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Public housing in the United Kingdom

Public housing provided the majority of rented accommodation in the United Kingdom until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social housing. Houses and flats built for public or social housing use are built by or for local authorities and known as council houses, though since the 1980s the role of non-profit housing associations became more important and subsequently the term "social housing" became more used, as technically council housing only refers to housing owned by a local authority, though the terms are used interchangeably. Before 1865, housing for the poor was provided by the private sector. Council houses were built on council estates, where other amenities, like schools and shops, were also provided. From the 1950s, blocks of flats and three- or four-storey blocks of maisonettes were built, alongside large developments of terraced housing, while the 1960s and the 1970s saw construction of many high-rise tower blocks. Flats and houses were built in mixed estates.

Council homes were built to supply uncrowded, well-built homes on secure tenancies at reasonable rents to working-class people. Council housing in the mid-20th century included many large suburban "council estates", featuring terraced and semi-detached houses, where other amenities like schools and shops were also provided. By the late 1970s a third of UK households lived in social housing: some of these developments did not live up to the hopes of their supporters, now suffer from urban blight, while others became desirable locations. Since 1979, the role of council housing has changed. Housing stock has been sold under Right to Buy legislation, new social housing has been developed and managed by housing associations. A substantial part of the UK population still lives in council housing: in 2010, about 17% of UK households. 55% of the country's social housing stock is owned by local authorities – of which 15% is managed on a day-to-day basis by arms-length management organisations, rather than the authority, 45% by housing associations.

In Scotland, council estates are known as'schemes'. The history of public housing is the history of the housing of the poor; that statement is controversial, as before 1890 the state was not involved in housing policy. Public housing became needed to provide "homes fit for heroes" in 1919 to enable slum clearance. Standards were set to ensure high-quality homes. Aneurin Bevan, a Labour politician, passionately believed that council houses should be provided for all, while the Conservative politician Harold Macmillan saw council housing "as a stepping stone to home ownership"; the Labour government of Harold Wilson built houses and flats to the point where there was a surplus in the late 1960s. The Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher introduced Right to Buy in 1979, with the millionth council house being sold within seven years. In time the transfer of public housing stock to the private sector reached the point where councils had to rent back their own houses in order to house the homeless.

In the stable medieval model of landowner and peasant, where estate workers lived at the landowner's whim in a tied cottage, the aged and infirm needed provision from their former employer, the church or the state. The documented history of social housing in Britain starts with almshouses, which were established from the 10th century, to provide a place of residence for "poor and distressed folk"; the first recorded almshouse was founded in York by King Æthelstan. 1133. The public workhouse was the final fallback solution for the destitute. Rural poverty had been increased by the Inclosure Acts leaving many in need of assistance; this was divided into outside relief, or handouts to keep the family together, inside relief, which meant submitting to the workhouse. The workhouse provided for two groups of people – the transient population roaming the country looking for seasonal work, the long-term residents; the two were kept separate. The long term residents included single elderly men incapable of further labour, young women with their children—often women, abandoned by their husbands, single mothers and servant-girls, dismissed from residential positions.

The pressure for decent housing was increased by overcrowding in the large cities during the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century. Some industrialists and independent organisations provided housing in tenement blocks, while some philanthropist factory owners built entire villages for their workers, such as Saltaire and Port Sunlight; the City of London Corporation built tenements in Farringdon Road in 1865, but this was an isolated instance. The first council to build housing as an integrated policy was Liverpool Corporation, starting with St Martin's Cottages in Ashfield Street, completed in 1869; the Corporation built Victoria Square Dwellings, opened by Home Secretary Sir Richard Cross in 1885. That year, a Royal Commission was held, as the state had taken an interest in housing and housing policy; this led to the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, which encouraged the London authority to improve the housing in their areas. It gave them the power to acquire land and to build tenements and houses.

