The Phantoscope was a film projection machine, a creation of Charles Francis Jenkins. Created in the early 1890s, he projected the first motion picture before an audience in his hometown of Richmond, Indiana on June 6, 1894, he met Thomas Armat who provided financial backing for necessary modifications. The two inventors unveiled their modified projector at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, in September 1895. Jenkin's machine was the first projector to allow each still frame of the film to be illuminated long enough before advancing to the next frame sequence; this was different from Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope, which ran a loop of film with successive images of a moving scene through the camera shutter, which gave a jumbled blur of motion. The Phantoscope, by pausing on each frame long enough for the brain to register a clear single picture, but replacing each frame in sequence fast enough, produced a smooth and true moving picture, it is from this concept. Only one working model was built by Jenkins, it was stolen a few months from his home by Armat, who sold it to the Gammon theater chain.
After a lengthy court battle, Jenkins accepted $2,500 as payment in full. The Franklin Institute awarded a gold medal to Jenkins for his invention as the world's first practical movie projector; the U. S. Patent Office granted Jenkins a patent for his initial projector and Armat a patent for the modified version. After Jenkins settled with Armat, Armat sold the whole patent to Thomas Alva Edison. Jenkins continued improving the projector and created motion picture cameras that were used for broadcasting to home receivers by radio waves, or what we know today as, television. Mechanically he broadcast the first television pictures and owned the first commercially licensed television station in the USA. Victorian-Cinema Charles Francis Jenkins, motion picture projector & television inventor
The Circassians known by their endonym Adyghe, are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century after the Russo-Circassian War in 1864. In its narrowest sense, the term "Circassian" includes the twelve Adyghe princedoms. However, due to Soviet administrative divisions, Circassians were designated as the following: Adygeans, Cherkessians and Shapsugians, although all the four are the same people residing in different political units. Most Circassians are Sunni Muslim; the Circassians speak the Circassian languages, a Northwest Caucasian dialect continuum with three main dialects and numerous sub-dialects. Many Circassians speak Turkish, English and Hebrew, having been exiled by Russia to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them today live. About 800,000 Circassians remain in historical Circassia, others live in the Russian Federation outside these republics and krais; the 2010 Russian Census recorded 718,727 Circassians, of whom 516,826 are Kabardian, 124,835 are other Adyghe in Adygea, 73,184 are Cherkess and 3,882 Shapsug.
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization estimated in the early 1990s that there are as many as 3.7 million "ethnic Circassian" diaspora outside the titular Circassian republics, that, of these 3.7 million, more than 2 million live in Turkey, 300,000 in the Levant and Mesopotamia and 50,000 in Western Europe and the United States. The Circassians refer to themselves as Adyghe; the name is believed to derive from atté "height" to signify a mountaineer or a highlander, ghéi "sea", signifying "a people dwelling and inhabiting a mountainous country near the sea coast", or "between two seas". The word "Circassians" is an exonym; the Russians referred to all Circassian tribes as Cherkesy, which may be derived from Kerkety, the name of one of the Adyghe tribes native to the northwestern Caucasus. In early Russian sources, the Circassians are referred to as Kasogi, whereas in medieval Arabic sources, Kasogi is written as Jarkas and Jahārkas; the spelling Charkas may be an abbreviation of Persian Chahār-kas.
Though "Jahārkas" was used by Ibn Khaldun and Ali ibn al-Athir, the Persian hypothesis remains uncertain. In the 10th century, Persians and Arabs referred to the Circassians as Kashak, which appears to be a Georgian word derived from Ossetian Kasogi; the Turkic peoples referred to the Circassians as Cherkas, a name which had come into common use by the 13th century. This designation "did not designate the Adygei but rather the people living in southern Ukraine". In contemporary times, Ukraine has a province named Cherkessk, with its provincial capital bearing the same name. With the advent of the Golden Horde in the 13th century, the designation Cherkess "came to refer to the Adygei who remained in the Caucasus, became a generic term for all who lived there"; this in turn created terminology "anomalies", as a result, Cherkes became used alongside other names such as Adygei, Kabardian and Abkhaz. In Medieval Oriental and European texts, "the Adygei people were known by the name Cherkess/Circassians".
