Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, between potentiality and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together mean "after or behind or among the natural", it has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century AD editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics. Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist and what types of existence there are. Metaphysics seeks to answer, in an abstract and general manner, the questions: What is there? What is it like? Topics of metaphysical investigation include existence and their properties and time, cause and effect, possibility. Metaphysical study is conducted using deduction from that, known a priori. Like foundational mathematics, it tries to give a coherent account of the structure of the world, capable of explaining our everyday and scientific perception of the world, being free from contradictions.
In mathematics, there are many different ways. While metaphysics may, as a special case, study the entities postulated by fundamental science such as atoms and superstrings, its core topic is the set of categories such as object and causality which those scientific theories assume. For example: claiming that "electrons have charge" is a scientific theory. There are two broad stances about; the strong, classical view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist independently of any observer, so that the subject is the most fundamental of all sciences. The weak, modern view assumes that the objects studied by metaphysics exist inside the mind of an observer, so the subject becomes a form of introspection and conceptual analysis; some philosophers, notably Kant, discuss both of these "worlds" and what can be inferred about each one. Some, such as the logical positivists, many scientists, reject the strong view of metaphysics as meaningless and unverifiable. Others reply that this criticism applies to any type of knowledge, including hard science, which claims to describe anything other than the contents of human perception, thus that the world of perception is the objective world in some sense.
Metaphysics itself assumes that some stance has been taken on these questions and that it may proceed independently of the choice—the question of which stance to take belongs instead to another branch of philosophy, epistemology. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as the core of metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, subdivided according to similarities and differences. Identity is a fundamental metaphysical concern. Metaphysicians investigating identity are tasked with the question of what it means for something to be identical to itself, or – more controversially – to something else. Issues of identity arise in the context of time: what does it mean for something to be itself across two moments in time? How do we account for this? Another question of identity arises when we ask what our criteria ought to be for determining identity, how the reality of identity interfaces with linguistic expressions.
The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the Mind–body problem, personal identity and law. A few ancient Greeks took extreme positions on the nature of change. Parmenides denied change altogether, while Heraclitus argued that change was ubiquitous: "No man steps in the same river twice." Identity, sometimes called numerical identity, is the relation that a thing bears to itself, which no thing bears to anything other than itself. A modern philosopher who made a lasting impact on the philosophy of identity was Leibniz, whose Law of the Indiscernibility of Identicals is still accepted today, it states that if some object x is identical to some object y any property that x has, y will have as well. Put formally, it states ∀ x ∀ y However, it does seem. If one were to look at a tree one day, the tree lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree. Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are perdurantism, which treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, endurantism, which maintains that the organism—the same tree—is present at every stage in its history.
By appealing to intrinsic and extrinsic properties, endurantism finds a way to harmonize identity with change. Endurantists believe that objects p
Phillip Ross Burrows is a field hockey player from New Zealand, who earned his first cap for the national team, nicknamed The Black Sticks, in January 2000. The striker is New Zealand's top field goal scorer and was named 2003 New Zealand Player of the Year. Since his debut, he has competed in over 120 international games for his country and appeared in three Summer Olympics: in 2004 in Athens, in 2008 in Beijing and in 2012 in London, he has played club hockey in The Netherlands since 2004 for Breda and since the summer of 2005, for HC Rotterdam. In the summer of 2010 he went to Braxgata in Belgium. In 2012 he returned to the Netherlands to play for HGC. 2000 – Sultan Azlan Shah Cup 2000 – Olympic Qualifying Tournament 2001 – World Cup Qualifier 2002 – World Cup 2002 – Commonwealth Games 2003 – Sultan Azlan Shah Cup 2003 – Champions Challenge 2004 – Olympic Qualifying Tournament 2004 – Olympic Games 2004 – Champions Trophy 2005 – Sultan Azlan Shah Cup 2006 – Commonwealth Games 2006 – World Cup Qualifier 2006 – World Cup 2007 – Champions Challenge 2008 – Olympic Games 2010 − Commonwealth Games 2012 – Olympic Games Phillip Burrows at the International Hockey Federation
Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong, of the Han Chinese Bordered Yellow Banner Lu clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 13 years his junior. Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong's personal name was not recorded in history. Father: Shilong Four brothers The future Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong was born on the 24th day of the sixth lunar month in the second year of the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, which translates to 12 August 1724 in the Gregorian calendar, it is not known when Lady Lu entered the Forbidden City and was granted the title "First Attendant" by the Qianlong Emperor. She was elevated on 8 May 1748 to "Noble Lady", on 30 July 1751 to "Concubine Qing", on 4 February 1760 to "Consort Qing". In 1765, she joined the Qianlong Emperor and his other consorts on an inspection tour to the southern Yangtze delta region. On 14 November 1768, she was elevated to "Noble Consort Qing", she was interred in the Yu Mausoleum of the Eastern Qing tombs. On 9 February 1796, the Qianlong Emperor abdicated in favour of his 15th son and became a Retired Emperor.
As the Jiaqing Emperor was raised by Lady Lu in his childhood, he felt grateful to her, so after the Qianlong Emperor died on 7 February 1799, he posthumously elevated her to "Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong". During the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor: Lady Lu During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor: First Attendant, seventh rank consort Noble Lady, sixth rank consort Concubine Qing, fifth rank consort Consort Qing, fourth rank consort Noble Consort Qing, third rank consort During the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor: Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong, second rank consort Portrayed by Au Oi-ling in The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty Portrayed by Yu Yang in Ruyi's Royal Love in the Harem Portrayed by Li Ruoning in Story of Yanxi Palace Ranks of imperial consorts in China#Qing Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Ho, Chuimei. Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong. Merrell. ISBN 1858942039. Zhao, Erxun. Draft History of Qing