SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U. S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D. C, its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, lawyers and senior media figures. The CFR meetings convene government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence and foreign-policy community to discuss international issues. CFR publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, publishing on foreign policy issues. Towards the end of World War I, a working fellowship of about 150 scholars called "The Inquiry" was tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated.

This academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend "Colonel" Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world; the team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political and social facts globally that would be helpful for Wilson in the peace talks. Their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilson's strategy for peace after war's end; these scholars traveled to the Paris Peace Conference 1919 and participated in the discussions there. As a result of discussions at the Peace Conference, a small group of British and American diplomats and scholars met on May 30, 1919 at the Hotel Majestic in Paris and decided to create an Anglo-American organization called "The Institute of International Affairs", which would have offices in London and New York. Due to the isolationist views prevalent in American society at the time, the scholars had difficulty gaining traction with their plan, turned their focus instead to a set of discreet meetings, taking place since June 1918 in New York City, under the name "Council on Foreign Relations."

The meetings were headed by the corporate lawyer Elihu Root, who had served as Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, attended by 108 “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” The members were proponents of Wilson's internationalism, but were concerned about "the effect that the war and the treaty of peace might have on postwar business." The scholars from the inquiry saw an opportunity to create an organization that brought diplomats, high-level government officials and academics together with lawyers and industrialists to engineer government policy. On July 29, 1921 they filed a certification of incorporation forming the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1922 Edwin F. Gay, former dean of the Harvard Business School and director of the Shipping Board during the war, spearheaded the Council's efforts to begin publication of a magazine that would be the "authoritative" source on foreign policy, he gathered $125,000 from the wealthy members on the council, via sending letters soliciting funds to "the thousand richest Americans".

Using these funds, the first issue of Foreign Affairs was published in September 1922, within a few years had gained a reputation as the "most authoritative American review dealing with international relations". In the late 1930s, the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation began contributing large amounts of money to the Council. In 1938 they created various Committees on Foreign Relations, which became governed by the American Committees on Foreign Relations in Washington, D. C. throughout the country, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. Influential men were to be chosen in a number of cities, would be brought together for discussions in their own communities as well as participating in an annual conference in New York; these local committees served to influence local leaders and shape public opinion to build support for the Council's policies, while acting as "useful listening posts" through which the Council and U. S. government could "sense the mood of the country". Beginning in 1939 and lasting for five years, the Council achieved much greater prominence within the government and the State Department, when it established the confidential War and Peace Studies, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.

The secrecy surrounding this group was such that the Council members who were not involved in its deliberations were unaware of the study group's existence. It was divided into four functional topic groups: economic and financial and armaments, political; the security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who became a pivotal figure in the CIA's predecessor, the Office of Strategic Services. The CFR produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the appropriate government departments. A critical study found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, more than half were members of the Council. During the Eisenhower administration 40% of the top U. S. foreign policy officials were CFR members. During the Kennedy administration, this number rose to 51%, peaked at 57% under the Johnson administration. In an anonymous piece called "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, CFR study group member George Kennan coined the term "containment".

The essay

Distaff Handicap

The Distaff Handicap is an American Thoroughbred horse race held each spring at Aqueduct Racetrack in Ozone Park, Queens. Open to fillies and mares, age three and up, willing to race the six furlong distance, the Grade III event offers a purse of $200,000 added. Inaugurated in 1954 at the old Aqueduct racetrack, the Distaff Handicap was run at Belmont Park from 1956 through 1959; the race has been contested at two different distances: 7 furlongs: 1954-1976, 1980-1983, 1985-1992, 1995-2005, 2010-2012 6 furlongs: 1977, 1978, 1979, 1984, 1994, 2006-2009, 2013It was run in two divisions in 1964. There was no race run in 1993 due to inclement weather; the Distaff Handicap, in its 59th running in 2013, is one of the few graded stakes for fillies and mares at a sprint distance. Speed record: 1:09.10 - La Verdad 1:21.18 - Devil's Orchid Most wins: 2 - La Verdad 2 - Happy Princess Most wins by a jockey: 4 - Angel Cordero, Jr. 4 - Richard Migliore Most wins by a trainer: 3 - C. R. McGaughey III Most wins by an owner: 3 - Ogden Phipps The 2010 Distaff Handicap at ESPN

Jayde Herrick

Jayde Matthew Herrick is an Australian cricketer who plays for Victoria in Australian domestic cricket. He is a right-hand batsman. In November 2010, Herrick made his First-class cricket debut for Wellington in a New Zealand domestic match and the following month played for Victoria in a match against England, he impressed, making 40 runs from just 19 balls in the second innings and by taking the wickets of Eoin Morgan and Paul Collingwood. Herrick made a remarkable Sheffield Shield debut for Victoria in March 2011. Playing against South Australia, he claimed match bowling figures of 6/115 from 36 overs. Batting at number 11, he was part of a crucial 85-run partnership with Steve Gilmour. In that partnership, Herrick contributed 43 from 55 balls, he signed with the Melbourne Renegades in the newly formed Big Bash League for the 2011–12 season. Jayde Herrick at ESPNcricinfo Jayde Herrick at CricketArchive