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Council of Florence

The Council of Florence is the seventeenth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held between 1431 to 1449. It was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy; the Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing some of the Byzantine ambassadors who were in attendance at Basel to Italy; the remaining members of the Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic, in November 1439 elected an antipope, Felix V. The rival Council of Florence concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches; this bridging of the Great Schism was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basel.

The initial location in the Prince-Bishopric of Basel reflected the desire among parties seeking reform to meet outside territories directly controlled by the Pope, the Emperor or the kings of Aragon and France, whose influences the council hoped to avoid. Ambrogio Traversari attended the Council of Basel as legate of Pope Eugene IV. Under pressure for ecclesiastical reform, Pope Martin V sanctioned a decree of the Council of Constance obliging the papacy to summon general councils periodically. At the expiration of the first term fixed by this decree, Pope Martin V complied by calling a council at Pavia. Due to an epidemic the location transferred at once to Siena and disbanded, in circumstances still imperfectly known, just as it had begun to discuss the subject of reform; the next council fell due at the expiration of seven years in 1431. Martin himself, died before the opening of the synod; the Council was seated on 14 December 1431, at a period when the conciliar movement was strong and the authority of the papacy weak.

The Council at Basel opened with only a few bishops and abbots attending, but it grew and to make its numbers greater gave the lower orders a majority over the bishops. It adopted an anti-papal attitude, proclaimed the superiority of the Council over the Pope and prescribed an oath to be taken by every Pope on his election. On 18 December Martin's successor, Pope Eugene IV, tried to dissolve it and open a new council on Italian soil at Bologna, but he was overruled. Sigismund, King of Hungary and titular King of Bohemia, had been defeated at the Battle of Domažlice in the fifth crusade against the Hussites in August 1431. Under his sponsorship, the Council negotiated a peace with Calixtine faction of the Hussites in January 1433. Pope Eugene acknowledged the council in May and crowned Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor on 31 May 1433; the divided Hussites were defeated in May 1434. In June 1434, the pope began a ten-year exile in Florence; when the Council was moved from Basel to Ferrara in 1438, some remained at Basel, claiming to be the Council.

They elected Duke of Savoy, as Antipope. Driven out of Basel in 1448, they moved to Lausanne, where Felix V, the pope they had elected and the only claimant to the papal throne who took the oath that they had prescribed, resigned; the next year, they decreed the closure of what. The new council was transferred to Florence in 1439 because of the danger of plague at Ferrara and because Florence had agreed, against future payment, to finance the Council; the Council had meanwhile negotiated reunification with several Eastern Churches, reaching agreements on such matters as the Western insertion of the phrase "Filioque" to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, the definition and number of the sacraments, the doctrine of Purgatory. Another key issue was papal primacy, which involved the universal and supreme jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome over the whole Church, including the national Churches of the East and nonreligious matters such as the promise of military assistance against the Ottomans.

The final decree of union was a signed document called the Laetentur Caeli, "Let the Heavens Rejoice". Some bishops feeling political pressure from the Byzantine Emperor, accepted the decrees of the Council and reluctantly signed. Others did so by sincere conviction, such as Isidore of Kiev, who subsequently suffered for it. Only one Eastern Bishop, Mark of Ephesus, refused to accept the union and became the leader of opposition back in Byzantium, while the Serbian patriarch did not attend the council; the Russians, upon learning of the union, angrily rejected it and ousted any prelate, remotely sympathetic to it, declaring the Russian Orthodox Church as autocephalus. Despite the religious union, Western military assistance to Byzantium was insufficient, the fall of Constantinople occurred in May 1453; the Council declared the Basel group heretics and excommunicated them, the superiority of the Pope over the Councils was affirmed in the bull Etsi non dubitemus of 20 April 1441. The democratic character of the assembly at Basel was a result of both its composition and its organization.

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Gregorio Morales

Gregorio Morales, was a Spanish novelist. Gregorio Morales represents a movement named quantum aesthetics that aims to look at human difficulties of all ages from a new perspective that derives from modern sciences such as particle physics, astronomy or psychology. In this way, Puerta del Sol is about genre violence; these themes are developed in a plot in which the boy representing the main character, faces the great assassin that he himself will be. These actions occur in a turbulent simultaneity of space. In Nómadas del Tiempo, Morales deals with the same problems, but this time inquires whether love is bound to age and space, he develops the story by having two couples travel to parallel dimensions, in which they change their ages and circumstances. Although it may not seem so at first glance, quantum aesthetics has no relation with science fiction; the latter emphasizes different realities, while authors like Gregorio Morales are more interested in understanding humankind. This does not mean that they do not write about virtual worlds as in the case of Ptawardya in Morales’novel Nómadas del Tiempo.

