Yesterday and Today
Yesterday and Today is a studio album by the English rock band the Beatles, their ninth album released on Capitol Records and twelfth overall American release. It was issued only in the United States and Canada, in June 1966. Of the Beatles' North American discography until 1967, the album contains songs that Capitol had withheld from its versions of the band's recent EMI albums – in this case, Help! and Rubber Soul – along with others that were issued on non-album singles. The album is remembered for the controversy surrounding its original cover image. Taken by photographer Robert Whitaker, said to be the Beatles' statement against the Vietnam War, this'butcher cover' image showed the band dressed in white smocks and covered with decapitated baby dolls and pieces of raw meat. Others said it was the Beatles protesting the fact that their North American albums had been'butchered' – switched around and not as intended; the album's title plays on the title of the song "Yesterday". Having been deleted from Capitol's catalogue in 1986, Yesterday and Today was reissued on CD in 2014.
In keeping with the record company's policy for all the Beatles' North American LPs until 1967, Capitol Records selected songs for Yesterday and Today that the company had culled from the albums the band released in Britain and other territories overseen by EMI, together with tracks issued on what were non-album singles outside North America. The industry preference in the US for shorter LPs facilitated this policy, as did the fact that the Beatles' A Hard Day's Night and Help! Albums became genuine soundtrack albums there, since the non-film songs had been replaced by orchestral selections from the respective film scores, thus though the group had recorded six albums for EMI by early 1966, Yesterday and Today was the Beatles' tenth American Capitol album, twelfth overall. The two non-Capitol albums were A Hard Day's Night on United Artists Records, Introducing The Beatles on Vee Jay Records.) Yesterday and Today included tracks from the Beatles' two most recent LPs that had not yet been included on American albums, plus three from the LP they began recording in April 1966, plus two songs which were back-to-back on a single: from Help!, the tracks "Yesterday" and "Act Naturally" and from Rubber Soul, the tracks "Nowhere Man" and "What Goes On", plus "Drive My Car" and "If I Needed Someone" both sides of the double A-side single "Day Tripper" / "We Can Work It Out" from the not-yet-released Revolver, the tracks "I'm Only Sleeping", "Doctor Robert" and "And Your Bird Can Sing".
The mono mixes were different from those used for the August 1966 release of Revolver, while the stereo version of Yesterday and Today contained duophonic mixes of the three songs. Subsequent issues of Capitol's album used; the hodge-podge nature in which Capitol compiled their albums for the North American market infuriated the Beatles. In a 1974 interview, John Lennon complained that the band had "put a lot of work into the sequencing" of their albums and that they were told "there was some rule or something" against issuing the full fourteen-song LPs in the US, which led to Capitol releases such as Yesterday and Today. Both Tim Riley and American Songwriter journalist Jim Beviglia classified Yesterday and Today as a compilation album, MusicRadar said it was one in a series of "hit-filled compilation albums" that the American Capitol label "sliced and diced" from the Beatles' original British albums. On 25 March 1966, photographer Robert Whitaker had the Beatles in the studio for a conceptual art piece titled A Somnambulant Adventure.
For the shoot, Whitaker took a series of pictures of the group dressed in butcher smocks and draped with pieces of meat and body parts from plastic baby dolls. The group played along. Whitaker's concept was compatible with their own black humour. Although not intended as an album cover, the Beatles submitted photographs from the session for their promotional materials. According to a 2002 interview published in Mojo, former Capitol president Alan W. Livingston stated that it was Paul McCartney who pushed for the photo's inclusion as the album cover, that McCartney described it as "our comment on the war". In the United States, Capitol Records printed 750,000 copies of Yesterday and Today with this so-called'butcher cover'. A fraction of the original covers were shipped to disc reviewers as advance copies. Reaction was immediate; the record was recalled under orders from Sir Joseph Lockwood, chairman of Capitol's parent company EMI, all copies were ordered shipped back to the record label, leading to its rarity and popularity among collectors.
