Garden city movement
The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom and aims to capture the primary benefits of a countryside environment and a city environment while avoiding the disadvantages presented by both. Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty, Howard published the book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898, his idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres, planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail.
Howard’s To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition, Garden Cities of To-morrow. This success provided him the support necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. Howard believed that all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time, he quotes a number of their disdain of cities. Howard’s garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or in ‘crowded, unhealthy cities’. To build a garden city, Howard needed money to buy land, he decided to get funding from "gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and honour". He founded the Garden City Association, which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth. However, these donors would collect interest on their investment if the garden city generated profits through rents or, as Fishman calls the process, ‘philanthropic land speculation’.
Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two million members, but could not win their financial support. Because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans. In 1904, Raymond Unwin, a noted architect and town planner, his partner Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth, an area 34 miles outside London. Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard’s large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town, they shared Howard’s notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing. However, the architects ignored Howard’s symmetric design, instead replacing it with a more ‘organic’ design. Letchworth attracted more residents because it brought in manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space.
Despite Howard’s best efforts, the home prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for blue-collar workers to live in. The populations comprised skilled middle class workers. After a decade, the First Garden City became profitable and started paying dividends to its investors. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities. In reference to the lack of government support for garden cities, Frederic James Osborn, a colleague of Howard and his eventual successor at the Garden City Association, recalled him saying, "The only way to get anything done is to do it yourself." In frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second garden city in 1919. The purchase was at auction, with money Howard and borrowed from friends; the Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction. But Welwyn did not become self-sustaining; until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only existing garden cities in the United Kingdom.
However, the movement did succeed in emphasizing the need for urban planning policies that led to the New Town movement. Howard organised the Garden City Association in 1899. Two garden cities were built using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the county of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Howard's successor as chairman of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn, who extended the movement to regional planning; the concept was adopted again in the UK after World War II, when the New Towns Act spurred the development of many new communities based on Howard's egalitarian ideas. The idea of the garden city was influential including the United States. Examples include Residence Park in New York.
A parlour is a reception room or public space. In medieval Christian Europe, the "outer parlour" was the room where the monks or nuns conducted business with those outside the monastery and the "inner parlour" was used for necessary conversation between resident members. In the English-speaking world of the 18th and 19th century, having a parlour room was evidence of social status. Parlour derives from the Old French word parloir or parler, entered English around the turn of the 16th century. In its original usage it denoted a place set aside for debating people, an "audience chamber"; the first known use of the word to denote a room was in medieval Christian Europe, when it designated the two rooms in a monastery where clergy, constrained by vow or regulation from speaking otherwise in the cloister, were allowed to converse without disturbing their fellows. The "outer parlour" was the room where the monks or nuns conducted business with those outside the monastery, it was located in the west range of the buildings of the cloister, close to the main entrance.
The "inner parlour" was located off the cloister next to the chapter house in the east range of the monastery and was used for necessary conversation between resident members. It was the function of the "outer parlour" as the public antechamber of the monastery, adapted into domestic architecture. In the early modern period homes became larger and concepts of privacy evolved as material prosperity was more shared. Rooms were set aside for the reception of guests and other visitors, screening them from the rest of the home. Although aristocratic homes might have state rooms, the frequent name for this reception room among the emerging middle classes was the "parlour". In the English-speaking world of the 18th and 19th century, having a parlour room was evidence of social status, it was proof that one had risen above those who lived in two rooms. As the parlour was the room in which the larger world encountered the private sphere of middle class life it was invariably the best room in the home.
The parlour displayed a family's best furnishings, works of art and other status symbols. The parlour was used for receptions around formal family occasions such as weddings and funerals; some tradespeople used the parlour of their houses in the service of their businesses. Hence, funeral parlours, beauty parlours, the like. In the 20th century, the widespread use of the telephone and automobiles, the increasing casualness of society led to the decline of formal reception rooms in domestic architecture in English-speaking countries; the secondary functions of the parlour for entertaining and display were taken up by various kinds of sitting rooms, such as the living room, or the drawing room. Despite its decline in domestic architecture, the term parlour continues to have an afterlife in its second meaning as nomenclature for various commercial enterprises. In addition to "funeral parlour" and "beauty parlour", it is common to say "betting parlour", "billiard parlour", "ice cream parlour", "pizza parlour", "massage parlour" and "tattoo parlour".