As a consequence, London County Council opened the Boundary Estate in 1900, a'block dwelling estate' of tenements in Tower Hamlets. The Housing of the Working Classes Act 1900 exten

Big Chicken Shaq

Big Chicken Shaq is an American reality web television series that premiered on October 6, 2018, on Facebook Watch. Big Chicken Shaq follows Shaquille O'Neal's "journey as he angles to balance his busy life with the restaurant – determined to maintain his singular humor in the process." On July 25, 2018, it was announced that Facebook had given the production a series order for a first season consisting of eight episodes. Executive producers were set to include Steven Michaels, Jonathan Koch, Ryann Lauckner, James Macnab, Mark Efman, Shaquille O’Neal, Perry Rogers, Colin Smeeton, Mike Parris. Production companies involved in the series were slated to consist of Asylum Entertainment. On September 27, 2018, it was reported that the series would premiere its first two episodes on October 6, 2018. List of original programs distributed by Facebook Watch Official website Big Chicken Shaq on IMDb

Mikee Goodman

Mikee W. Goodman is a British vocalist, voice artist and music video director, he is best known for being one of the two vocalists of SikTh. He made an album in 2012 titled Awoken Broken under the project Primal Rock Rebellion, with Iron Maiden guitarist Adrian Smith. Goodman performed as a guest vocalist for Bat for Lashes, Deathember, This Is Menace and Periphery, he has been a member of the bands Outside The Coma, The Painted Smiles and Sad Season. In 2002, he wrote and directed a music video for the SikTh song "How May I Help You?", awarded best video of 2003 in Big Cheese Magazine. The video appeared on Scuzz MTV2 MTV Asia, he has since directed other music videos. In 2017, he started work for the video game company ZA/UM on Disco Elysium, released in October 2019, as a voice actor for several characters. Following his work on the game, he started. Let the Transmitting Begin How May I Help You? The Trees Are Dead & Dried Out Wait for Something Wild Scent of the Obscene Death of a Dead Day Flogging the Horses Opacities The Future in Whose Eyes?

Awoken Broken This Is Menace, "No End In Sight" Bat for Lashes, "Fur and Gold" This Is Menace, "The Scene is Dead" Cyclamen, "Sleep Street" Deathember, "The Linear Act" Periphery, "Reptile" Mikee Goodman Official Website

Bergkrystallen station

Bergkrystallen is the end station on the Lambertseter Line, after Munkelia, of the Oslo Metro. It is located in the Nordstrand borough. Bergkrystallen is a road just north of the station; the area is residential. It was planned to extend the Lambertseter Line to Mortensrud, but the Østensjø Line was extended instead; the station is served by Line 4. Bergkrystallen was opened as the end stop of the Lambertseter tram line in 1957, it was upgraded to a subway station in 1966. Although the subway system was formally opened by the king at Jernbanetorget on 22 May 1966, the king and mayor travelled the line to Bergkrystallen where there was a ceremonial bouquet presentation in front of a large audience; the building of more residential apartments on the station has met local resistance. In 2007, a proposal was made to build a kindergarten on the station. Media related to Bergkrystallen stasjon at Wikimedia Commons

Bulldog type

Bulldogs are a type of dog that were traditionally used for the blood sports of baiting and dog fighting, but today are kept for other purposes, including companion dogs, guard dogs and catch dogs. Bulldogs are stocky, square built animals with large, brachycephalic-type muzzles, it is believed bulldogs were developed during the 16th century Elizabethan era from the large mastiffs, as smaller, more compact dogs were better suited for baiting. Alano Español American Bulldog American Bully Bulldog Campeiro Bulldog Continental bulldog French Bulldog Olde English Bulldogge Perro de Presa Mallorquin Serrano Bulldog Bullenbeisser Old English Bulldog Toy Bulldog

Île-de-France tramway Line 1

Île-de-France tramway Line 1 is part of the modern tram network of the Île-de-France region of France. Line T1 connects Noisy-le-Sec station and Les Courtilles with a suburban alignment running in parallel to the Northern city limits of Paris; the line has a length of 36 stations. It opened in 1992 as the first modern tram line in the Paris region; the line was extended in December 2003 and November 2012. Line T1 is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens under the authority of Île-de-France Mobilités. Daily ridership reaches 188,000 passengers making it the second busiest line of the tram network. A 1-stop extension to the west towards Quatre Routes is under construction and due to open to the public in mid-2019. A further extension to the west towards Colombes is at the planning stage. To the east a planned extension towards Val de Fontenay, blocked for several years due to strong opposition from the municipality of Noisy-le-Sec, will be constructed in two stages with the first phase connecting Noisy-le-Sec station to Montreuil only.