The cover photo was replaced with a picture of the four band members posed around an open trunk. Lennon described the replacement as "an awful looking photo of us looking just as deadbeat but supposed to be a happy-go-lucky foursome". At the time, some of the Beatles defended the use of the'butcher' photograph. Lennon said that it was "as relevant as Vietnam" and McCartney said that their critics were "soft". However, this opinion was not shared by all band members. George Harrison said in The Beatles Anthology that he thought the whole idea "was gross, I thought it was stupid. Sometimes we all did stupid things thinking it was hip when it was naïve and dumb. In 2007 George Martin, th
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of persons across international boundaries, following international agreements. Travel documents assure other governments that the bearer may return to the issuing country, are issued in booklet form to allow other governments to place visas as well as entry and exit stamps into them; the most common travel document is a passport, which gives the bearer more privileges like visa-free access to certain countries. However, the term is sometimes used only for those documents which do not bear proof of nationality, such as a refugee travel document. In general, a passport is a travel document that serves as proof of nationality from the issuing country. Although accepted by the majority of countries in the world, some issuing countries expressly exclude the validity of passports from nations that are not recognized by their governments. Non-citizens in the now independent Republics of Latvia and Estonia are individuals of Russian or Ukrainian ethnicity, who are not citizens of Latvia or Estonia but whose families have resided in the area since the Soviet era of forcible annexation, thus have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Two thirds of them are ethnic Russians, followed by ethnic Belarussians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians. Non-citizens in the two countries are issued special non-citizen passports as opposed to regular passports issued by the Estonian and Latvian authorities to citizens; this form of legal discrimination is labelled as xenophobic. Although all U. S. citizens are U. S. nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 U. S. C. § 1408, a person whose only connection to the U. S. is through birth in an outlying possession, or through descent from a person so born, acquires U. S. nationality but not U. S. citizenship. This was the case in only four other current or former U. S. overseas possessions. The U. S. passport issued to non-citizen nationals contains the endorsement code 9 which states: "THE BEARER IS A UNITED STATES NATIONAL AND NOT A UNITED STATES CITIZEN." on the annotations page. Non-citizen U. S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, but must apply for citizenship under the same rules as resident aliens.
Like resident aliens, they are not presently allowed by any U. S. state to vote in federal or state elections, although, as with resident aliens, there is no constitutional prohibition against their doing so. A laissez-passer is a travel document issued by a national government or certain international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union and the International Committee of the Red Cross. A laissez-passer is for one-way travel to the issuing country for humanitarian reasons only such as Restoring Family Links; some national governments issue laissez-passers to their own nationals as emergency passports. Others issue them to people who are stateless, or who are unable to obtain a passport from their own government, or whose government is not recognized by the issuing country. One such example is the People's Republic of China, which issues the non-passport Chinese Travel Document to its nationals under certain circumstances. One such circumstance stems from a reported loss of passport while living abroad.
China issues a temporary two-year validity Travel Document in lieu of a passport to allow said citizen to complete their travels and return to China to apply for a replacement Chinese passport. Under other circumstances such as a Chinese citizen studying or working abroad, the Chinese embassies or consulates will issue passports if requested; this Travel Document is a blue-covered passport-sized booklet denoted "TRAVEL DOCUMENT" as opposed to the usual red-covered passport. Laissez-passers were issued during wartime and at other periods acting as a pass to allow travel to specific areas, or out of war zones or countries for various officials, diplomatic agents, other representatives or citizens of third countries. In these contexts, a laissez-passer would include quite specific and limited freedom of movement; the form and issuing authority would be less standardized, depending on the circumstances. An example is when in the early 1950s, the Iraqi government granted permission to its 120,000 Jewish citizens to leave, conditional on their renouncing their citizenship and leaving behind all their properties and assets.
The travel document, issued was the laissez-passer, since an Iraqi passport was no longer possible. Laissez-passer documents may be issued to goods or other non-living objects to facilitate their transport across international borders. For instance, the Agreement on the Transfer of Corpses sets out rules whereby human corpses may be issued laissez-passer documents in order for a body to be buried or cremated in a country different from the one in which the person died. In 2008, the United States Department of Homeland Security denied entry to an Ethiopian asylum seeker carrying a laissez-passer on the basis of a Wikipedia entry describing the document; the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit overturned a ruling by the Board of Immigration Appeals which had upheld the deportation, as there is no guarantee that information in a Wikipedia article is accurate. The Israeli authorities maintain a unique system of travel documents issued to non-Israeli permanent resident
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade and culture. Globalization is an economic process of interaction and integration that's associated with social and cultural aspects; however and diplomacy are large parts of the history of globalization, modern globalization. Economically, globalization involves goods, the economic resources of capital and data; the expansions of global markets liberalize the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds. Removal of Cross-Border Trades barriers has made formation of Global Markets more feasible; the steam locomotive, jet engine, container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure.
All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe. Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some to the third millennium BC. Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew quickly; the term globalization is recent. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions and investment movements and movement of people, the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, socio-cultural resources, the natural environment.
Academic literature subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, political globalization. The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education; the term'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, in other senses since at least as early as 1944. Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects and discussions stay focused on a single aspect of globalization.
Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society." In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole."In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state: Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration.... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis.
Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term.... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity, intensity and impact. Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer.
It pertains to the increasin
Sharpie is a brand of writing instruments manufactured by Newell Brands, a public company, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. Designating a single permanent marker, the Sharpie brand has been expanded and can now be found on a variety of unrelated permanent and non-permanent pens and markers marketed under other brands; this article focuses on the legacy Sharpie permanent marker line. Sharpie markers are made with a number of tips; the most common and popular is the Fine tip. Other tips include Extra Fine Point, Brush tip, Chisel tip and Retractable tip. "Sharpie" was a name designating a permanent marker launched in 1964 by the Sanford Ink Company. The Sharpie became the first pen-style permanent marker. In 1990 Sharpie was acquired by The Newell Companies as part of Sanford, a leading manufacturer and marketer of writing instruments. In 2005, the company's popular Accent highlighter brand was repositioned under the Sharpie brand name. A new version of Sharpie called Sharpie Mini was launched, which are markers half the size of a normal Sharpie and feature a clip to attach the Sharpie to a keychain or lanyard.
In 2006, Sharpie released a new line of markers that had a button activated retractable tip rather than a cap. Sharpie Paint markers were introduced; as of 2011, 200 million Sharpies had been sold worldwide. Sharpie markers are manufactured in Mexicali, Baja California and Maryville, TN, with numerous off-shore partners globally. Sharpie sponsored the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Sharpie 500, a popular night-time race at Bristol Motor Speedway, from 2001 through 2009. For the 2010 season, Newell Rubbermaid switched the sponsorship for this race to its Irwin Tools brand. Sharpie sponsored the Nationwide Series Sharpie Mini 300 race from 2004 to 2008. Prior to 2006, they sponsored Kurt Busch, the 2004 Sprint Cup champion. Sharpie sponsored Jamie McMurray in the 2006 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series and in the 2008 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. In recent years, Sharpie commercials have followed the slogan "Write Out Loud"; these advertisements depict people using Sharpies in bad situations, such as using the marker to touch up a car and a college woman highlighting words in a book to notify a male student that his fly was open.
A middle aged woman trying to think of what to write for her resignation letter, writes "I QUIT" with a red Sharpie. David Beckham is sponsored by Sharpie and appears in a commercial signing autographs with a Sharpie and trying to steal them. Hand sanitizer and acetone based nail polish remover are said to be effective on permanent markers. Sharpie official FAQ suggests trying a product called Amodex stain remover. Though Sharpie ink will become permanent after setting, it can be erased. A dry erase marker is successful in removing sharpie ink by covering the sharpie ink using three to four pen strokes. Sharpie ink that has dried for more than several hours can be removed with acetone and other ketones and esters, such as ethyl acetate, but acetone and other organic solvents may damage the surface of the material written upon. Isopropyl alcohol is less damaging to some surfaces. On some surfaces, the ink can be removed by coloring over the ink with a dry erase marker and removing the Sharpie ink and dry erase marker ink with a dry cloth.
Steam cleaning has proved effective. Magic Eraser has proven somewhat effective on hard surfaces such as brick and effective on wood furniture. There are no warning labels on Sharpie markers, they bear the new AP certification symbol of The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc.. According to the organization: "The new AP Seal, with or without Performance Certification, identifies art materials that are safe and that are certified in a toxicological evaluation by a medical expert to contain no materials in sufficient quantities to be toxic or injurious to humans, including children, or to cause acute or chronic health problems. However, this does not mean that materials are not allergens; such products are certified by ACMI to be labeled in accordance with the chronic hazard labeling standard, ASTM D 4236, the U. S. Labeling of Hazardous Art Materials Act." They are considered non-toxic for "normal uses", meaning writing on soccer balls and such. Sharpie is not dangerous with incidental exposure.