The Encylopaedia Islamica adds: "This is because the Cherkess, the Kabardians and the Adygei people share a common language, spoken by the north-western Caucasian people, belongs to the family known as Abkhazian-Adygei". In Persian sources, Charkas/Cherkes is used to refer to the "actual" Circassians of the northwest Caucasus, in some occasions as a general designation for Caucasians who live beyond Derbent. In Russian historiography the term had been used as an exonym for Russian and Cossack people at least until the end of the 18th century, Caucasian Tatar peoples. In Turkey the term nowadays used as a name for all Caucasian nations such as, such as Karachays, different Dagestanian diasporas and others. Despite a common self-designation and a common Russian name, Soviet authorities applied four designations to Circassians: Kabardian, Circassians of Kabardino-Balkaria (Circassians speaking the Kabardian language, one of two indigenous peoples of the republic. Cherkess, Circassians of Karachay-Cherkessia (Circassians speaking the Cherkess, i.e. Circassian, language one of two indigenous peoples of the republic who are Besleney Kabardians.
The name "Cherkess" is the Russian form of "Circassian" and was used for all Circassians before Soviet times. Adyghe or Adygeans, the indigenous population of the Kuban including Adygea and Krasnodar Krai. Shapsug, the indigenous historical inhabitants of Shapsugia, they live in the Tuapse District and the Lazarevsky City District of Sochi, both in Krasnodar Krai and in Adygea. Genetically, the
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Exposition Universelle (1855)
The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855. Its full official title was the Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855. Today the exposition's sole physical remnant is the Théâtre du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées designed by architect Gabriel Davioud, which housed the Panorama National; the exposition was a major event in France newly under the reign of Emperor Napoleon III. It followed London's Great Exhibition of 1851 and attempted to surpass that fair's Crystal Palace with its own Palais de l'Industrie; the arts displayed were shown in a separate pavilion on Avenue Montaigne. There were works from artists from 29 countries, including French artists Francois Rude, Ingres and Henri Lehmann, British artists William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. According to its official report, 5,162,330 visitors attended the exposition, of which about 4.2 million entered the industrial exposition and 0.9 million entered the Beaux Arts exposition.
Expenses amounted to upward of $5,000,000. The exposition covered 16 hectares with 34 countries participating. For the exposition, Napoleon III requested a classification system for France's best Bordeaux wines which were to be on display for visitors from around the world. Brokers from the wine industry ranked the wines according to a château's reputation and trading price, which at that time was directly related to quality; the result was the important Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. Elizabeth M. L. Gralton, "Lust of the Eyes: The Anti-Modern Critique of Visual Culture at the Paris Expositions universelles, 1855-1900," French History & Civilization, Vol. 5, pp 71-81 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Official website of the BIE Rapport sur l’exposition universelle de 1855 Fanfare for the New Empire ExpoMuseum
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
A baluster—also called spindle—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood, sometimes of metal or plastic, standing on a unifying footing, supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc. According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower", from Latin balaustium, from Greek βαλαύστιον; the earliest examples are those shown in the bas-reliefs representing the Assyrian palaces, where they were employed as window balustrades and had Ionic capitals. As an architectural element the balustrade did not seem to have been known to either the Greeks or the Romans, but baluster forms are familiar in the legs of chairs and tables represented in Roman bas-reliefs, where the original legs or the models for cast bronze ones were shaped on the lathe, or in Antique marble candelabra, formed as a series of stacked bulbous and disc-shaped elements, both kinds of sources familiar to Quattrocento designers.
