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Cosmopolitan Productions

Cosmopolitan Productions often referred to as Cosmopolitan Pictures, was an American film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923 and Hollywood until 1938. Newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst formed Cosmopolitan in conjunction with Adolph Zukor of Paramount after Hearst's bid for entry into the motion picture business was rebuffed by United Artists; the advantage of Paramount having a production deal with Cosmopolitan was that they had the film rights to stories that had appeared in the wide variety of Hearst's magazines. These included Cosmopolitan magazine as well as Harpers Good Housekeeping, thus the stories arrived pre-sold to the public, who were familiar with them through reading them in Hearst's magazines. Hearst's magazines would advertise and promote his films. Cosmopolitan's first successful film was Humoresque, the first film to receive the Photoplay Medal of Honor. For its studio complex, Hearst acquired Sulzer's Harlem River Park and Casino at 126th Street and Second Avenue but a fire on February 18, 1923, destroyed the complex while shooting Little Old New York with Marion Davies, directed by Sidney Olcott.

The sets had been designed by Joseph Urban. Cosmopolitan promoted the career of Hearst's lover, actress Marion Davies, she appeared in 17 talking films with the company. Due to disagreements with Paramount in the distribution of the Cosmopolitan Pictures in block booking venues, Hearst left Paramount to have his films released by other studios. Starting in 1923, they were distributed or co-produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer until 1934 when a disagreement with Louis B. Mayer over the film Marie Antoinette led Cosmopolitan to go to Warner Bros. Robert G. Vignola was a director associated with Cosmopolitan Productions, he directed several films there, including the extravagant When Knighthood Was in Flower, which at a cost of $1.8 million, was the most expensive picture made. Director King Vidor made three comedies with Cosmopolitan: Show People, The Patsy and Not So Dumb, each starring Davies. One film without Davies was The Mask of Fu Manchu. Other important directors worked with Cosmopolitan, such as John Ford with Young Mr. Lincoln and Howard Hawks with Ceiling Zero.

Cosmopolitan Productions on IMDb

9-cube

In geometry, a 9-cube is a nine-dimensional hypercube with 512 vertices, 2304 edges, 4608 square faces, 5376 cubic cells, 4032 tesseract 4-faces, 2016 5-cube 5-faces, 672 6-cube 6-faces, 144 7-cube 7-faces, 18 8-cube 8-faces. It can be named by its Schläfli symbol, it is called an enneract, a portmanteau of tesseract and enne for nine in Greek. It can be called a regular octadeca-9-tope or octadecayotton, as a nine-dimensional polytope constructed with 18 regular facets, it is a part of an infinite family of called hypercubes. The dual of a 9-cube can be called a 9-orthoplex, is a part of the infinite family of cross-polytopes. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a 9-cube centered at the origin and edge length 2 are while the interior of the same consists of all points with −1 < xi < 1. Applying an alternation operation, deleting alternating vertices of the 9-cube, creates another uniform polytope, called a 9-demicube, which has 18 8-demicube and 256 8-simplex facets. H. S. M. Coxeter: Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8, p. 296, Table I: Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions H.

S. M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973, p. 296, Table I: Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H. S. M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript N. W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph. D. Klitzing, Richard. "9D uniform polytopes o3o3o3o3o3o3o3o4x - enne". Weisstein, Eric W. "Hypercube". MathWorld. Olshevsky, George. "Measure polytope". Glossary for Hyperspace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Multi-dimensional Glossary: hypercube Garrett Jones

Redundancy (engineering)

In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing. In many safety-critical systems, such as fly-by-wire and hydraulic systems in aircraft, some parts of the control system may be triplicated, formally termed triple modular redundancy. An error in one component may be out-voted by the other two. In a triply redundant system, the system has three sub components, all three of which must fail before the system fails. Since each one fails, the sub components are expected to fail independently, the probability of all three failing is calculated to be extraordinarily small. Redundancy may be known by the terms "majority voting systems" or "voting logic". Redundancy sometimes produces less, instead of greater reliability – it creates a more complex system, prone to various issues, it may lead to human neglect of duty, may lead to higher production demands which by overstressing the system may make it less safe.

In computer science, there are four major forms of redundancy, these are: Hardware redundancy, such as dual modular redundancy and triple modular redundancy Information redundancy, such as error detection and correction methods Time redundancy, performing the same operation multiple times such as multiple executions of a program or multiple copies of data transmitted Software redundancy such as N-version programmingA modified form of software redundancy, applied to hardware may be: Distinct functional redundancy, such as both mechanical and hydraulic braking in a car. Applied in the case of software, code written independently and distinctly different but producing the same results for the same inputs. Structures are designed with redundant parts as well, ensuring that if one part fails, the entire structure will not collapse. A structure without redundancy is called fracture-critical, meaning that a single broken component can cause the collapse of the entire structure. Bridges that failed due to lack of redundancy include the Silver Bridge and the Interstate 5 bridge over the Skagit River.

Parallel and combined systems demonstrate different level of redundancy. The models are subject of studies in safety engineering; the two functions of redundancy are passive active redundancy. Both functions prevent performance decline from exceeding specification limits without human intervention using extra capacity. Passive redundancy uses excess capacity to reduce the impact of component failures. One common form of passive redundancy is the extra strength of cabling and struts used in bridges; this extra strength allows some structural components to fail without bridge collapse. The extra strength used in the design is called the margin of safety. Eyes and ears provide working examples of passive redundancy. Vision loss in one eye does not cause blindness but depth perception is impaired. Hearing loss in one ear does not cause deafness but directionality is lost. Performance decline is associated with passive redundancy when a limited number of failures occur. Active redundancy eliminates performance declines by monitoring the performance of individual devices, this monitoring is used in voting logic.

The voting logic is linked to switching. Error detection and correction and the Global Positioning System are two examples of active redundancy. Electrical power distribution provides an example of active redundancy. Several power lines connect each generation facility with customers; each power line includes monitors. Each power line includes circuit breakers; the combination of power lines provides excess capacity. Circuit breakers disconnect a power line. Power is redistributed across the remaining lines. Charles Perrow, author of Normal Accidents, has said that sometimes redundancies backfire and produce less, not more reliability; this may happen in three ways: First, redundant safety devices result in a more complex system, more prone to errors and accidents. Second, redundancy may lead to shirking of responsibility among workers. Third, redundancy may lead to increased production pressures, resulting in a system that operates at higher speeds, but less safely. Voting logic uses performance monitoring to determine how to reconfigure individual components so that operation continues without violating specification limitations of the overall system.

Voting logic involves computers, but systems composed of items other than computers may be reconfigured using voting logic. Circuit breakers are an example of a form of non-computer voting logic. Electrical power systems use power scheduling to reconfigure active redundancy. Computing systems adjust the production output of each generating facility when other generating facilities are lost; this prevents blackout conditions during major events such as an earthquake. The simplest voting logic in computing systems involves two components: alternate, they both run similar software, but the output from the alternate remains inactive during normal operation. The primary monitors itself and periodically sends an activity message to the alternate as long as everything is OK. All outputs from the primary stop, including the activity message; the alternate activates its output and takes over from the primary after a brief delay when the activity message ceases. Errors in voting logic can cause both outputs to be active or inactive at the same time, or cause outputs to