Fritz Lee is a Samoan rugby union player. He plays for Clermont Auvergne in the Top 14, his regular playing position is eighthman. He played for the Chiefs in Super Rugby and Counties Manukau Steelers in the ITM Cup, he led them to the playoffs. Lee was left for New Zealand aged 15 to live with his uncle. Lee signed a three-year contract with Clermont in 2013. Chiefs profile Yahoo NZ profile itsrugby.co.uk profile
Pukekohe is a town in the Auckland Region of the North Island of New Zealand. Located at the southern edge of the Auckland Region, it is in South Auckland, between the southern shore of the Manukau Harbour and the mouth of the Waikato River; the hills of Pukekohe and nearby Bombay Hills form the natural southern limit of the Auckland region. Pukekohe is located within the political boundaries of the Auckland Council, following the abolition of the Franklin District Council on 1 November 2010. With a population of 31,400, Pukekohe is the 18th largest urban area in New Zealand, the second largest in the Auckland Region behind Auckland itself. Pukekohe is a rural service town for the area known as the Franklin District, it has a population of 31,400 of European descent, with significant Māori and ethnic Indian and East Asian communities. There are a notable number of people of South African and Dutch descent; the population growth from 2007 to 2008 was 2.2 percent. The fertile volcanic soil and warm moist climate supports a large horticultural and dairy farming industry.
The Māori word puke-kohe means New Zealand's native mahogany. Pukekohe was part of the Auckland area attacked during the musket war period 1807-1843 by Northern tribes. From the 1820s, as a result of these attacks, the resident Māori population who survived migrated south; when European settlers arrived the remnant Māori population provided them with food supplies. As the number of settlers grew, the Pukekohe area, bush covered, was opened up after 1843 and individual farmers purchased small blocks of land which they cleared by hand. By 1863 the land was still bush covered but with an increasing number of small isolated farms; when Kīngitanga Māori refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the Crown many Māori moved out of the area, but some remained. A Māori from this area guided the first gunboats through the Waikato Heads and through the shoals of the Waikato River delta to help put down the rebel Kīngitanga uprising. A major battle of the 1863 Land Wars was fought at Pukekohe East between 11 armed settlers, who were converting the Pukekohe East church into a redoubt and 200–300 Māori rebels from the Waikato area.
Although surprised and outnumbered, the settlers held off the Kīngitanga invaders until troops arrived. No settlers were injured while 30 Māori were killed with an unknown number wounded. 6 bodies were found near the church and 24 were found buried in the bush. The church still exists today and the bullet holes are still visible. Although there were many other attacks on settlers in Auckland the Māori preferred isolated targets; as most women and children had been evacuated to Auckland city most of those murdered were men and teenage boys. Rebels were able to live off the settlers goods and livestock. Nearly the entire Pukekohe area was abandoned to the rebels apart from Military outposts. Isolated attacks occurred as late as November 1863 after the Battle of Rangiriri. Ngā Hau e Whā Marae is located in the Pukekohe area, it is the tribal meeting grounds of Ngāti Tamaoho and the Waikato Tainui hapū of Ngāi Tai and Ngāti Tamaoho. Pukekohe had a local government just like other suburbs of Auckland at that time.
The local government was called Pukekohe Borough Council, which started in 1912 and merged into Franklin District Council in 1989 being amalgamated into Auckland Council in November 2010. The mayors of Pukekohe Borough Council were: 1912–1912 William Dunn 1912–1915 C. K. Lawrie 1915–1919 Henry Greathead Rex Mason 1919–1921 C. K. Lawrie 1921–1935 John Routly 1935–1938 C. K. Lawrie 1938–1941 John Routly 1941–1950 Maxwell Rae Grierson 1950–1963 S. C. Childs 1963–1974 C. W. J. Lawrie 1974–1989 Max R. Short There are many schools in the Pukekohe area, including Pukekohe High School, Pukekohe Intermediate School, Valley School, Hill School, Pukekohe Christian School, Pukekohe North School and Kingsgate Primary Christian School Pukekohe High School is known for its strong science department and places in the Auckland City Secondary Schools Science Fair. Pukekohe Park Raceway is a horse-racing facility. Opened in 1963, this circuit is famous for having hosted the New Zealand Grand Prix 29 times between 1963 and 2000, as well as the V8 International between 2001 and 2007.
