Cosplay, a portmanteau of the words costume play, is a performance art in which participants called cosplayers wear costumes and fashion accessories to represent a specific character. Cosplayers interact to create a subculture, a broader use of the term "cosplay" applies to any costumed role-playing in venues apart from the stage. Any entity that lends itself to dramatic interpretation may be taken up as a subject and it is not unusual to see genders switched. Favorite sources include anime, comic books, television series, video games; the rapid growth in the number of people cosplaying as a hobby since the 1990s has made the phenomenon a significant aspect of popular culture in Japan and some other parts of Asia and in the Western world. Cosplay events are common features of fan conventions and there are dedicated conventions and local and international competitions, as well as social networks and other forms of media centered on cosplay activities; the term "cosplay" was coined in Japan in 1984.
It was inspired by and grew out of the practice of fan costuming at science fiction conventions, beginning with Morojo's "futuristicostumes" created for the 1st World Science Fiction Convention in New York City in 1939. The term "cosplay" is a Japanese portmanteau of the English terms play; the term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of Studio Hard after he attended the 1984 World Science Fiction Convention in Los Angeles and saw costumed fans, which he wrote about in an article for the Japanese magazine My Anime. Takahashi chose to coin a new word rather than use the existing translation of the English term "masquerade" because that translates into Japanese as "an aristocratic costume", which did not match his experience of the Worldcon; the coinage reflects a common Japanese method of abbreviation in which the first two moras of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound:'costume' becomes kosu and'play' becomes pure. Masquerade balls were a feature of the Carnival season in the 15th century, involved elaborate allegorical Royal Entries and triumphal processions celebrating marriages and other dynastic events of late medieval court life.
They were extended into costumed public festivities in Italy during the 16th century Renaissance elaborate dances held for members of the upper classes, which were popular in Venice. Costume parties or fancy dress parties were popular from the 19th century onwards. Costuming guides of the period, such as Samuel Miller's Male Character Costumes or Ardern Holt's Fancy Dresses Described, feature generic costumes, whether that be period costumes, national costumes, objects or abstract concepts such as "Autumn" or "Night". Most specific costumes described therein are for historical figures although some are sourced from fiction, like The Three Musketeers or Shakespeare characters. A. D. Condo's science fiction comic strip character Mr. Skygack, from Mars is arguably the first fictional character that people emulated by wearing costumes, as in 1908 Mr. and Mrs. William Fell of Cincinnati, Ohio are reported to have attended a masquerade at a skating rink wearing Mr. Skygack and Miss Dillpickles costumes.
In 1910, an unnamed woman won first prize at masquerade ball in Tacoma, Washington wearing another Skygack costume. The first people to wear costumes to attend a convention were science fiction fans Forrest J Ackerman and Myrtle R. Douglas, known in fandom as Morojo, they attended the 1939 1st World Science Fiction Convention in the Caravan Hall, New York, USA dressed in "futuristicostumes", including green cape and breeches, based on the pulp magazine artwork of Frank R. Paul and the 1936 film Things to Come and created by Douglas. Ackerman stated that he thought everyone was supposed to wear a costume at a science fiction convention, although only he and Douglas did. Fan costuming caught on, the 2nd Worldcon had both an unofficial masquerade held in Douglas' room and an official masquerade as part of the programme. David Kyle won the masquerade wearing a Ming the Merciless costume created by Leslie Perri, while Robert A. W. Lowndes received second place with a Bar Senestro costume. Other costumed attendees included guest of honor E. E. Smith as Northwest Smith and both Ackerman and Douglas wearing their futuristicostumes again.
