Councils of Toledo

Councils of Toledo. From the 5th century to the 7th century AD, about thirty synods, variously counted, were held at Toledo in what would come to be part of Spain; the earliest, directed against Priscillianism, assembled in 400. The "third" synod of 589 marked the epoch-making conversion of King Reccared from Arianism to orthodox Chalcedonian Christianity; the "fourth," in 633 under the presidency of the noted Isidore of Seville, regulated many matters of discipline and decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the kingdom. The British Celts of Galicia accepted the Latin rite and stringent measures were adopted against baptized Jews who had gone back to their former faith; the "twelfth" council in 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Hispania. As nearly one hundred early canons of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law; the synod of 1565 and 1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of Trent.

The seventh century is sometimes called, by Spanish historians, the Siglo de Concilios, or "Century of Councils". In Toledo there is a museum which features the councils and other aspects of Visigothic culture, the Museo de los Concilios y de la Cultura Visigoda, it is housed in the church of San Roman. Thompson, E. A; the Goths in Spain. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1969; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: William Walker Rockwell. "Toledo, Councils of". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Third Geneva Convention

The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was first adopted in 1929, but revised at the 1949 conference, it defines humanitarian protections for prisoners of war. There are 196 state parties to the Convention; this part sets out the overall parameters for GCIII: Articles 1 and 2 cover which parties are bound by GCIII Article 2 specifies when the parties are bound by GCIII That any armed conflict between two or more "High Contracting Parties" is covered by GCIII. "... Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations, they shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof." Article 3 has been called a "Convention in miniature." It is the only article of the Geneva Conventions.

It describes minimal protections which must be adhered to by all individuals within a signatory's territory during an armed conflict not of an international character: Non-combatants, members of armed forces who have laid down their arms, combatants who are hors de combat due to wounds, detention, or any other cause shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, including prohibition of outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment. The passing of sentences must be pronounced by a constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognised as indispensable by civilised peoples. Article 3's protections exist if one is not classified as a prisoner of war. Article 3 states that parties to the internal conflict should endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of GCIII. Article 4 defines prisoners of war to include: 4.1.1 Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict and members of militias of such armed forces 4.1.2 Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organised resistance movements, provided that they fulfill all of the following conditions: that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates.

4.1.3 Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognised by the Detaining Power. 4.1.4 Civilians who have non-combat support roles with the military and who carry a valid identity card issued by the military they support. 4.1.5 Merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law. 4.1.6 Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms and respect the laws and customs of war. 4.3 makes explicit that Article 33 takes precedence for the treatment of medical personnel of the enemy and chaplains of the enemy. Article 5 specifies that prisoners of war are protected from the time of their capture until their final repatriation, it specifies that when there is any doubt whether a combatant belongs to the categories in article 4, they should be treated as such until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.

This part of the convention covers the status of prisoners of war. Article 12 states that prisoners of war are the responsibility of the state, not the persons who capture them, that they may not be transferred to a state, not party to the Convention. Articles 13 to 16 state that prisoners of war must be treated humanely without any adverse discrimination and that their medical needs must be met; this part is divided into several sections: Section 1 covers the beginning of captivity. It dictates what information a prisoner must give and interrogation methods that the detaining power may use: "No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion", it dictates what private property a prisoner of war may keep and that the prisoner of war must be evacuated from the combat zone as soon as possible. Section 2 covers the internment of prisoners of war and is broken down into 8 chapters which cover: General observations Quarters and clothing Hygiene and medical attention The treatment of enemy medical personnel and chaplains retained to assist prisoners of war Religious and physical activities Discipline Military rank Transfer of prisoners of war after their arrival in a camp Section 3 covers the type of labour that a prisoner of war may be compelled to do, taking such factors as rank and sex into consideration, that which because it is unhealthy or dangerous can only be done by prisoners of war who volunteer for such work.

It goes into details about such things as the accommodation, medical facilities, that if the prisoner of war work

Raspadskaya coal mine

The Raspadskaya Coal Mine is a coal mine located in Mezhdurechensk, Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. It is the largest underground mine in Russia; the mine was opened in 1973 and its construction was completed in 1977. In addition to the main underground mine, the mining complex includes MUK-96 underground mine, Raspadskaya Koksovaya underground mine, Razrez Raspadsky open-pit mine, as the Raspadskaya preparation plant. Raspadskaya's total resources were estimated at 1,461 million tons and total coal reserves at 782 million ton. Based on the volume produced in 2007, reserves-to-production ratio amounts to about 55 years of production; the complex produces 10% of Russia's coking coal. The mine is operated by Raspadskaya OAO, a Russian publicly listed coal company. In March 2001, a methane explosion injured six; the mine was shut down for two weeks in 2008 due to safety violations and a worker was killed after part of the mine collapsed in January 2010. On 8 May 2010, an explosion occurred killing 66 workers