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Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects class, profession, nationality, activity or epoch. The term was traditionally used to describe typical appropriate clothing for certain activities, such as riding costume, swimming costume, dance costume, evening costume. Appropriate and acceptable costume is subject to changes in fashion and local cultural norms. "But sable is worn more in carriages, lined with real lace over ivory satin, worn over some smart costume suitable for an afternoon reception." A Woman's Letter from London. This general usage has been replaced by the terms "dress", "attire", "robes" or "wear" and usage of "costume" has become more limited to unusual or out-of-date clothing and to attire intended to evoke a change in identity, such as theatrical and mascot costumes. Before the advent of ready-to-wear apparel, clothing was made by hand; when made for commercial sale it was made, as late as the beginning of the 20th century, by "costumiers" women who ran businesses that met the demand for complicated or intimate female costume, including millinery and corsetry.

Costume comes from the same Italian word, inherited via French, which means custom. National costume or regional costume expresses local identity and emphasizes a culture's unique attributes, they are a source of national pride. Examples include Japanese kimono. In Bhutan there is a traditional national dress prescribed for men and women, including the monarchy; these have developed into a distinctive dress style. The dress worn by men is known as Gho, a robe worn up to knee-length and is fastened at the waist by a band called the Kera; the front part of the dress, formed like a pouch, in olden days was used to hold baskets of food and short dagger, but now it is used to keep cell phone and the betel nut called Doma. The dress worn by women consist of three pieces known as Kira and Wonju; the long dress which extends up to the ankle is Kira. The jacket worn above this is Tego, provided with Wonju, the inner jacket. However, while visiting the Dzong or monastery a long scarf or stoll, called Kabney is worn by men across the shoulder, in colours appropriate to their ranks.

Women wear scarfs or stolls called Rachus, made of raw silk with embroidery, over their shoulder but not indicative of their rank. "Costume" refers to a particular style of clothing worn to portray the wearer as a character or type of character at a social event in a theatrical performance on the stage or in film or television. In combination with other aspects of stagecraft, theatrical costumes can help actors portray characters' and their contexts as well as communicate information about the historical period/era, geographic location and time of day, season or weather of the theatrical performance; some stylized theatrical costumes, such as Harlequin and Pantaloon in the Commedia dell'arte, exaggerate an aspect of a character. A costume technician is a term used for a person that alters the costumes; the costume technician is responsible for taking the two dimensional sketch and translating it to create a garment that resembles the designer's rendering. It is important for a technician to keep the ideas of the designer in mind when building the garment.

Draping is the art of manipulating the fabric using pins and hand stitching to create structure on a body. This is done on a dress form to get the adequate shape for the performer. Cutting is the act of laying out fabric on a flat surface, using scissors to cut and follow along a pattern; these pieces are put together to create a final costume. It is easier to visualize the finished product It is hard to keep the fabric symmetric You are able to drape in your fashion fabric rather than making a muslin mockup Draping makes it difficult to replicate for multiple people There are no needs for patterns It can be hard to keep the grain of the fabric straight There is less waste when using the specific fabric from the start You are able to create your own pattern to fit a certain size You may need instructions to piece the fabric together It is easier to control the grain of the fabric as well as symmetry There is more ability to create many of the same garment The measurements can be accurate It takes time to see the final product The job of a costume designer is to design and create a concept for the costumes for the play or performance.

The job of a costume technician is to construct and pattern the costumes for the play or performance. The wardrobe supervisor oversees the wardrobe run of the show from backstage, they are responsible for maintaining the good condition of the costumes. Millinery known as hatmaking is the manufacturing of hats and headwear; the wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras, Halloween. Mardi Gras costumes take the form of jesters and other fantasy characters. In modern times. Christmas costumes portray characters such as Santa Claus. In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes. In Judaism, a common practice is to dress up on Purim. During this holiday, Jews celebrate the change of their destiny, they were delivered from being the victims of an evil decree against th

The Spoils (U.S.S.A. album)

The Spoils is the debut studio album by American band U. S. S. A.. It was produced by Paul Barker and Duane Denison. "Dead Voices" "Autumn Flowers" "Blue Light" "Cruel Beauty" "Middletown" "Summer Endless Summer" "Forget Yourself" "Cab Ride" "Peculiar Thing" "Sugarwater" "Wasteland" Ben Lasman of CMJ New Music Monthly, in a negative review, wrote that the album "plays like a cleaned-up retrospective of modern rock cliches flooded with misguided cock-rock swagger". Comparing its sound to Faith No More, Stephen Seigel of Tucson Weekly called The Spoils less dissonant than expected but "no less thrilling for the lack of it". Writing in Boise Weekly, Brandon Nolta called it "edgy, sometimes creepy and never less than entertaining", though it may not appeal to fans of its members' former bands. Greg Prato of AllMusic described it as "both exploratory" without being snobbish. Prato compared the sound to first generation post-punk bands, including Barker's own The Blackouts. U. S. S. A. at MySpace U. S. S. A. at Fuzz Artists, Inc