Masquerades and costume balls continued to be part of World Science Fiction Convention tradition thereafter. Early Worldcon masquerade balls featured a band, dancing and drinks. Contestants either walked across a cleared area of the dance floor. Ackerman wore a "Hunchbackerman of Notre Dame" costume to the 3rd Worldcon, which included a mask designed and created by Ray Harryhausen, but soon stopped wearing costumes to conventions. Douglas wore an Akka costume, the mask again made by Harryhausen, to the 3rd Worldcon and a Snake Mother costume to the 4th Worldcon. Rules governing costumes became costuming trends; the first nude contestant at a Worldcon masquerade was in 1952. This led to "No Costume is No Costume" rule, which banned full nudity, although partial nudity was still allowed as long as it was a legitimate representation of the character. Mike Resnick describes the best of the nude costumes as Kris Lun
Kenneth Robert Henderson Mackenzie was an English linguist and autodidact. Mackenzie was born on 31 October 1833 at Deptford near England; the following year, his family lived in Vienna, where his father, Dr. Rowland Hill Mackenzie, was assistant surgeon in the midwifery department at Imperial Hospital; when Dr. Mackenzie and his wife returned to England around 1840, Kenneth remained in Vienna for his education, excelling in languages. At 17, he was back in London. In 1851, when Mackenzie was just 18, his short introductory biography of Homer, a translation of a text by Herodotus, appeared in Theodore Alois Buckley’s The Odyssey of Homer, with the Hymns and Battles of the Frogs and Mice. Translated, with Explanatory Notes. At the beginning of the book, Buckley thanked Mackenzie for his Life of Homer: Attributed to Herodotus, For the translation of the Pseudo-Herodotean Life of Homer, the reader is indebted to the industry of Kenneth Mackenzie, Esq, it is the earliest memoir of the supposed author of the Iliad we possess.
In 1852, the year of publication of his translation, from German, of Karl Richard Lepsius’ Briefe aus Aegypten, Mackenzie translated, from Danish, Hans Christian Andersen’s In Sweden. For T. A. Buckley’s 1852 book Great Cities of the Ancient World, Mackenzie supplied the chapters on Peking and Scandinavia. In Buckley's Great Cities of the Middle Ages, the author thanked "my literary friend and coadjutor, Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie" for contributing the chapters on the cities of Spain. In Buckley's The Dawnings of Distinguished Men, the author acknowledged "I am again a grateful debtor to the kindness of my friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, Esq. whose Memoir of Thomas Chatterton forms one of its most interesting chapters." In 1853, Routledge published Mackenzie’s book Burmah and the Burmese as Mackenzie was busy helping Walter Savage Landor prepare a new edition of his Imaginary Conversations In 1854, Mackenzie translated, from the German, Friedrich Wagner’s Schamyl and Circassia. In 1855, Mackenzie translated, from the German, J. W. Wolf’s Fairy Tales Collected in the Odenwald.
Between October 1858 and January 1859, at his own expense, Mackenzie published four issues of The Biological Review: A Monthly Repertory of the Science of Life. In 1859, Routledge published Master Tyll Owlglass: His Marvellous Adventures and Rare Conceits, Mackenzie’s translation of the medieval prankster story "Till Eulenspiegel", published in the U. S. in 1860 by Ticknor & Fields. In 1861, Mackenzie traveled to Paris to meet the French occultist Eliphas Levi. In 1854, Mackenzie had met the American Rosicrucian Paschal Beverly Randolph who, in Paris in 1861, was newly appointed Supreme Grand Master for the Western World of the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis. In 1864, when Robert Wentworth Little found some old Rosicrucian rituals written in German in the storerooms of London’s Freemason’s Hall, he turned to Mackenzie to help him whip these up into an esoteric order. Thinking that Mackenzie, a friend of the likes of Paschal Beverly Randolph and Eliphas Levi, had – as Mackenzie himself had claimed – been initiated into a German Rosicrucian fraternity when he lived in Vienna, Little believed Mackenzie had the “authority” to found the new, “authentic” esoteric society.
In 1866, with Mackenzie’s help, Little founded the Rosicrucian Society of England, the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. The main leaders of the new organization were Little, Wil
Gaddar: The Traitor is a 2015 Indian Punjabi suspense thriller starring Manpneet Grewal in the lead role, with Harbhajan Mann, Amitoj Mann and others in the supporting cast. The film was released on 29 May 2015. Manpneet Grewal Amitoj Maan as Shaheed Rashpal Singh Harbhajan Mann as Jai Singh Ashish Duggal as SP Sandhu Evelyn Sharma Satwant Kaur as Jai's mother Girja Shankar Shavinder Mahal Rupinder Roopi Anita Meet Tarsem Paul CM Baldev Singh Balkaran Wadding Bobby Sandhu as Sandy Gaddar: The Traitor collected ₹3.65 crore from international markets. Gaddar: The Traitor on IMDb