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Costa Rican colón

The colón is the currency of Costa Rica. It was named after Christopher Columbus, known as Cristóbal Colón in Spanish; the symbol for the colón is a capital letter "C" crossed by two diagonal strokes. The symbol is encoded at U+20A1 ₡ COLON SIGN and may be typed on many English language Microsoft Windows keyboards using the keystrokes ALT+8353; the colón sign is not to be confused with U+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN, or with the Ghanaian cedi, U+20B5 ₵ CEDI SIGN. Nonetheless, the available cent symbol'¢' is used locally to designate the colón in price markings and advertisements; the colón was introduced in 1896. The colón is divided into 100 centimos, between 1917 and 1919, coins were issued using the name centavo for the 1/100 subunit of the colón. Colóns were issued by a variety of banks in the first half of the twentieth century, but since 1951 have been produced by the Central Bank of Costa Rica; the currency was subject to a crawling peg against the United States dollar from 2006 to 2015, but has been floating since then.

Because the colón replaced the peso at par, there was no immediate need for new coins in 1896. In 1897, gold 2, 5, 10 and 20 colones were issued, followed by silver 50 centimos, followed by cupro-nickel 2 centimos in 1903 and silver 5 and 10 centimos in 1905; the 5 and 10 centimos bore the initials G. C. R. Indicating that they were issues of the government. In 1917, coins were issued in denominations of 10 centavos rather than centimos. 50 centavo coins were minted but not issued. All bore the G. C. R. Initials; the issuance of centimo coins by the government was resumed with 5 and 10 centimos issued. In 1923, silver 25 and 50 centimos from the peso currency, along with the unissued 50 centavos from 1917 and 1918, were issued with counterstamps which doubled their values to 50 centimos and 1 colón. In 1925, silver 25 centimo coins were introduced; the last government issued coins were brass 10 centimos issued between 1936 and 1941. In 1935, the International Bank of Costa Rica issued cupro-nickel coins in denominations of 25 and 50 centimos and 1 colón.

These bore the initials B. I. C. R. In 1937, the National Bank introduced coins in denominations of 25 and 50 centimos and 1 colón which bore the initials B. N. C. R; these were followed by 5 and 10 centimos in 1942 and 2 colones in 1948. In 1951, the Central Bank took over coin issuance using the initials B. C. C. R. While introducing 5 and 10 centimo coins; these were followed by 1 and 2 colones in 1954, 50 centimos in 1965 and 25 centimos in 1967. In 1982–1983, 5 and 10 centimo coins were discontinued, the sizes of the 25 centimo to 2 colón coins were reduced and 5, 10 and 20 colón coins were introduced. Between 1995 & 1998, brass 1, 5 and 10 colón coins were introduced and coins for 25, 50 & 100 colones were added. 500 colones followed in 2003. Aluminium 5 and 10 colones were introduced in 2006. Coins of 1 colón are no longer found in circulation. In 2009 the larger, silver-coloured ₡5, ₡10 & ₡20 were withdrawn leaving the small, lighter, ₡5 and ₡10 and the gold-coloured ₡5, ₡10, ₡25, ₡50, ₡100 & ₡500 coins circulating.

Four private banks, the Banco Anglo–Costarricense, the Banco Comercial de Costa Rica, the Banco de Costa Rica and the Banco Mercantil de Costa Rica, issued notes between 1864 and 1917. The Banco Anglo–Costarricense was established in 1864 and issued notes from 1864 to 1917, it became a state-owned bank and in 1994 went bankrupt and closed. Notes were issued in denominations of 1, 25, 50, 100 pesos as well as 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 colones; some 1, 5, 10 and 20 colones notes were released in 1963 when the bank celebrated its 100th anniversary. Some had Muestra sin Valor printed on them in order to nullify the legal tender status and to prevent people from selling them. Most, didn't have that printed on them, which makes it harder nowadays to find notes with the seal; the Banco de Costa Rica was established in 1890 and issued notes from 1890 to 1914. It is a state-owned bank. Notes were issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 100 pesos as well as 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones; the Banco Comercial de Costa Rica issued notes between 1906 and 1914 in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones.

The Banco Mercantil de Costa Rica issued notes between 1910 and 1916 in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones. The government issued gold certificates in 1897 for 10, 25, 50 and 100 colones. Between 1902 and 1917, it issued silver certificates for 1, 2, 50 and 100 colones. In 1914, the Banco Internacional de Costa Rica introduced notes in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones, to which 25 and 50 centimos, 1 and 2 colones were added in 1918. Although 25 centimos were not issued after 1919, the other denominations continued to be issued until 1936. After 1917, the Banco Internacional's notes were the only issued for circulation. In 1937, the Banco Nacional de Costa Rica took over paper money issuing and issued notes for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones until 1949. Many of the early notes were provisional issues overprinted on notes of the Banco Internacional, including the 1 colón notes which were issued; the Banco Central de Costa Rica began issuing paper money in 1950, with notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 colones.

