The Iraqi passport is a passport document issued to citizens of Iraq, including the country’s autonomous Kurdistan region, for international travel. The new "A" series of passports began circulating on February 1, 2010, as a result of Iraqi governmental initiatives to create a more secure Iraqi passport. Previous series issued by passport offices in Iraq and diplomatic representatives worldwide include the "S" non-machine-readable series, the "G" series; the new A-series passports have been issued since 1 October 2009. Passports in the G-series are thus no longer issued, but they are still valid until their expiry date. However, in autumn 2014, a document expert at a Western embassy in Amman informed Landinfo that the Iraqi authorities were still issuing G-series passports; this means. A-series passports differ from G-series passports in that they contain text in Arabic and English. There is a difference on the page containing personal data – G-series passports have a field for the passport holder’s signature or fingerprints, while in A-series passports, this field has been replaced by a bar code.
The page containing biometric data is laminated. The passport holder’s signature is on page 3 in the passport. A-series passports are valid for eight years; the passport number is perforated through the bottom of each page starting from page 3. Pages 4–48 are visa pages. All A-series passports are personal. Children must have their own passport. There are four different passport types. Regular passport – Issued to all citizens of the Republic of Iraq, it is valid for eight years depending on the age of the passport applicant/holder. Those passports are not extendable or renewable and a new one must be obtained once expired. Diplomatic passport – Issued to Iraqi diplomats accredited overseas and their eligible dependents, to citizens who reside in the Republic of Iraq and travel abroad for diplomatic work. Title and function of the bearer is listed on the data page of the Diplomatic Passport in addition to the information contained, it is valid for five years. Service passport – Issued to citizen-employees of the Republic of Iraq assigned overseas, Iraqi Government employees working at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or at the Iraqi Diplomatic Mission assigned abroad.
Official Passports can be issued to other government officials that are to travel abroad, with prior approval, as well as to their spouses and children living in the same household. Title and function of the bearer is listed on the data page of the Official Passport in addition to the information contained, it is valid for five years. Special passport -- Is issued to an Iraqi Citizen; the new A-series passports differ from G-series passports in that they contain text in Arabic and English. There is a difference on the page containing personal data – G-series passports have a field for the passport holder’s signature or fingerprints, while in A-series passports, this field has been replaced by a bar code The front page of the Iraqi passport includes the following data: Photo of passport owner Type of document Code for issuing country Passport number Full Name Surname Date of birth Sex Nationality Place of birth Date of issue Date of expiry Authority that issued the passport Owner's signatureThe page ends with a 2-line machine readable zone, according to ICAO standard 9303.
The country code is IRQ. On January 18th, 2018, Iraqi citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 28 countries and territories, ranking the Iraqi passport 104th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index. Visa policy of Iraq Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens Iraqi nationality law Iraq National Card
The Green Zone is the most common name for the International Zone of Baghdad. It is a 10-square-kilometer area in the Karkh district of central Baghdad, the governmental center of the Coalition Provisional Authority during the occupation of Iraq after the American-led 2003 invasion and remains the center of the international presence in the city, its official name beginning under the Iraqi Interim Government is the International Zone, though Green Zone remains the most used term. The contrasting Red Zone refers to parts of Baghdad outside the perimeter, but was loosely applied to all unsecured areas outside the off-site military posts. Both terms originated as military designations; the Green Zone was a fortified zone in the center of the Iraqi capital that served as the headquarters of successive Iraqi regimes. It was the administrative center for the Ba'ath Party; the area was not home to the villas of government officials though it was the location of a number of military bases, government ministries, presidential palaces inhabited by Saddam Hussein and his family.
The largest of these was the Republican Palace, President Saddam Hussein's primary seat of power. The area is known as Karradat Mariam, so named for a locally famous woman who helped the poor people of Baghdad; the area was taken by US military forces in April 2003 in some of the heaviest fighting during the capture of Baghdad. In the lead-up to the US invasion of Iraq and many high status residents of the area were evacuated because of the much anticipated heavy aerial bombardment of the area by US forces. Most of the remaining residents fled as US ground forces closed in on the Iraqi capital out of a fear of arrest by Coalition forces or possible reprisals by disgruntled Iraqis; some of the original inhabitants who did not flee continued to live in the area but many are undocumented squatters referred to as the "215 Apartments". Coalition airstrikes at the outset of the fighting left a sizable number of buildings in central Baghdad abandoned; the Coalition Provisional Authority administrators who arrived on the heels of the forward invading forces decided they were ideal for use by Coalition administrators.