The V8 Supercars event was moved to Hamilton for five years, but returned to Pukekohe in 2013. ECOLight Stadium is home of the Counties-Manukau Steelers. Pukekohe is home to Pukekohe AFC who compete in the Auckland Football Federation/Northern Football Federation Conference League, Pukekohe High School football teams. Franklin County News is the local newspaper distributed twice weekly to homes in Pukekohe and surrounding towns, including Waiuku and Tuakau; the Post Newspaper issues 22,000 copies weekly on a Tuesday within Franklin and Tuakau and is based in Waiuku. In 2015 the online events calendar and photo news Franklin Life NZ was launched. In 2013 the film Mt. Zion was released in New Zealand. Pukekohe Train Station is on the North Island Main Trunk Railway and is the southernmost station of the Auckland rail network, at the end of the Southern Line; the portion of the line between Papakura and Pukekohe is not electrified, so diesel shuttles connect Pukekohe with electric trains at Papakura.
In July 2017 it was announced that the purchase of battery-powered electric trains had been "agreed in principle" by Auckland Council and that an all-electric service would be operational in 2019, 4 years after completion of the rest
Robert Maxwell Deans is a New Zealand rugby union coach and former player the head coach of Japanese club Panasonic Wild Knights. He was head coach of the Australian national team between 2008 and 2013. Deans had coached the Crusaders for eight seasons and was an assistant coach of New Zealand between late 2001 and 2003; as the coach of the Crusaders, Deans has won more Super rugby titles than any other. He has coached Canterbury in the National Provincial Championship, winning the title in 1997; as a player, Deans represented Canterbury, first playing at fly half, fullback. He played nineteen matches for the All Blacks, including five tests. Deans attended Christ's College, Christchurch as a boarder where he played rugby at first five-eighth, he made his provincial debut for Canterbury in 1979 and played at fullback, as the team had future All Black coach Wayne Smith playing at first-five. Deans scored 1,641 points for the union, he was a member of the Canterbury team during the Ranfurly Shield era of the early 1980s.
This included kicking eight of Canterbury's 16 points in its 16–12 challenge win over Wellington in 1982. The shield reign ended in 1985 against Auckland in "the match of the century" where Deans played; this reign is the longest in Canterbury rugby union history. He went on to represent Canterbury 146 times, with his career ending in 1990. Deans played for New Zealand's national rugby team, the All Blacks, his first game for the All Blacks was against Edinburgh on 26 October 1983. Deans played five tests for the All Blacks, he played an additional 14 games for the All Blacks scoring 202 points. His All Black career lasted less than two years, playing his last game against a Mar del Plata selection on 29 October 1985, he did however participate in the controversial Cavaliers tour of South Africa in 1986. Deans played cricket for Canterbury Country in the Hawke Cup. Deans was appointed as coach of the Canterbury team for the 1997 National Provincial Championship season, he was assisted by Steve Hansen.
Deans' first season was a success, with Canterbury beating Auckland for the first time in 14 years going on to win the title. The following year he managed the Canterbury Crusaders Super Rugby franchise who were coached by Wayne Smith; the Crusaders won the title. The Crusaders repeated this feat the following year, with Deans again manager. In 2000 Deans took over as Crusaders coach, he coached the Crusaders to their third successive Super 12 title that year, beating the Brumbies in Canberra. He continued to coach the Canterbury team in the NPC in 2000 which led to a Ranfurly Shield win over Waikato. Canterbury's success in the 2000 season saw them host the NPC final at Jade Stadium against Wellington. A victory would have seen Deans coach teams to Super 12, Ranfurly Shield and NPC titles in the same year. From 2001 Deans concentrated on the Crusaders; the 2001 Super 12 season was his least successful in charge – the Crusaders finish tenth. But the following season, the Crusaders went through the entire season undefeated and won their fourth title overall, their second with Deans as coach.
In the following two seasons the Crusaders finished runners-up to the Blues in 2003, the Brumbies in 2004. The Crusaders won their third title under Deans in 2005; the Crusaders won their sixth title in 2006, their fourth win with Deans in charge, making him the most successful coach in Super Rugby history so far. In 2008, Deans' last season in charge of the Crusaders, he coached them to a seventh super rugby title after they beat the NSW Waratahs at Jade Stadium. In honour of the Deans family, Jade Stadium erected a new stand called the "Deans Stand". Following the 22 February earthquake, there remains doubt as to whether AMI Stadium will be used again, after some of the ground, including parts of the Deans stand, suffered structural damage; as a result, the new stand was not showcased during the 2011 Rugby World Cup. John Mitchell appointed Deans as his assistant when he became All Blacks coach in late 2001. Deans held the position. Under Mitchell and Deans, the All Blacks won the 2002 and 2003 Tri-Nations titles, as well as the Bledisloe Cup in 2003.