The first notes were provisional issues produced from Banco Nacional notes. The Central Bank printed on them the corresponding signatures and dates, the legend "BANCO CENTRAL DE COSTA RICA" over "BANCO NACIONAL DE COSTA RICA". Regular issues of notes began in 1951, but a second provisional issu

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Barquisimeto

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Barquisimeto is a Latin Catholic Metropolitan archdiocese in northwestern Venezuela's Lara state. Established on 7 March 1863 as Diocese of Barquisimeto, on territory split off from the Diocese of Mérida Suppressed on 14 August 1867, its territory reassigned to the new, short-lived Diocese of Coro y Barquisimeto Restored on 22 October 1869 as Diocese of Barquisimeto from that Diocese of Coro y Barquisimeto Lost territory on 1922.10.12 to establish the Diocese of Coro and on 1954.06.07 to establish the Diocese of Guanare, its own suffragan Promoted on 30 April 1966 as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Barquisimeto. Lost territory again to establish two more suffragans: on 1966.10.07 the Diocese of San Felipe and on 1992.07.25 the Diocese of Carora. Its cathedral episcopal see is the modern Catedral Metropolitana de Barquisimeto in Barquisimeto. There is a Minor Basilica: Basílica el Santo Cristo de la Gracia in Barquisimeto. Suffragan Bishops of Barquisimeto Victor José Díez Navarrete Bishop of Coro y Barquisimeto Gregorio Rodríguez y Obregón Aguedo Felipe Alvarado Liscano Enrique María Dubuc Moreno Titular Bishop of Zaraï & Coadjutor Bishop of Barquisimeto.

Child Soldiers International

Child Soldiers International the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, was a UK-based non-governmental organization that worked to prevent the recruitment and exploitation of children by armed forces and groups. As of 07 June 2019, it is no longer operational. Child Soldiers International envisions a world where all children grow up realising their full potential and enjoying all their human rights. For this to be possible, Child Soldiers International is working to prevent armed forces and groups from recruiting and exploiting children; the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers International was founded in 1998 by leading human rights and humanitarian organisations, including Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and Save the Children. Its purpose was to campaign for the adoption of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict – a human rights treaty that prohibits the use of children in armed conflict and raises the age of military recruitment.

The treaty was adopted in 2000 and entered into enforcement phase on 12 February 2002. Child Soldiers International continues to promote adherence to the Optional Protocol and other relevant human rights standards. Since Child Soldiers International has continued to promote the adoption and implementation of international legal standards protecting children from military recruitment or use in hostilities. Child Soldiers International has a London headquarters and conducts research and capacity building in countries across the world. Recent programmes have included: Central African Republic. Child Soldiers International delivers research findings and policy recommendations to the United Nations Security Council in New York and the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva, Switzerland. According to UN documents, in relation to the adoption and enforcement of the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Child Soldiers International plays "a key role in ensuring implementation at every level."

Child Soldiers International and UNICEF published the Guide to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in December 2003. The guide summarizes the process of the treaty's adoption, its fundamental provisions, recommends that certain activities be undertaken to ensure its full enforcement, it is a practical tool written to aid other NGOs, humanitarian groups, legislative bodies in implementing OPAC's standards. In 2001, 2004 and 2008, Child Soldiers International published ‘Child Soldiers Global Reports’ which provide a snapshot of the child soldier situation in every country worldwide. In 2012, Child Soldiers International published Louder than words: an agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers, accompanied by a practical 10-point checklist to assist states to end their recruitment of children. In 2016, Child Soldiers International published A law unto themselves? Confronting the recruitment of children by armed groups; this provides a legal analysis of progress made so far in engaging with armed groups about child recruitment and use.

Child Soldiers International continues to publish research and recommendations to support its advocacy goals. These seek to inform policy and action by building understanding of the causes of child soldier recruitment and use, identifying sustainable solutions. Child Soldiers International is a UK registered charity, with section 501 public charity status in the USA. Direct donations are welcomed from individuals, provide an essential source of support. Annual audited financial statements are filed with the UK Charity Commission, Companies House, published on Child Soldiers International's own website. For the 2015-16 financial year Child Soldiers International had an annual income of £623,588 and expenditure of £604,832. In 2015-16, 94% of expenditure supported programme activities. Child Soldiers International operates with a small staff team, bringing in specialist consultancy support where needed. Programmatic work is delivered in close collaboration with local and national organisations in target countries.

Job vacancies are advertised on the organisational website. The organisation is governed by a board of trustees. Military use of children Red Hand Day Interview: Children Abducted for Terrorsim in Sri Lanka Documentary on a child soldier that escaped the LRA