Jay Garner, head of the reconstruction team, set up his headquarters in the former Republican Palace. Some five thousand officials and civil contractors settled in the area; the abandoned buildings were not only attractive to Coalition forces, but to homeless Iraqis. Among these were individuals who had lost their homes in the conflict, but most were urban poor, homeless or lived in slums before the war and saw moving into the abandoned houses as a sizable increase in their standard of living, they felt that since they were not Ba'athist, they had as much right to the vacated houses as the Coalition authorities. There continue to be some five thousand of these Iraqis living in the Green Zone. Entry to the Green Zone was under the control of a small garrison of American troops who manned the various checkpoints, they were a battalion of soldiers at FOB Prosperity, under the command of the Multi-National Division – Baghdad. Additionally, a battalion of coalition soldiers from the Republic of Georgia manned the entry checkpoints.
The Green Zone was surrounded by high concrete blast walls, T-Walls and barbed wire fences with access only available through a handful of entry control points, all controlled by Coalition troops. It is this security that made the Green Zone the safest area of Baghdad, gave its name colloquially as "the bubble"; the southern and eastern side of the zone is protected by the Tigris River – the only entrance to the zone from this side is the Arbataash Tamuz Bridge. The Green Zone was shelled by insurgents with mortars and rockets, though these attacks caused few casualties. In October 2004 it was hit by two suicide bombings, which destroyed the bazaar and the Green Zone Cafe. On April 12, 2007, a bomb went off in the Iraqi Parliament cafeteria, killing Mohammed Awad and injuring 22, including one of the vice presidents; the Green Zone was shelled with rocket and mortar fire daily from Easter 2008 until May 5, 2008, causing numerous civilian and military casualties. On April 6, 2008, two U. S. soldiers were killed and 17 more wounded when a rocket or mortar attack struck inside the Green Zone.
On July 22, 2010, three Triple Canopy security guard contractors were killed and 15 more wounded when a rocket attack struck inside the Green Zone. Since the handover of sovereignty to Iraqis, many of the facilities in the Green Zone have been turned over to the new Iraqi government, it is still a base for western private military contractors, home to the U. S. British and Egyptian embassies; the permanent U. S. embassy is located in the southern part of the International or "Green" Zone overlooking the River Tigris. On 1 January 2009, full control of the International Zone was handed over to Iraqi security forces. On 4 October 2015, it was opened to the public with certain restrictions. On 10 December 2018, parts of the Green Zone were opened to the public without restrictions for the first time in over 15 years. Al-Rashid Hotel Assassins' Gate – pictured in gallery, below Gold Dome – pictured in gallery, below Coalition Provisional Authority Embassy of the United States in Bag
Politics of Iraq
The politics of Iraq take place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. It is a multi-party system whereby the executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers as the head of government, as well as the President of Iraq, legislative power is vested in the Council of Representatives and the Federation Council; the current Prime Minister of Iraq is Adil Abdul-Mahdi, who holds most of the executive authority and appointed the Council of Ministers, which acts as a cabinet and/or government. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Iraq as a "hybrid regime" in 2016; the federal government of Iraq is defined under the current constitution as an Islamic, federal parliamentary republic. The federal government is composed of the executive and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions; the legislative branch is composed of the Council of a Federation Council. The executive branch is composed of the president, the prime minister, the Council of Ministers.
The federal judiciary is composed of the Higher Judicial Council, the Supreme Court, the Court of Cassation, the Public Prosecution Department, the Judiciary Oversight Commission, other federal courts that are regulated by law. One such court is the Central Criminal Court; the Independent High Commission for Human Rights, the Independent High Electoral Commission, the Commission on Integrity are independent commissions subject to monitoring by the Council of Representatives. The Central Bank of Iraq, the Board of Supreme Audit, the Communications and Media Commission, the Endowment Commission are financially and administratively independent institutions; the Foundation of Martyrs is attached to the Council of Ministers. The Federal Public Service Council regulates the affairs of the federal public service, including appointment and promotion; the basic subdivisions of the country are the governorates. Both regions and governorates are given broad autonomy with regions given additional powers such as control of internal security forces for the region such as police, security forces, guards.