The application to architecture was a feature of the early Renaissance: late fifteenth-century examples are found in the balconies of palaces at Venice and Verona. These quattrocento balustrades are to be following yet-unidentified Gothic precedents, they form balustrades of colonnettes as an alternative to miniature arcading. Rudolf Wittkower withheld judgement as to the inventor of the baluster and credited Giuliano da Sangallo with using it as early as the balustrade on the terrace and stairs at the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, used balustrades in his reconstructions of antique structures. Sangallo passed the motif to Bramante and Michelangelo, through whom balustrades gained wide currency in the 16th century. Wittkower distinguished two types, one symmetrical in profile that inverted one bulbous vase-shape over another, separating them with a cushionlike torus or a concave ring, the other a simple vase shape, whose employment by Michelangelo at the Campidoglio steps, noted by Wittkower, was preceded by early vasiform balusters in a balustrade round the drum of Santa Maria delle Grazie, railings in the cathedrals of Aquileia and Parma, in the cortile of San Damaso and Antonio da Sangallo's crowning balustrade on the Santa Casa at Loreto installed in 1535, liberally in his model for the Basilica of Saint Peter.
Because of its low center of gravity, this "vase-baluster" may be given the modern term "dropped baluster". The baluster, being a turned structure, tends to follow design precedents that were set in woodworking and ceramic practices, where the turner's lathe and the potter's wheel are ancient tools; the profile a baluster takes is diagnostic of a particular style of architecture or furniture, may offer a rough guide to date of a design, though not of a particular example. Some complicated Mannerist baluster forms can be read as a vase set upon another vase; the high shoulders and bold, rhythmic shapes of the Baroque vase and baluster forms are distinctly different from the sober baluster forms of Neoclassicism, which look to other precedents, like Greek amphoras. The distinctive twist-turned designs of balusters in oak and walnut English and Dutch seventeenth-century furniture, which took as their prototype the Solomonic column, given prominence by Bernini, fell out of style after the 1710s.
Once it had been taken from the lathe, a turned wood baluster could be split and applied to an architectural surface, or to one in which architectonic themes were more treated, as on cabinets made in Italy and Northern Europe from the sixteenth through the seventeenth centuries. Modern baluster design is in use for example in designs influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement in a 1905 row of houses in Etchingham Park Road Finchley London England. Outside Europe, the baluster column appeared as a new motif in Mughal architecture, introduced in Shah Jahan's interventions in two of the three great fortress-palaces, the Red Fort of Agra and Delhi, in the early seventeenth century. Foliate baluster columns with naturalistic foliate capitals, unexampled in previous Indo-Islamic architecture according to Ebba Koch became one of the most used forms of supporting shaft in Northern and Central India in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the modern term baluster shaft is applied to the shaft dividing a window in Saxon architecture.
In the south transept of the Abbey in St Albans, are some of these shafts, supposed to have been taken from the old Saxon church. Norman bases and capitals have been added, together with plain cylindrical Norman shafts. Balusters are separated by at least the same measurement as the size of the square bottom section. Placing balusters too far apart diminishes their aesthetic appeal. Balustrades terminate in columns, building walls or more properly in heavy newel posts because otherwise they will not be structurally strong enough. Balusters may be formed in several ways. Wood and stone can be shaped on the lathe, wood can be cut from square or rectangular section boards, while concrete, plaster and plastics are formed by molding and casting. Turned patterns or old examples are used for the molds. Cast iron Cast stone Hardwoods and softwoods Plaster Polymer stone Polyurethane/polystyrene Wrought iron Vinyl The word banister
1862 International Exhibition
The International of 1862, or Great London Exposition, was a world's fair. It was held from 1 May to 1 November 1862, beside the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society, South Kensington, England, on a site that now houses museums including the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum; the exposition was sponsored by the Royal Society of Arts and Trade, featured over 28,000 exhibitors from 36 countries, representing a wide range of industry and the arts. William Sterndale Bennett composed music for the opening ceremony. All told, it attracted about 6.1 million visitors. Receipts were above cost, leaving a total profit of £790, it was held in London, on a site now occupied by the Natural History Museum. The buildings, which occupied 21 acres, were designed by Captain Francis Fowke of the Royal Engineers, built by Charles and Thomas Lucas and Sir John Kelk at a cost of £300,000 covered by profits from the Great Exhibition of 1851, they were intended to be permanent, were constructed in an un-ornamented style with the intention of adding decoration in years as funds allowed.
