The cosmos is the Universe. Using the word cosmos rather than the word universe implies viewing the universe as a complex and orderly system or entity; the cosmos, our understanding of the reasons for its existence and significance, are studied in cosmology – a broad discipline covering any scientific, religious, or philosophical contemplation of the cosmos and its nature, or reasons for existing. Religious and philosophical approaches may include in their concepts of the cosmos various spiritual entities or other matters deemed to exist outside our physical universe; the philosopher Pythagoras first used the term cosmos for the order of the universe. The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath Alexander von Humboldt resurrected the use of the word from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his five-volume treatise, which influenced modern and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity. Cosmology is the study of the cosmos, in its broadest sense covers a variety of different approaches: scientific and philosophical.

All cosmologies have in common an attempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. In this way, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology; when cosmology is used without a qualifier, it signifies physical cosmology, unless the context makes clear that a different meaning is intended. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe, from the beginning of its physical existence, it includes speculative concepts such as a multiverse. In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is used in a technical way, referring to a particular spacetime continuum within a multiverse. Our particular cosmos, the observable universe, is capitalized as the Cosmos. In physical cosmology, the uncapitalized term cosmic signifies a subject with a relationship to the universe, such as'cosmic time','cosmic rays', and'cosmic microwave background'. According to Charles Peter Mason in Sir William Smith Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Pythagoreans described the universe.

It appears, in fact, from this, as well as from the extant fragments, that the first book of the work contained a general account of the origin and arrangement of the universe. The second book appears to have been an exposition of the nature of numbers, which in the Pythagorean theory are the essence and source of all things. Cosmology is a branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe, a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe; the basic definition of Cosmology is the science of the development of the universe. In modern astronomy the Big Bang theory is the dominant postulation. In theology, the cosmos is the created heavenly bodies. In Christian theology, the word is used synonymously with aion to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" or "this age" as opposed to the afterlife or world to come; the 1870 book Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology noted Thales dogma that water is the origin of things, that is, that it is that out of which every thing arises, into which every thing resolves itself, Thales may have followed Orphic cosmogonies, unlike them, he sought to establish the truth of the assertion.

Hence, Aristotle after he has called him the originator of philosophy brings forward the reasons which Thales was believed to have adduced in confirmation of that assertion. Plato, describes the idea of the good, or the Godhead, sometimes teleologically, as the ultimate purpose of all conditioned existence; the book The Works of Aristotle mentioned Aristotle says the poet Orpheus never existed. Bertrand Russell noted; the intoxication that they sought was that of "enthusiasm," of union with the god. They believed themselves, in this way; this mystical element entered into Greek philosophy with Pythagoras, a reformer of Orphism as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus. From Pythagoras Orphic elements entered into the philosophy of Plato, from Plato into most philosophy, in any degree religious. Eastern and Western thought differed in their understanding of space and the organization of the cosmos; the Chinese saw the Cosmos as empty and intertwined with the Earth. Western ideas, based on the ancient Greeks' understanding of the cosmos, believed in a multi-planar divided cosmos, finite and filled with air.

Early Europeans viewed the cosmos as a divinely created, spatially finite, bifurcated cosmos, divided into sublunary and superlunary realms. Objects above the lunar sphere were believed to be stable, with heavenly bodies believed to

Ali Vâsib

Ali Vâsib was an Ottoman prince. From 1977 to his death in 1983, he was the 41st head of the Imperial House of Osman, an Ottoman royal dynasty. Much of his life was spent in exile. If reigning, he would have been Sultan Ali I. Vâsib was born in Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, Beşiktaş, the only son of Ahmed Nihad, the 38th head of the Imperial House of Osman and Her Highness, Safiru Hanım. Murad V, the 33rd head of the House of Osman, was Vâsib's great grandfather. On 24 April 1931 or on 30 November 1931, Vâsib married his distant cousin Emine Mukbile Sultan, at the Ruhl Hotel in Nice, the only daughter of Şehzade Ömer Hilmi and wife Gülnev Hanım. Emine Mukbile was the granddaughter of 35th head of the House of Osman. Vâsib had one son, Şehzade Osman Selaheddin Vâsib Osmanoğlu, educated at Victoria College, member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of London, Chartered Accountant, wife Athena Joy Hanım Christoforides, they have one daughter and grandchildren. Vasib was educated at the Harbiye Colleges in Istanbul.

He attained the rank of Lieutenant in the Ottoman army infantry. He achieved the the "Mecidi Nişan", 1st Class. Vasib spent his first year of life at the Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, Turkey. From 1876, the Ciragan palace served as a place of house arrest for his family. In that year, Murad was deposed from the role of Sultan by Abdülhamid; the restrictions imposed on the former Sultan and his family were not lifted until Murad's death in 1904. Vasib lived in Istanbul until March 1924. After the formation of the republic of Turkey in 1923 and the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate and the Caliphate in the following year and other members of his family were forced into exile, they left Istanbul from Sirkeci railway station. Vasib lived in Budapest before settling in Nice, France. Other family members moved to the South of France and to Italy, including Vahideddin, who went to San Remo; the travel documents issued by the Turkish Republic to the members of the House of Osman on their exile were valid for only one year.