Venetian rule in the Ionian Islands

The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century. The conquest of the islands took place gradually; the first to be acquired was Cythera and the neighboring islet of Anticythera, indirectly in 1238 and directly after 1363. In 1386, Corfu voluntarily became part of Venice's colonies. Following a century, Venice captured Zante in 1485, Cephalonia in 1500 and Ithaca in 1503; the conquest was completed in 1718 with the capture of Lefkada. Each of the islands remained part of the Venetian Stato da Màr until Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the Republic of Venice in 1797, annexing Corfu; the Ionian Islands are situated off the west coast of Greece. Cythera, the southernmost, is just off the southern tip of the Peloponnese and Corfu, the northernmost, is located at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea. In modern Greek, the period of Venetian rule over Greek territory is known as Venetokratia or Enetokratia and means "rule of the Venetians".

It is believed that the Venetian period on the Ionian Islands was agreeable compared with the coinciding Tourkokratia — Turkish rule over the remainder of present-day Greece. The governor of the Ionian Islands during the Venetian period was the Provveditore generale da Mar, who resided on Corfu. Additionally, each island's authorities were divided into the domestic authorities; the economy of the islands was based on exporting local goods raisins, olive oil and wine, whereas Venetian lira, the currency of Venice, was the currency of the islands. Some features of the culture of Venice were incorporated in the culture of the Ionian Islands, thus influencing to this day local music and language; the Italian language, for instance, introduced on the islands as the official language and was adopted by the upper class, is still popular today throughout the islands. Venice was founded in 421 after the destruction of nearby communities by the Huns and the Lombards. In the shifting Italian borders of the following centuries, Venice benefited from remaining under the control of the Roman Empire - as the furtherest Northwestern outpost of the now Constantinople centered power.

During Justinian I's reconquest of Italy from the Visigoths, Venice was an important stronghold for the Empire's Exarchate of Ravenna. The political centre of the exarchate, the most senior military officials of the Empire, were situated in Ravenna; the subordinate military officials who were their representatives in the Venetian lagoons were called tribunes, only in about AD 697 were the lagoons made a separate military command under a dux. Notwithstanding the election of the first Doge, vassalic evidence such as honours and orders received by the doge from the Emperor implies that Venice was considered part of the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Ravenna by the Lombards. Despite the Pax Nicephori, which recognised Venice as Byzantine territory, the influence of the Eastern Roman Emperor faded away. By 814 Venice functioned as a independent republic. So, Venice became a partner of the Empire and trading privileges were granted to it by the Emperors via treaties, such as the Byzantine–Venetian Treaty of 1082.

The Fourth Crusade was intended to invade Muslim-controlled areas. As Venice was one of the participants in the Crusade its relations with the Byzantine Empire were strained during this period. Moreover, by styling themselves "Lord of one-quarter and one-eighth of the whole Empire of Romania" after the Crusade, the Doges of Venice contributed to the deterioration of the relations between the two states. Efforts to improve relations, for example through the Nicaean–Venetian Treaty of 1219, proved unsuccessful. A period of friendly relations only followed the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, when Venice, foreseeing the fall of Charles, the French King of Sicily, began forming closer relations with Byzantium. Venice had been bound by an alliance with Charles against Byzantium in 1281; the Islands were referred both individually and collectively, by various names. After Venice captured Cephalonia on 24 December 1500, the administration of the defense of all the islands was delegated to an official seated in Corfu.

This official was being referred to as "the General Provveditore of the Three Islands" and resided at the fortress of Angelokastro from 1387 to the end of the 16th century. The Three Islands refer to Corfu and Cephalonia; the Venetian equivalent for "Ionian Islands" is Ixołe Jonie, the Italian being Isole Ionie and the Greek Ιόνια Νησιά in Modern Greek and Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι in Katharevousa. Below are the seven principal islands from north to south, including their Greek and Italian names in parentheses: Corfu Paxos Lefkada Cephalonia Ithaca Zante, see the long account here Cythera Cythera and Lefkada were additionally called Çuha Adası or Çuka Adası and Ayamavra by the Ottomans. During the Roman Empire, the Ionian Islands were variously part of the provinces of Achaea and Epirus vetus; these would form, with the exception of Cythera, the Byzantine theme of Cephallenia in the late 8th century. From the late 11th century, the Ionian Islands became a battleground in the Byzantine–Norman Wars; the island of Corfu was held by the Normans in 1081–1085 and 1147–1149, while