Much of the construction was of cast-iron, 12,000 tons worth. Picture galleries occupied three sides of a rectangle on the south side of the site. Fowke paid particular attention to lighting pictures in a way. Behind the picture galleries were the "Industrial Buildings"; these were composed of "naves" and "transepts", lit by tall clerestories, with the spaces in the angles between them filled by glass-roofed courts. Above the brick entrances on the east and west fronts were two great glass domes, each 150 feet wide and 260 feet high - at that time the largest domes built; the timber-framed "Machinery Galleries", the only parts of the structure intended to be temporary, stretched further north along Prince Consort Road. The opening took place on 1 May 1862. Queen Victoria, still in mourning for her consort Prince Albert did not attend, instead her cousin the Duke of Cambridge presided from a throne sited beneath the western dome. An opening address was delivered by the Earl Granville, chairman of Her Majesty's Commissioners, the group responsible for the organisation of the event.
An official closing ceremony took place on 1 November 1862, but the exhibition remained open to the public until 15 November 1862. Over six million people attended. Parliament declined the Government's wish to purchase the building and the materials were sold and used for the construction of Alexandra Palace; the exhibition was a showcase of the advances made in the industrial revolution in the decade since the first Great Exhibition of 1851. Among the items on display were. Exhibits included such large pieces of machinery as parts of Charles Babbage's analytical engine, cotton mills, maritime engines made by the firms of Henry Maudslay and Humphrys and Dykes. There was a range of smaller goods including fabrics, sculptures, plates, porcelain and glass wares, wallpaper; the manufacture of ice by an early refrigerator caused a sensation. The work shown by William Morris's decorative arts firm of Morris, Faulkner & Co. attracted much notice. The exposition introduced the use of caoutchouc for rubber production and the Bessemer process for steel manufacture.
Benjamin Simpson showed photos from the Indian subcontinent. William England led a team of stereoscopic photographers, which included William Russell Sedgfield and Stephen Thompson, to produce a series of 350 stereo views of the exhibition for the London Stereoscopic Company; the images were made using the new collodion wet plate process which allowed exposure times of only a few seconds. These images provide a vivid three-dimensional record of the exhibition, they were on sale to the public in boxed sets and were delivered to the Queen by messenger so that she could experience the exhibition from her seclusion in mourning. The London and North Western Railway exhibited one of their express passenger locomotives, No. 531 Lady of the Lake. A sister locomotive, No. 229 Watt had famously carried Trent Affair despatches earlier that year, but the Lady of the Lake was so popular that the entire class of locomotive became known as Ladies of the Lake. There was an extensive art galley designed to allow an light without reflection on the pictures.
The exhibition included an international chess tournament, the London 1862 chess tournament. Unlike The Great Exhibition of 1851, the Society of Arts chose to have a distinctive musical component to the exhibition of 1862. Music critic Henry Chorley was selected as advisor and recommended commissioning works by William Sterndale Bennett, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Daniel Auber, Gioacchino Rossini. Being in his retirement, Rossini declined, so the Society asked Giuseppe Verdi, who accepted. William Sterndale Bennett wrote his Ode Written Expressly for the Opening of the International Exhibition, Meyerbeer wrote his Fest-Ouvertüre im Marschstyl, Auber wrote his Grand triumphal march; these three works premiered at the opening of the exhibition on 1 May 1862, with the orchestra led by conductor Michael Costa. Controversies involving Verdi's contribution, the cantata Inno delle nazioni, prevented the work from being included in the inaugural concert, it was first performed on 24 May 1862 at Her Majesty's Theatre in a concert organized by James Henry Mapleso