The last local elections for the governorates were held in the 2009 Iraqi governorate elections on 31 January 2009. The constitution requires that the Council of Representatives enact a law which provides the procedures for forming a new region 6 months from the start of its first session. A law was passed 11 October 2006 by a unanimous vote with only 138 of 275 representatives present, with the remaining representatives boycotting the vote. Legislators from the Iraqi Accord Front, Sadrist Movement and Islamic Virtue Party all opposed the bill. Under the law, a region can be created out of one or more existing governorates or two or more existing regions, a governorate can join an existing region to create a new region. A new region can be proposed by one third or more of the council members in each affected governorate plus 500 voters or by one tenth or more voters in each affected governorate. A referendum must be held within three months, which requires a simple majority in favour to pass.
In the event of competing proposals, the multiple proposals are put to a ballot and the proposal with the most supporters is put to the referendum. In the event of an affirmative referendum a Transitional Legislative Assembly is elected for one year, which has the task of writing a constitution for the Region, put to a referendum requiring a simple majority to pass; the President, Prime Minister and Ministers of the region are elected by simple majority, in contrast to the Iraqi Council of Representatives which requires two thirds support. Iraq is divided into 18 governorates, which are further divided into districts: National Iraqi Alliance Supreme Islamic Iraqi Council – led by Ammar al-Hakim Sadrist Movement – led by Muqtada al-Sadr Islamic Dawa Party – Iraq Organisation – led by Kasim Muhammad Taqi al-Sahlani Islamic Dawa Party – led by Nouri al-Maliki Tribes of Iraq Coalition – led by Hamid al-Hais Islamic Fayli Grouping in Iraq – led by Muqdad Al-Baghdadi Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan Kurdistan Democratic Party – led by Massoud Barzani Patriotic Union of Kurdistan – led by Jalal Talabani Kurdistan Islamic Union Movement for Change – led by Nawshirwan Mustafa Kurdistan Toilers’ Party Kurdistan Communist Party Assyrian Patriotic Party Civil Democratic Alliance People's Party led by Faiq Al Sheikh Ali.
Iraqi Ummah Party led by Mithal Al-Alusi. Iraqi Liberal Party National Democratic Action Party Iraqi List Iraqi National Accord – led by Iyad Allawi The Iraqis – led by Ghazi al-Yawer Iraqi Turkmen Front ) National Independent Cadres and Elites People's Union Iraqi Communist Party – led by Hamid Majid Mousa Islamic Kurdish Society – led by Ali Abd-al Aziz Islamic Labour Movement in Iraq National Democratic Party – led by Samir al-Sumaidai National Rafidain List Assyrian Democratic Movement – led by Yonadam Kanna Reconciliation and Liberation Bloc The Upholders of the Message Mithal al-Alusi List Yazidi Movement for Reform and Progress Communist Party of Iraq Worker-Communist Party of Iraq Leftist Worker-Communist Party of Iraq Alliance of Independent Democrats – led by Adnan Pachachi National Democratic Party – Naseer al-Chaderchi Green Party of Iraq Iraqi Democratic Union Iraqi National
Prime Minister of Iraq
The Prime Minister of Iraq is the head of government of Iraq. The Prime Minister was an appointed office, subsidiary to the head of state, the nominal leader of the Iraqi parliament. Under the newly adopted constitution the Prime Minister is the country's active executive authority. Nouri al-Maliki was selected to be Prime Minister on 21 April 2006. On 14 August 2014, al-Maliki agreed to step down as prime minister of Iraq to allow Haider al-Abadi to take his place. On 25 October 2018, Adil Abdul-Mahdi was sworn into office five months after the 2018 elections; the Council of Representatives elected the President of the Republic and his Deputies, including the President of the Council of Ministers. The Presidency Council shall name a Prime Minister unanimously. According to this, The Presidency Council must agree on a candidate for the post within two weeks. In the event that it fails to do so, the responsibility of naming the Prime Minister reverts to the National Assembly. In that event, the Council of Representatives must confirm the nomination by an absolute majority.