Vasib intervened with the French government to obtain passports for them. Vasib made contact with the French minister, Count Castellane through General Toulouse and his son, Captain Toulouse, a friend; the French passports listed the family as having Ottoman nationality and acknowledged their imperial titles. In January 1935, Vasib moved to Egypt with his wife and her family. For the next 18 years, Vasib was the Director of the Antoniadis Palace, which served to accommodate foreign heads of state and dignitaries visiting Alexandria. Vasib was permitted to return to Turkey in 1974. From that time, he visited annually and his wife lived in a humble rented flat in the old part of the city near Sultan Ahmed Square. Vasib's memoirs have been published in Turkish. Vasib's son, Osman Selaheddin, transcribed the work from Ottoman Turkish script to present-day Turkish script. On 19 January 1977, following the death of his cousin, Mehmed Abdülaziz, Vasib became head of the House of Osman. Had Vâsib become the reigning sultan, he would have been "Sultan Ali I".

On 9 December 1983, in Alexandria, Vasib died from a stroke. He was 80, he was buried in Alexandria and his remains were moved to Sultan Reşad Mausoleum, Eyüb. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living Ottoman prince. On his death, the Monarchist League wrote:"Prince Ali Vasib will be remembered as a man of great charm, his ease of manner and his gifts as a raconteur were the hallmarks of one of the last of the grands seigneurs of the Gotha." Line of succession to the former Ottoman throne Heirs of Europe, Turkey. Retrieved 2019-06-09

2015–16 La Liga

The 2015–16 La Liga football season was the 85th since its establishment. Barcelona were the defending champions, it started on 21 August 2015 and concluded on 15 May 2016. Barcelona retained the title after beating Granada 3–0 on the final matchday. Luis Suárez finished as top scorer, being the first player apart from Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo to do so since the 2008–09 season. A total of 20 teams contested the league, including 17 sides from the 2014–15 season and three promoted from the 2014–15 Segunda División; this included the two top teams from the Segunda División, the winners of the play-offs. Almería and Córdoba were relegated to 2015–16 Segunda División in the last season, after being two and one years in La Liga. Elche was administratively relegated despite finishing 13th. Following the competition rules, who finished 18th, remained in the league. Real Betis was the first team from Segunda to achieve promotion, after a one-year absence from La Liga, on 24 May 2015 after winning 3–0 over Alcorcón.

Sporting Gijón, promoted after finishing second, qualified on 7 June 2015, after winning 3–0 against Betis and taking advantage of the draw of Girona, who could not retain the promotion spot on the last match day. Sporting returned to the top level after three years. Las Palmas achieved promotion on 21 June 2015 after defeating Real Zaragoza in the promotion playoff final on away goals, winning the second leg at home 2–0, after losing the first leg away 3–1. Las Palmas returned to the top level after 13 years, they became the first island team to play in La Liga since Mallorca's relegation to Segunda Division in the 2012–13 season. During those 13 years, they played two seasons in Segunda División B. 1. ^ On the back of shirt. 2. ^ On the sleeves. 3. ^ On the shorts. 4. ^ Barcelona makes a donation to UNICEF in order to display the charity's logo on the back of the club's kit. 5. ^ Deportivo has a Chinese characters phrase on the back of its shorts meaning "La Liga is Diverse". 6. Additionally, referee kits are now being made by Adidas, sponsored by Würth, Nike has a new match ball, the Ordem LFP.

On 14 May 2016, Barcelona won their 24th title with a win over Granada CF by 3–0 at Estadio Nuevo Los Cármenes. Real Madrid finished as runner-up after performing a 12-win streak until the end of the season; the first team relegated to Segunda División was Levante UD, after losing 1–3 against Málaga CF on 2 May 2016. On 15 May 2016, Sporting Gijón remained in La Liga after beating Villarreal by 2–0 and taking advantage of Getafe's loss against Real Betis in its separate match, Getafe being relegated from La Liga for the first time in its history. Rayo Vallecano was relegated despite winning its last season game; the table lists the positions of teams after each week of matches. In order to preserve chronological evolvements, any postponed matches are not included in the round at which they were scheduled, but added to the full round they were played afterwards. For example, if a match is scheduled for matchday 13, but postponed and played between days 16 and 17, it will be added to the standings for day 16.

Source: BDFutbol First goal of the season: Salva Sevilla for Espanyol against Getafe Last goal of the season: Álvaro Medrán for Getafe against Real Betis As of 15 May 2016. As of 15 May 2016; the Zamora Trophy is awarded by newspaper Marca to the goalkeeper with least goals-to-games ratio. A goalkeeper must play at least 28 games of 60 or more minutes to be eligible for the trophy; as of 15 May 2016. 4 Player scored. Telefónica purchased the exclusive television broadcasting rights to telecast the 2015–16 season in Spain. Sky Sports have exclusive rights in the United Kingdom and beIN Sports have exclusive rights to air the season in various countries, including the United States, Canada, MENA, France and the Middle East. KBSN Sports have the exclusive television broadcasting rights in South Korea except internet broadcasting. Official website