Special Camp David Sharpies were made. During a National Football League Monday Night Football game against the Seattle Seahawks on October 14, 2002, San Francisco 49ers wide receiver Terrell Owens pulled a black Sharpie marker out of his sock to sign the football he caught to score a touchdown and gave the ball to his financial adviser, in the stands; the touchdown celebration would bring a resurgence to the NFL for new and innovative ways to celebrate touchdowns. It has been referred to by sports fans as "The Sharpie Incident" or "The Sharpie Touchdown". Sharpie markers are favored by illustrator Adam Hughes for inking large areas in his convention sketches. Sharpies are the writing utensil of choice by astronauts aboard the International Space Station because of their usability in zero-gravity. According to Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield who commanded the International Space Station in 2012-2013, "you can hold it any which way and it still works". Official Sharpie website Sanford's listing of Sharpie MSDS files
A T-shirt is a style of unisex fabric shirt named after the T shape of its body and sleeves. Traditionally it has a round neckline, known as a crew neck, which lacks a collar. T-shirts are made of a stretchy and inexpensive fabric and are easy to clean. Made of cotton textile in a stockinette or jersey knit, it has a distinctively pliable texture compared to shirts made of woven cloth; some modern versions have a body made from a continuously knitted tube, produced on a circular knitting machine, such that the torso has no side seams. The manufacture of T-shirts has become automated and may include cutting fabric with a laser or a water jet; the T-shirt evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century and, in the mid-20th century, transitioned from undergarment to general-use casual clothing. A V-neck T-shirt has a V-shaped neckline, as opposed to the round neckline of the more common crew neck shirt. V-necks were introduced so that the neckline of the shirt does not show when worn beneath an outer shirt, as would that of a crew neck shirt.
The T-shirt evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century. First, the one-piece union suit underwear was cut into separate top and bottom garments, with the top long enough to tuck under the waistband of the bottoms. With and without buttons, they were adopted by miners and stevedores during the late 19th century as a convenient covering for hot environments; as slip-on garments without buttons, the earliest T-shirt dates back to sometime between the 1898 Spanish–American War and 1913, when the U. S. Navy began issuing them as undergarments; these were a short-sleeved, white cotton undershirt to be worn under a uniform. It became common for sailors and Marines in work parties, the early submarines, tropical climates to remove their uniform jacket, wearing only the undershirt, they soon became popular as a bottom layer of clothing for workers in various industries, including agriculture. The T-shirt was fitted cleaned, inexpensive, for those reasons, it became the shirt of choice for young boys.
Boys' shirts were made in various patterns. The word T-shirt became part of American English by the 1920s, appeared in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. By the Great Depression, the T-shirt was the default garment to be worn when doing farm or ranch chores, as well as other times when modesty called for a torso covering but conditions called for lightweight fabrics. Following World War II, it was worn by Navy men as undergarments and became common to see veterans wearing their uniform trousers with their T-shirts as casual clothing; the shirts became more popular in the 1950s after Marlon Brando wore one in A Streetcar Named Desire achieving status as fashionable, stand-alone, outerwear garments. Boys wore them while doing chores and playing outside opening up the idea of wearing them as general-purpose casual clothing. Printed T-shirts were in limited use by 1942 when an Air Corps Gunnery School T-shirt appeared on the cover of Life magazine. In the 1960s, printed T-shirts gained popularity for self-expression as well for advertisements and souvenirs.
Current versions are available in many different designs and fabrics, styles include crew-neck and V-neck shirts. T-shirts are among the most worn garments of clothing used today. T-shirts are popular with branding for companies or merchandise, as they are inexpensive to make and purchase. T-shirts were worn as undershirts, but are now worn as the only piece of clothing on the top half of the body, other than a brassiere or a waistcoat. T-shirts have become a medium for self-expression and advertising, with any imaginable combination of words and photographs on display. A T-shirt extends to the waist. Variants of the T-shirt, such as the V-neck, have been developed. Hip hop fashion calls for tall-T shirts. A similar item is the T-shirt dress or T-dress, a dress-length T-shirt that can be worn without pants. Long T-shirts are sometimes worn by women as nightgowns. A 1990s trend in women's clothing involved tight-fitting cropped T-shirt or crop tops short enough to reveal the midriff. Another less popular trend is wearing a short-sleeved T-shirt of a contrasting color over a long-sleeved T-shirt, known as layering.
T-shirts that are tight to the body are called tailored or baby doll T-shirts. The rise of online shopping in the early to 2000s caused a proliferation of new T-shirt ideas and trends. While several brick-and-mortar chains included these items in their inventories, many of these shirts were pioneered by online start-ups. Innovations included the flip-up T-shirt, which the wearer can lift and stretch over their head to display an interior print, all-over print clothing. With the rise of social media and video sharing sites came numerous tutorials on DIY T-shirt projects; these videos provided instructions on how to modify an old shirt into a new, more fashionable form. Since the 1960s, T-shirts have flourished as a form of personal expression. Screen printed T-shirts have been a standard form of marketing for major American consumer products, such as Coca-Cola and Mickey Mouse, since the 1970s, it has been used to commemorate an event, or to make a political or personal statement. Since the 1990s, it has become common practice for companies of all sizes to produce T-shirts with their corporate logos or messages as part of their overall advertising campaigns.
Since the late 1980s and the 1990s, T-shirts with prominent designer-name logos have become popular with teenagers and young adul