Morales has written essays, the most important of, El Cadáver de Balzac, in which – with respect to the great French novelist - Morales censures repetition and defends a new paradigm that will discover mystery to the readers making it a part of their daily lives. This book was basic for the foundation of The Quantum Aesthetics Movement, that spread throughout the world, appeared in the United States of America as The World of Quantum Culture, whose first chapter "Overcoming the Limit Syndrome", belongs to Morales. In the books Principio de incertidumbre and La isla del loco, the author goes deep into the chore and develops the ideas contained in El cadaver de Balzac. Morales cultivates and unites all the genres that transgress the habitual limits of humankind, in order to get to know and apprehend its nature; this is the reason why eroticism appears in his works together with science and terror. In this way Morales has written El juego del viento y la luna, the only universal erotic anthology that has existed in Spanish.

Historia del erotismo. Gregorio Morales was born in Granada 7 July 1952, his childhood was marked by the assassination of his grandfather, the republican lord mayor of a little village of the Province of Granada, during the Spanish Civil War. He wrote his first narratives before the age of 10, he studied Roman Philology in the University of Granada. He worked as a waiter and in his life he became a professor of Spanish literature. In 1982, he moved to Madrid where he introduced himself in the circle of The Belles Arts founding the "Tertulia de Creadores" that received the highest representants of La Movida Madrileña in the Spanish post-modern age. At this time he published his first novel Y Hesperia fue hecha. In 1989 he published the novel, considered his masterpiece and one of the most relevant works in Spanish literature, La Cuarta Locura. Antonio Muñoz Molina said; the dangers of the official culture made Morales take the initiative to found and to preside over, in 1994, The Saloon of Independents, integrated by 60 writers from all over the country.

Many of the members of this saloon defended the New Aesthetic and they decided to call them'quantum aesthetics'. El Cadaver de Balzac, that Morales published in 1998, is the manifest of this movement. In 1999, the Quantum Aesthetics Group was founded. At the beginning of the 21st century, Gregorio Morales published some of his most emblematic novels, such as La individuación, Puerta del Sol and Nómadas del tiempo. At the same time, the polemic surrounding the quantum aesthetics grew. Gregorio Morales was a numeral member of La Academia de Buenas Letras de Granada, and he wrote a column in the local paper of Granada IDEAL. He was a compromised author and militant in the Republican Left in Spain. Y Hesperia fue hecha Puntos de vista Razón de amor La cuarta locura Erótica sagrada Cuentos de terror El amor ausente El pecado del adivino El cadáver de Balzac El juego del viento y la luna. Antología de la literatura erótica Ella. Él El devorador de sombras El mundo de la cultura cuántica Puerta del Sol La individuación Principio de incertidumbre Canto cuántico Nómadas del tiempo La isla del loco Escritos sobre arte Quixote Erótico El gigante de cristal.

Textos sobre Granada Por amor al deseo. Historia del erotismo Poems from "Quantum Song" The Balzac's corpse

Bernhard von Kugler

Bernhard von Kugler was a German historian. He is known for his research of the Crusades, he studied at the Universities of Greifswald, Tübingen and Munich, obtaining his habilitation in history at University of Munich in 1861. He became an associate professor and a full professor of history at the University of Tübingen, he was the son of art historian Franz Theodor Kugler. Boemund und Tankred, Fürsten von Antiochien: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Normannen in Syrien, 1862 – Bohemond and Tancred, prince of Antioch: a contribution to the history of the Normans in Syria. Ulrich Herzog zu Wirtemberg, 1865 – Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg. Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges, 1866 – Studies involving the history of the Second Crusade. Christoph, Herzog zu Wirtemberg – Christoph, Duke of Württemberg. Analecten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzugs. 1878 - Selections from the history of the Second Crusade. Geschichte der Kreuzzüge, 1880 – History of the Crusades. Neue Analecten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges, 1883 - New selections from the history of the Second Crusade.

Albert von Aachen 1885 – Albert of Aix