If the Prime Minister is unable to nominate his Council of Ministers within one month, the Presidency Council shall name another Prime Minister. The Iraqi Counter Terrorism Bureau reports to the Prime Minister directly; the Iraqi CTB oversees the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Command, a formation that includes all Iraqi Special Operations Forces. As of 30 June 2009, there had been legislation in progress for a year to make the Iraqi CTB a separate ministry. List of Prime Ministers of Iraq List of Kings of Iraq List of Presidents of Iraq
2010 Iraqi parliamentary election
A parliamentary election was held in Iraq on 7 March 2010. The election decided the 325 members of the Council of Representatives of Iraq who would elect the Iraqi prime minister and president; the election resulted in a partial victory for the Iraqi National Movement, led by former Interim Prime Minister Ayad Allawi, which won a total of 91 seats, making it the largest alliance in the Council. The State of Law Coalition, led by incumbent Prime Minister Nouri Al-Maliki, was the second largest grouping with 89 seats. Prior to the election, the Supreme Court in Iraq ruled that the existing electoral law/rule was unconstitutional, a new elections law made changes in the electoral system. On 15 January 2010, the Independent High Electoral Commission banned 499 candidates from the election due to alleged links with the Ba'ath Party. Before the start of the campaign on 12 February 2010, IHEC confirmed that the appeals by banned candidates had been rejected and thus all 456 banned candidates would not be allowed to run for the election.
The turnout was low compared to the elections of 2005. There were numerous allegations of fraud, a recount of the votes in Baghdad was ordered on 19 April 2010. On 14 May IHEC announced that after 11,298 ballot boxes had been recounted, there was no sign of fraud or violations; the new parliament opened on 14 June 2010. After months of fraught negotiations, an agreement was reached on the formation of a new government on 11 November. Talabani would continue as president, Al-Maliki would stay on as prime minister and Allawi would head a new security council; the necessary election law was only passed on 8 November 2009, the UN Mission in Iraq, helping with the elections, estimated that it needed 90 days to plan for the election. The electoral commission asked for a delay from the original date of 15 January. Iraqi Vice President Tariq Al-Hashimi vetoed the election law on 18 November 2009, delaying the election, scheduled for 21 January. Prior to the election, the Supreme Court in Iraq ruled that the existing electoral rule was unconstitutional.
The parliament therefore set about drafting a new electoral law. The Iraqi cabinet approved a draft elections law in September 2009. However, it took ten delays for the law to pass in the Council of Representatives; the main areas of dispute concerned the "open list" electoral system and the voters roll in Kirkuk Governorate, which Arab and Turkmen parties alleged had been manipulated by the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq. UNAMI advised the electoral system was changed to allow people to vote for individuals as well as party lists under the open list form of proportional representation; the last national elections had used a closed list system, but the Iraqi governorate elections of 2009 had used open lists. The move was supported by parliamentarians from ISCI, the most senior Iraqi Shiite cleric, Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, warned that failure to adopt the open list system would have "negative impacts on the democratic process" and would reduce turnout and aides said he may call for a boycott of the polls if closed lists were used again.
In the end, all parties except for the Kurdistani Alliance agreed to support open lists, adopted. In Kirkuk Governorate, it was proposed to use old 2004 electoral rolls. However, Kurds protested about this, given the large number of Kurdish people who had settled there since then. UNAMI proposed that Kirkuk be divided into two or more ethnic constituencies, with the Kurdish constituency given an automatic quota of 50% plus one; when put to parliament, this proposal was blocked by Arab MPs. The issue was referred to the Political Council for National Security, which comprises the President, Prime Minister and party leaders; the Council proposed to combine the electoral rolls from 2004 and 2009, but when this was put to parliament, it was blocked by Kurds. UNAMI proposed using the 2009 records but revisiting for future elections; when put to a vote the Kurdish MPs walked out. The final law said that the results in Kirkuk - and other governorates where the rolls were deemed "dubious" - would be provisional, subject to review within the first year by a committee formed out of the electoral commission, government and UNAMI, which could cancel fraudulent ballots.