Less common uses include "beer parlour", "wine parlour", "spaghetti parlour", "coffee parlour". The dialect-specific usage of this English term instead of another varies by region. Family room Massage parlour Recreation room
Seacroft is an outer-city suburb/township consisting of council estate housing covering an extensive area of east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It lies in the LS14 Leeds postcode area, its centre is about 4 miles east of Leeds city centre. It sits in the Killingbeck & Seacroft ward of Leeds City Council and Leeds East parliamentary constituency; the population of the corresponding Leeds City Ward was nearly 18,000 in 2001 and fell to 14,426 in 2011. The name is used as a catch-all for Seacroft and the neighbouring areas of Whinmoor and Swarcliffe, other large east Leeds council estates which merge into each other. Seacroft includes one of the largest council estates in the country and Yorkshire's second largest council estate, after Bransholme in Kingston upon Hull; the latter, was part of Humberside county from 1974 to 1996. Due to its size, Seacroft has been referred to as a town; the original vision, envisaged by the council was that it would be a'Town within the City Limits', the Seacroft Civic Centre was referred to as the'Seacroft Town Centre'.
Seacroft was at one time a small village between York. The village green, known as "The Green" still exists, is one of the oldest in the country with the stretch of land being mentioned in the Domesday Book, it has St James parish church on the south side. John Wesley preached on The Green, as a result a Wesleyan Chapel was built close by. Seacroft Green has an active residents' association. Seacroft village is mentioned in the Domesday Book. Evidence of much earlier inhabitation was found during construction of the estate in the 1950s. A stone axe dating from the Neolithic age was found on Kentmere Avenue. In addition, two silver Roman coins were found on The Green in the 1850s. Seacroft village is the original part of Seacroft, around The Green and Cricketers Arms, is referred to today. Seacroft Hall was built in the 17th century by the Shiletto family incorporating extensive landscaping and parkland. Despite being a listed building the hall was demolished in the 1950s; the original entrance lodge still stands on York Road with Parklands School on South Parkway now occupying the location of the hall.
There is one shop in the area, Seacroft Village, a small village off licence, built since the building of the estate. Seacroft Grange was built in 1627 for the Tottie family and is known as Tottie Hall, it is a grade II listed building, along with its service buildings. Although the English Heritage record says it was rebuilt in 1837 other sources record the building as original, noting that in 1837 the new tenant John Wilson renamed it to Seacroft Grange and set his coat of arms over the door; the building included a celebrated late 17th century staircase thought to have been brought from Austhorpe Hall. It is now part of Seacroft Grange Care Village. See The Seacroft Village Preservation Society. There is an old non-operating windmill, that pre-dates the estate, incorporated into a hotel; the village developed over the centuries and saw little change until the post-war years. Work on the estate began in the 1950s. Many of the older houses on the estate are more traditional red-brick semis built around the Beechwood area, to the North of the estate.
In the 1960s many prefabricated houses and high-rise flats were constructed on the estate. Two main roads were built through these being North Parkway and South Parkway. North Parkway was built with a dual carriageway, in a similar way as Oak Tree Drive, Coldcotes Drive and Gipton Approach in neighbouring Gipton. In 1934, Leeds City Council bought 1,000 acres for municipal housing, after World War II the majority of houses and blocks of flats were built; the council had planned for Seacroft to be a "satellite town within the city boundary"In addition to this vision, other areas surrounding Seacroft were built using the same principle. In the 1960s building work in the Swarcliffe and Stanks areas started, in the 1970s in Whinmoor. However, none of these were as large or ambitious as Seacroft, with the intention that these areas use many of the amenities built along with the Seacroft Estate such as the Civic Centre and Seacroft's secondary schools; as such amenities were kept to a minimum in Swarcliffe and Whinmoor, with the estates only having small local shops, public houses and primary schools.
Seacroft has the main central bus interchange for North East Leeds, although the nearest railway station is in Cross Gates. The 1960s saw the construction of the Seacroft Civic Centre, at the time a novel way of building an outdoor purpose built town centre; the Civic Centre had a Grandways supermarket and a Woolworths Group as well as many other smaller shops, pubs and a library. In the 1990s it had become apparent that the condition of the Civic Centre had deteriorated in the 30 years since its construction. Talks were held with Leeds City Council, Tesco were found as the preferred bidder to rebuild the Seacroft Civic Centre. In 1999, work began clearing the site and in the 2000s the new'Seacroft Green Shopping Centre' opened; the Tesco supermarket was cited at the time to be the largest in Europe, a claim which may not have been true. It is, still an enormous supermarket spread over two levels; the car park was enlarged and other shop units were built along the side of the supermarket, making the centre a crescent shape.