North Cleveland Park

North Cleveland Park is a neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D. C, it is bounded by Albemarle Street NW to the north and Quebec Streets NW to the south and Nebraska Avenues NW to the west, Connecticut Avenue to the east. It is served by the Van Ness–UDC station on the Washington Metro's Red Line, is therefore — like the adjacent Forest Hills neighborhood — referred to as Van Ness. North Cleveland Park should not be confused with the neighboring Cleveland Park to its south: although both are part of the original tract of land on which President Grover Cleveland built his summer estate in the 1880s, they are separate neighborhoods; the neighborhood is home to the Van Ness campus of the University of the District of Columbia, the former headquarters of Intelsat, Sidwell Friends School, Sheridan School and several embassies, including those of Austria, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Honduras, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates. Many of these embassies are located within the International Chancery Center, the former site of the National Bureau of Standards.

Grant Road Historic District


ULK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ULK1 gene. Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase are two similar isoforms of an enzyme that in humans are encoded by the ULK1/2 genes, it is a kinase, involved with autophagy in response to amino acid withdrawal. Not many studies have been done comparing the two isoforms. Ulk1/2 is an important protein in autophagy for mammalian cells, is homologous to ATG1 in yeast, it is part of the ULK1-complex, needed in early steps of autophagosome biogenesis. The ULK1 complex consists of the FAK family kinase interacting protein of 200 kDa and the HORMA domain-containing proteins ATG13 and ATG101. ULK1 appears to be the most essential for autophagy and is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation by several upstream signals, followed by the initiation of autophagy. However, ULK1 and ULK2 show high functional redundancy. Nutrient dependent autophagy is only inhibited if both ULK1 and ULK2 are knocked out. ULK1 has many downstream phosphorylation targets to aid in this induction of the isolation membrane/ autophagosome.

A mechanism for autophagy has been elucidated. Models have proposed that the active ULK1 directly phosphorylates Beclin-1 at Ser 14 and activates the pro-autophagy class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase, VPS34 complex, to promote autophagy induction and maturation. Ulk1/2 is negatively regulated by mTORC1 activity, active during anabolic-type environmental cues. In contrast, Ulk1/2 is activated by AMPK activity from starvation signals. Ulk1/2 may have critical roles beyond what ATG1 performs in yeast, including neural growth and development; when active, mTORC1 inhibits autophagy by phosphorylating both ULK1 and ATG13, which reduces the kinase activity of ULK1. Under starvation conditions, mTORC1 is inhibited and dissociates from ULK1 allowing it to become active. AMPK is activated when intracellular AMP increases which occurs under starvation conditions, which inactivates mTORC1, thus directly activates ULK1. AMPK directly phosphorylates ULK1 at multiple sites in the linker region between the kinase and C-terminal domains.

ULK1 can phosphorylate itself as well as RB1CC1, which are regulatory proteins. Upon proteotoxic stresses, ULK1 has been found to phosphorylate the adaptor protein p62, which increases the binding affinity of p62 for ubiquitin. ULK1 has been shown to interact with Raptor, Beclin1, Class-III-PI3K, GABARAPL2, GABARAP, SYNGAP1 and SDCBP. ULK1 is a 112-kDa protein, it contains a N-terminal kinase domain, a serine-proline rich region, a C-terminal interacting domain. The serine-proline rich region has been shown experimentally to be the site of phosphorylation by mTORC1 and AMPK—a negative and positive regulator of ULK1 activity, respectively; the C-terminal domain contains two microtubule-interacting and transport domains and acts as a scaffold which links ULK1, ATG13, FIFP200 together to form a complex, essential to initiate autophagy. Early autophagy targeting/tethering domains in the C-terminus are arranged as MIT domains consisting of two three-helix bundles. MIT domains mediate interactions with membranes.