The law was passed with 80 members absent. The law increased the size of the Council from 275 to 325 members - equal to one seat per 100,000 citizens, as specified in the Constitution of Iraq; as with the December 2005 election, seats will be allocated by governorate with additional "compensatory" seats allocated to those parties whose national share of the vote isn't reflected in the seats won at the governorate level. The votes of Iraqis living abroad would have been counted in the compensatory seats, which were reduced from 45 seats to 16 and eight of these 16 seats were allocated to specific national minorities - five for Iraqi Christians and one each for Yazidis and Mandaeans. Iraqi Vice-President Tariq al-Hashimi said the small number of compensatory seats discriminated against the estimated 2 million Iraqi refugees, many of whom are Sunni Arabs like al-Hashimi, he demanded that the number of compensatory seats be increased to 15% and went on national television to say he would veto the law if it weren't amended.
Sunni Arab parliamentarian Saleh al-Mutlaq said 30 seats should be allocated to Iraqis abroad to reflect their numbers. President Jalal Talabani supported the increase to 15%, after receiving a letter from Kurdish regional MPs saying their allies from minority groups would be unfairly treated. In the event President Talabani and Vice-President Adel Abdul Mahdi sign
Mohamed Ali Alhakim
Mohamed Ali Alhakim is an Iraqi politician and diplomat. He became the foreign minister of Iraq on October 25, 2018 in the government of prime minister Adel Abdel Mahdi, he is the former Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations Office at Geneva and New York. He was appointed the next Executive Secretary of Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia by United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres on 13 April 2017
Districts of Iraq
Iraq's 19 governorates are subdivided into 120 districts. The district bears the same name as the district capital; the districts are listed below, by governorate: Al-Qa'im District Al-Rutba District Ana District Falluja District Haditha District Hīt District Ramadi District Rawah District Al-Khidhir District Al-Rumaitha District Al-Salman District Al-Samawa District Afaq District Al-Shamiya District Diwaniya District Hamza District Al-Mahawil District Al-Musayab District Hashimiya District Hilla District Administrative Districts in Baghdad City Rusafa Adhamiyah Sadr City (formerly Thawra District 9 Nissan Karadah Al-Za'franiya Karkh Kadhimyah Mansour Al Rashid Administrative Districts in Baghdad Suburban Abu Ghraib District Al Istiqlal District Al-Mada'in District Mahmudiya District Taji District Al Tarmia District Abu Al-Khaseeb District Al-Midaina District Al-Qurna District Al-Zubair District Basrah District al-Faw District Al-Chibayish District Al-Rifa'i District Al-Shatra District Nassriya District Suq Al-Shoyokh District Al-Khalis District Al-Muqdadiya District Baladrooz District Ba'quba District Khanaqin District Kifri District Ain Al-Tamur District Al-Hindiya District Kerbala District Al-Hawiga District Daquq District Kirkuk District Al-Dibs District Ali Al-Gharbi District Al-Kahla District Al-Maimouna District Al-Mejar Al-Kabi District Amara District Qal'at Saleh District Al-Manathera District Kufa District Najaf District Note that northern Sinjar, northern Tel Afar and northern Shekhan districts are under illegal Kurdistan Regional Government de facto control.
Akre District Al-Ba'aj District Al-Hamdaniya District Hatra District Mosul District Shekhan District Sinjar District Tel Afar District Tel Keppe District Al-Daur District Al-Shirqat District Baiji District Balad District Samarra District Tikrit District Tooz District Dujail District Al-Hai District Al-Na'maniya District Al-Suwaira District Badra District Kut District Dohuk Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Amadiya District Dahuk District Sumel District Zakho District Erbil Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan, while the status of the southern Makhmur District is contested. Erbil District Koisanjaq District Shaqlawa District, cities are Salahaddin and Hareer Soran District, cities are Town of Soran and Diana Makhmur District Mergasur District Choman District Sulaymaniyah Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Pshdar District Chamchamal District Darbandokeh District Dokan District Kalar District Rania District Sharbazher District Sulaymaniya District Saidsadiq District Sharazoor District Penjwin District Mawat District Qaradagh District Halabja Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan and still a part of Sulaymaniyah Governorate.
Halabja Sirwan Khurmal District Byara District List of postal codes in Iraq Governorates of Iraq humanitarianinfo district map humanitarianinfo governorate map