An overspill estate is a housing estate planned and built for the housing of excess population in urban areas, both from the natural increase of population and in order to rehouse people from decaying inner city areas as part of the process of slum clearance. They were created on the outskirts of most large British towns and during most of the 20th century, with new towns being an alternative approach outside London after World War II; the Town Development Act, 1952 encouraged the expansion of neighbouring urban areas rather than the creation of satellite communities. Slum clearance tenants had problems with the move, since it separated them from extended family and friends, needed services were lacking, only the better off workers could afford the extra cost of commuting back to their jobs. Another criticism was. London overspill Urban sprawl Chelmsley Wood Darnhill Gamesley Hattersley St Helier, London Wythenshawe
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Clement Attlee was invited by King George VI to form the Attlee ministry in the United Kingdom in July 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Labour Party had won a landslide victory at the 1945 general election, enacting much of the post-war consensus policies the welfare state and nationalisation of some industries; the government was marked by post-war austerity measures, in giving independence to India, engagement in the Cold War against Soviet Communism. Attlee went on to win a narrow majority of five seats at the 1950 general election, forming the second Attlee ministry. Just twenty months after that election, Attlee called a new election for 25 October 1951 in an attempt to gain a larger majority, but was narrowly defeated by the Conservatives; the Labour Party came to power in the United Kingdom after its unexpected victory in the July 1945 general election. Party leader Clement Attlee became Prime Minister replacing Winston Churchill in late July.
Ernest Bevin was Foreign Secretary until shortly before his death in April 1951. Hugh Dalton became Chancellor of the Exchequer, but had to resign in 1947, while James Chuter Ede was Home Secretary for the whole duration of the Attlee ministries' stay in power. Other notable figures in the government included: Herbert Morrison, Deputy Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Commons, who replaced Bevin as Foreign Secretary in March 1951; the most notable of the few female members of the government was Ellen Wilkinson, Minister for Education until her early death in 1947. It was an "age of austerity," as wartime rationing was continued despite the Allied Forces' victory, was expanded upon to include bread. Living conditions were poor, instead of expansion, it was a matter of replacing the national wealth destroyed or used up during the war; the Great Depression did not return, full employment was created. Returning veterans were reabsorbed into the postwar society; the Attlee government nationalised about 20% of the economy, including coal, road transport, the Bank of England, civil aviation and gas, steel.
However, there was no money for investment to modernise these industries, there was no effort made to turn control over to union members. The Attlee government expanded the welfare state, with the National Health Service Act 1946, which nationalised the hospitals and provided for free universal healthcare; the National Insurance Act 1946 provided sickness and unemployment benefits for adults, plus retirement pensions. The National Assistance Act 1948 provided a safety net for anyone not otherwise covered. More council housing was built, plans were made through the New Towns Act of 1946 for the growth of suburbs, to reduce overcrowding in major cities such as London and Glasgow. Since there was little money for detailed planning, the government adopted Keynesianism, which allowed for planning in the sense of overall control of the national deficit and surplus. Two laws written by the Conservatives during the war were expanded, the Family Allowances Act 1945 and the Education Act 1944; the Transport Act 1947 established the British Transport Commission, which took control over the railways from the Big Four — Great Western Railway, London and Scottish Railway and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway — to form British Railways.
In foreign affairs, the government was active in the United Nations and negotiated a $5,000,000,000 loan from the United States and Canada in 1946. It eagerly joined the Marshall Plan in 1948, it could no longer afford to support the Greek government and encouraged the U. S. to take its place through the Truman Doctrine in 1947. It took an active role in joining the United States in the Cold War and forming NATO, it gave independence to India, Pakistan and Burma and moved to strengthen the British Commonwealth. 1945–51 The Labour Party comes to power with a programme for nationalising weak sectors of the economy.1946 Coal industry under the National Coal Board. Bank of England. National Health Service created making medical services free. NHS started operations in 1948. 1947 British Electricity Authority and area electricity boards. Cable & Wireless. 1948 National rail, inland water transport, some road haulage, some road passenger transport and Thomas Cook & Son under the British Transport Commission.
