as well as the laws of science that govern these areas; the term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount's Glossographia, in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis. Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, philosophers of space and time; because of this shared scope with philosophy, theories in physical cosmology may include both scientific and non-scientific propositions, may depend upon assumptions that cannot be tested.

Cosmology differs from astronomy in that the former is concerned with the Universe as a whole while the latter deals with individual celestial objects. Modern physical cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics. Theoretical astrophysicist David N. Spergel has described cosmology as a "historical science" because "when we look out in space, we look back in time" due to the finite nature of the speed of light. Physics and astrophysics have played a central role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. Physical cosmology was shaped through both mathematics and observation in an analysis of the whole universe; the universe is understood to have begun with the Big Bang, followed instantaneously by cosmic inflation. Cosmogony studies the origin of the Universe, cosmography maps the features of the Universe. In Diderot's Encyclopédie, cosmology is broken down into uranology, aerology and hydrology.

Metaphysical cosmology has been described as the placing of humans in the universe in relationship to all other entities. This is exemplified by Marcus Aurelius's observation that a man's place in that relationship: "He who does not know what the world is does not know where he is, he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is." Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and evolution of the Universe. It includes the study of the nature of the Universe on a large scale. In its earliest form, it was, the study of the heavens. Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories; the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the prevailing theory until the 16th century when Nicolaus Copernicus, subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, proposed a heliocentric system. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology.

Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, was the first description of the law of universal gravitation. It provided a physical mechanism for Kepler's laws and allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton's cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle—that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies; this was a crucial philosophical advance in physical cosmology. Modern scientific cosmology is considered to have begun in 1917 with Albert Einstein's publication of his final modification of general relativity in the paper "Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity". General relativity prompted cosmogonists such as Willem de Sitter, Karl Schwarzschild, Arthur Eddington to explore its astronomical ramifications, which enhanced the ability of astronomers to study distant objects. Physicists unchanging. In 1922 Alexander Friedmann introduced the idea of an expanding universe that contained moving matter.

Around the same time the Great Debate took place, with early cosmologists such as Heber Curtis and Ernst Öpik determining that some nebulae seen in telescopes were separate galaxies far distant from our own. In parallel to this dynamic approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. Mount Wilson astronomer Harlow Shapley championed the model of a cosmos made up of the Milky Way star system only; this difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate on 26 April 1920 at the meeting of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D. C; the debate was resolved when Edwin Hubble detected Cepheid Variables in the Andromeda Galaxy in 1923 and 1924. Their distance established spiral nebulae well beyond the edge of the Milky Way. S

Moehringia lateriflora

Moehringia lateriflora known as the bluntleaf sandwort, is a plant species native to Europe, the northern United States and most of Canada. It has been reported from every province and territory in Canada except the Northwest Territories, as well as every state in the northern half of the US, including Alaska, plus New Mexico and from Saint Pierre & Miquelon, it is reported from Russia, Korea, Japan, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Ukraine. Moehringia lateriflora is a perennial herb spreading by means of underground rhizomes forming large colonies. Aerial stems are up to 30 cm long, covered with retrorse hairs. Leaves are broad, up to 35 mm long. Flowers occur singly or in groups of 2-5. Petals are white, up to 6 mm long twice as long as the sepals

Parkinson plus syndrome

Parkinson-plus syndromes is a group of neurodegenerative diseases featuring the classical features of Parkinson's disease with additional features that distinguish them from simple idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Some consider Alzheimer's disease to be in this group. Parkinson-plus syndromes occur sporadically. Atypical parkinsonism, other Parkinson-plus syndromes are difficult to differentiate from PD and each other, they include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration. Dementia with Lewy bodies, may or may not be part of the PD spectrum, but it is recognized as the second-most common type of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease; these disorders are lumped into two groups, the synucleinopathies and the tauopathies. They may coexist with other pathologies. Additional Parkinson-plus syndromes include Pick's olivopontocerebellar atrophy; the latter is characterized by ataxia and dysarthria, may occur either as an inherited disorder or as a variant of multiple system atrophy.

MSA is characterized by autonomic failure known as Shy–Drager syndrome. Clinical features that distinguish Parkinson-plus syndromes from idiopathic PD include symmetrical onset, a lack of or irregular resting tremor, a reduced response to dopaminergic drugs. Additional features include bradykinesia, early-onset postural instability, increased rigidity in axial muscles, alien limb syndrome, supranuclear gaze palsy, involvement of the cerebellum including the pyramidal cells, in some instances significant cognitive impairment. Accurate diagnosis of these Parkinson-plus syndromes is improved when precise diagnostic criteria are used. Since diagnosis of individual Parkinson-plus syndromes is difficult, the prognosis is poor. Proper diagnosis of these neurodegenerative disorders is important as individual treatments vary depending on the condition; the nuclear medicine SPECT procedure using 123I‑iodobenzamide, is an effective tool in the establishment of the differential diagnosis between patients with PD and Parkinson-plus syndromes.

Parkinson-plus syndromes are more progressive and less to respond to antiparkinsonian medication than PD. However, the additional features of the diseases may respond to medications not used in PD. Current therapy for Parkinson-plus syndromes is centered around a multidisciplinary treatment of symptoms; these disorders have been linked to pesticide exposure. Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17