6 July 1992: Start of service between Bobigny—Pablo Picasso and La Courneuve—8 Mai 1945 15 December 1992: Extension towards the west from La Courneuve—8 Mai 1945 to Gare de Saint-Denis 15 December 2003: Extension towards the east from Bogigny—Pablo Picasso to Gare de Noisy-le-Sec 15 November 2012: Extension towards the west from Gare de Saint-Denis to Les Courtilles' Île-de-France tramway Line 1 marked the return to this type of transportation, having been absent in the region since 1957, was the result of a long battle between the Seine-Saint-Denis General Council and the towns through which it would pass. In July 1976, the schéma directeur d'aménagement et d'urbanisme de la région parisienne caused the creation of ring roads to the north and south of the agglomeration to facilitate links between different suburbs for which there was a increasing demand. A schéma directeur des sites propres was created by the RATP in response to a request from the direction régionale de l'Équipement d'Île-de-France.

It notably discussed the issue of traffic congestion on Route nationale 186 which would be relieved by the creation of the A86 autoroute. In 1977, the Institut d'aménagement et d'urbanisme de la région d'Île-de-France was given a mission by the direction régionale de l'Équipement to study the creation of two structural ring roads in the suburbs, one of, to connect the business district of La Défense in the west to the capital of Seine-Saint-Denis, Bobigny, in the east; the Institute proposed that they use a tramway, which has a greater capacity than the bus and has numerous other advantages such as less noise, no pollution, adaptability to future traffic situation and accessibility for the disabled due to its lower platform. The tramway seemed to be the perfect solution for suburb-to-suburb connections since the lower ridership could never justify creating a metro line but was too high for a simple bus line. In 1980, the IAURIF studied more the connection between Saint-Denis and Bobigny, the first section of the ring in partnership with the RATP which still had some reservations about using this mode of transportation since the expected ridership seemed like it might not be sufficient to ensure the profitability of a tramway.

The Seine-Saint-Denis General Council argued in favour of the project since the national political shift towards the Left in May 1981 favoured such an outcome. In 1982, the RATP, in cooperation with the direction départementale de l'Équipement of Seine-Saint-Denis, commissioned a preliminary feasibility study on a tramway project which would serve the nearby suburban areas that were populated but were affected by deindustrialization and population decline; the proposed route had connections with three metro lines and one train station, which made it more attractive in combining the ring road service with being a feeder for the radial lines from downtown Paris. The first version of the proposal was presented in March to April 1983; the IAURIF boasted its commitment to "intermediate solutions between heavy rail systems and bus networks, victims of overcrowding." Nonetheless, the institute left the choice of mode of transportation on the table, only indicating its preference for electrically powered transportation which meant a choice between the tramway and the trolleybus.

A comparison was given between three different solutions: a tramway, an articulated bus and an articulated trolleybus. The study showed that the installation of a tramway would cost the most, but its operational cost per passenger would be lower after the first year and would attract more passengers; the balance sheet would be positive for this mode of transportation in less than 12 months of operation. The proposal highlighted the attractiveness of the modern tramway to the public, its effect on urban planning was demonstrated with the rehabilitation of the neighbourhoods it served and reduced usage of the highways. On 28 October 1983 the proposal was approved by the conseil d'administration of the RATP, it was cosigned by the RATP and the DDE 93 in April 1984 and was approved by the STIF. The project was thus included in regional planning; the expected ridership was 55,000 passengers per day on average, or an annual ridership of 15 million passengers, with a minimum frequency of one train every four minutes during rush hour and