Separate elements operated as British Railways, British Road Services, British Waterways. 1949 Local authority gas supply undertakings in England and Wales. 1951 Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. Attlee's Health Minister, Aneurin Bevan, fought hard against the general disapproval of the medical establishment, including the British Medical Association, by creating the National Health Service in 1948; this was a publicly funded healthcare system, which offered treatment free of charge for all, regardless of income at the point-of-use. Reflecting pent-up demand that had long existed for medical services, the NHS treated some 8,500,000 dental patients and dispensed more than 5,000,000 pairs of spectacles du
Hurlford is a village in East Ayrshire, Scotland. It has a population of 4,968. Hurlford's former names include Hurdleford; the village was named Whirlford as a result of a ford crossing the River Irvine east of Hurlford Cross, near Shawhill. It shares its name in Baile Àtha Cliath with the Irish capital Dublin; the village's Blair Park is home to Hurlford United F. C. and many notable footballers have been trained there. The village is contained in the Kilmarnock East and Hurlford ward of East Ayrshire Council while some outlying hamlets are in the Irvine Valley ward. Traditionally part of Riccarton parish, the village is now a quoad sacra parish in its own right. Hurlford is home to four church buildings—the Hurlford Kirk and Hurlford Church, both in Main Road and the Mauchline Road Church. St Paul's Catholic Church is on Galston Road, Gothic style church, designed by architect Robert Samson Ingram and dates from 1883 and is constructed in yellow brick. Hurlford Church, the former Free Church built in 1857, is part of the Church of Scotland.
Mauchline Road Church was part of the Unitarian Church. It is now used as luxury housing; the Hurlford Kirk, the original parish church built in 1875 has been converted into a house, having become redundant as a church in 1996 when its congregation merged with that of the Free Church. Hurlford Primary School Hurlford Grammar and Secondary School is the non-denominational primary school for the area and houses Hurlford Nursery School; the building itself dates back to 1905. Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay and congratulated the staff and children on 20 June 2005 on their achievements transforming school meals, followed by the school winning the Soil Association's School Food Award at the BBC's Good Food Show, presented by Jamie Oliver. Crossroads Primary School, now closed served the outlying areas of Hurlford and surrounding villages, it was closed by East Ayrshire Council as it was no longer financially viable to repair the building, despite parental and local protest. Pupils now attend Galston Primary School.
The town developed in the 19th century, following the discovery of coal. Fireclay and ironstone were worked extensively until production ceased in the 1970s. A poignant reminder of the heyday of the iron and steel industry of Hurlford is the ship's propeller erected at the Cross in the redeveloped town centre. Today, industries found in Hurlford include brakepad manufacturing by Eurofriction Limited and whisky production by international company Diageo. Hurlford railway station is now closed. However, East Ayrshire Council have entered negotiations with First ScotRail and Strathclyde Partnership for Transport to re-introduce passenger rail halts. Hurlford used to boast its own tramway system, which connected it to Kilmarnock. Nowadays, the main public transport links are provided by several Stagecoach Western bus services, including direct services to Glasgow. Gordon Cree - well-known pianist, conductor and general character Ross Tollerton - British Army soldier in World War I, awarded the Victoria Cross Robert Dunsmuir - industrialist and developer of coal mines and the E&N Railway on Vancouver Island Jimmy Knapp - General Secretary of the RMT transport union George Wylie - awarded the George Cross in honour of his heroic attempts to defuse a Nazi bomb which had landed on St Paul's Cathedral in LondonThe village is referred to as a "football nursery" due to its high output of footballers.
Ian Bryson - Sheffield United F. C. Barnsley F. C. Preston North End F. C, Rochdale A. F. C. Footballer David Calderhead - Queen of the South and Notts County footballer and Chelsea F. C. manager William Goldie - Leicester City footballer Jack Picken - Manchester United, Bolton Wanderers and Plymouth Argyle footballer Sandy Turnbull - Manchester City and Manchester United footballer Arthur Young - Manchester United footballer Jack Young – Kilmarnock & Bristol Rovers footballer. Colin Douglas - Doncaster Rovers and Rotherham United footballer. Peter Kirkbride - weightlifter, 2010 Commonwealth Games silver medalist Shawhill Estate, East Ayrshire