The N-terminus contains a serine-threonine kinase domain. ULK1 contains a large activation loop between the N and C terminus, positively charged; this region may play a role in recognizing different substrates. ULK1 and ULK2 share significant homology in both the N-terminal domains. Given ULK1's role in autophagy, many diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, neurodevelopment disorders, Crohn's disease could be attributed to any impairments in autophagy regulation. In cancer ULK1 has become an attractive therapeutic target. Since autophagy acts as a cell survival trait for cells, it enables tumors to survive energy deprivation and other stresses such as chemotherapeutics. For that reason, inhibiting autophagy may prove to be beneficial. Thus, inhibitors have been targeted towards ULK1

Patrick Geddes

Sir Patrick Geddes was a British biologist, geographer and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban sociology, he introduced the concept of "region" to architecture and planning and coined the term "conurbation". He elaborated ‘neotechnics’ as the way of remaking a world apart from over-commercialization and money dominance. An energetic Francophile, Geddes was the founder in 1924 of the Collège des Écossais, an international teaching establishment in Montpellier, France and in the 1920s he bought the Château d'Assas to set up a centre for urban studies; the son of Janet Stevenson and soldier Alexander Geddes, Patrick Geddes was born in Ballater and educated at Perth Academy. He studied at the Royal College of Mines in London under Thomas Henry Huxley between 1874 and 1877, never finishing any degree and he spent the year 1877-1878 as a demonstrator in the Department of Physiology in University College London where he met Charles Darwin in Burdon-Sanderson's laboratory.

He lectured in Zoology at Edinburgh University from 1880 to 1888. He married Anna Morton, the daughter of a wealthy merchant, in 1886 when he was 32 years old, they had three children: Norah and Arthur. During a visit to India in 1917 Anna fell ill with typhoid fever and died, not knowing that their son Alasdair had been killed in action in France. In 1890 he assisted Dr John Wilson in laying out a teaching garden at Morgan Academy in Dundee. In 1895 Geddes published an edition of "The Evergreen" magazine, with articles on nature and poetics. Artists Robert Burns and John Duncan provided illustrations for the magazine. Geddes wrote with J. Arthur Thomson an early book on The Evolution of Sex, he held the Chair of Botany at University College Dundee from 1888 to 1919, the Chair of Sociology at the University of Bombay from 1919 to 1924. He inspired Victor Branford to form the Sociological Society in 1903 to promote his sociological views. While he thought of himself as a sociologist, it was his commitment to close social observation and ability to turn these into practical solutions for city design and improvement that earned him a "revered place amongst the founding fathers of the British town planning movement".

He was a major influence on the American urban theorist Lewis Mumford. He was knighted in 1932, shortly before his death at the Scots College in Montpellier, France on 17 April 1932. Geddes was the father-in-law of planner Frank Charles Mears. Patrick Geddes was influenced by social theorists such as Herbert Spencer and French theorist Frederic Le Play and expanded upon earlier theoretical developments that led to the concept of regional planning, he adopted Spencer's theory that the concept of biological evolution could be applied to explain the evolution of society, drew on Le Play's analysis of the key units of society as constituting "Lieu, Famille", but changing the last from "family" to "folk". In this theory, the family is viewed as the central "biological unit of human society" from which all else develops. According to Geddes, it is from "stable, healthy homes" providing the necessary conditions for mental and moral development that come beautiful and healthy children who are able "to participate in life".

Geddes drew on Le Play's circular theory of geographical locations presenting environmental limitations and opportunities that in turn determine the nature of work. His central argument was that physical geography, market economics and anthropology were related, yielding a “single chord of social life all three combined”, thus the interdisciplinary subject of sociology was developed into the science of “man’s interaction with a natural environment: the basic technique was the regional survey, the improvement of town planning the chief practical application of sociology". Geddes' writing demonstrates the influence of these ideas on his theories of the city, he saw the city as a series of common interlocking patterns, "an inseparably interwoven structure", akin to a flower. He criticised the tendency of modern scientific thinking to specialisation. In his "Report to the H. H. the Maharaja of Kapurthala" in 1917 he wrote: "Each of the various specialists remains too concentrated upon his single specialism, too little awake to those of the others.

Each sees and seizes upon one petal of the six-lobed flower of life and tears it apart from the whole." These ideas can be traced back to Geddes' abiding interest in Eastern philosophy which he believed more conceived of "life as a whole": "as a result, civic beauty in India has existed at all levels, from humble homes and simple shrines to palaces magnificent and temples sublime." Against a backdrop of extraordinary development of new technologies, industrialisation and urbanism, Geddes witnessed the substantial social consequences of crime and poverty that developed as a result of modernisation. From Geddes' perspective, the purpose of his theory and understanding of relationships among the units of society was to find an equilibrium among people and the environment to improve such conditions. Geddes championed a mode of planning that sought to consider "primary human needs" in every intervention, engaging in "constructive and conservative surgery" rather than the "heroic, all of a piece schemes" popular in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

He continued to advocate for this approach throughout his career. Early on in his career Geddes demonstrated the practicality of his ideas and approach. In 1886 Geddes and his newly married wife purchased a row of slum tenements in James Court, Ed