On 14 December 2007, it was announced. The contract was for four years – leading into the 2011 Rugby World Cup – as Deans became the first foreigner to coach Australia, his contract with the Crusaders finished after the 2008 season and the New Zealand Rugby Union agreed to allow Deans to continue as Crusaders coach through the 2008 Super 14 season. Shortly after the details were made official, Deans released a personal statement on the Crusader's official website: The decision to leave Christchurch after the end of the 2008 Crusaders season and coach overseas has undoubtedly been one of the most difficult of my professional sporting career. While the rugby marketplace has been global since rugby went professional 12 years ago, it is only now that I appreciate the thought process and the'what ifs?' that so many others have gone through before reaching this point. To go is a big decision, it is not one, entered into lightly. I am ready to coach internationally. After serving for eleven years as a Super rugb
Casey Daniel Eti Laulala is a Samoan-born New Zealand rugby union player playing for French side Racing 92 in the Top 14 and European Rugby Champions Cup. Born and raised in Samoa, Laulala started boarding at Wesley College when he was 15. Laulala made his test debut for New Zealand during the team's November–December 2004 end of year tour against Wales, he has played three games including two tests. Laulala played for Canterbury during the Air New Zealand Cup. Laulala attended Wesley Auckland for his schooling. Laulala scored the match winning try for his side during the 2006 Super 14 Final, the match nicknamed "Gorillas in the Mist" because of the dense fog; the next day he was recalled to the All Blacks. He went on to earn his second Test cap against Ireland in Auckland. Laulala signed for Welsh side Cardiff Blues for the 2009/10 season, he won the European Challenge Cup with the side in May 2010. Laulala scored 14 tries during his 58 appearances for the club. On 9 February 2012, Munster Rugby confirmed Laulala as their second major signing for the 2012/13 season, alongside Northampton's Irish centre James Downey.
He arrived to join up with Munster in May 2012. Laulala made his full Munster debut on 1 September 2012, starting at outside centre in his side's opening 2012–13 Pro 12 fixture against Edinburgh, he scored his first try for Munster on 2 November 2012, against his old club Cardiff Blues. Laulala scored his second try for Munster on 30 March 2013, in a heavy loss to Glasgow Warriors, he won the Man-of-the-Match award for Munster in their 10-31 away win against Cardiff Blues on 23 November 2013. It was confirmed on 15 December 2013 that Laulala would be leaving Munster at the end of the 2013–14 season. Laulala scored a try in Munster's 47-23 Heineken Cup quarter-final win against Toulouse on 5 April 2014, he was named in the 2013-14 Pro 12 Team of the Season on 5 May 2014. Laulala plays for French Top 14 side Racing 92. On 23 May 2013, Laulala was named Barbarians team to face England on 26 May, he played against the British and Irish Lions in their opening tour fixture on 1 June 2013. Munster Profile Casey Laulala at AllBlacks.com Cardiff Blues Profile ESPN Profile ERC Profile
David Ian Campese, AM known as Campo, is a former Australian rugby union player. Campese was capped by the Wallabies 101 times, playing 85 Tests at 16 Tests at fullback. Campese made his debut for the Wallabies on the 1982 Australia rugby union tour of New Zealand, during which he scored one try in each of his first two Tests. In 1983, he equaled the Australian record for most tries in a Test match, scoring four tries for Australia against the USA, he was a member of the Eighth Wallabies for the 1984 Australia rugby union tour of Britain and Ireland that won rugby union's "grand slam", the first Australian side to defeat all four home nations, Ireland and Scotland, on a tour. He was a member of the Wallabies on the 1986 Australia rugby union tour of New Zealand that beat the All Blacks 2-1, one of five international teams and second Australian team to win a Test series in New Zealand, he was a member of the Wallabies for the 1987 Rugby World Cup, during which he broke the world record for most tries scored by an international rugby player in the semi-final against France.
During the 1988 Australia rugby union tour of England and Italy, Campese received a standing ovation from the crowd and applause from his teammates after scoring a try for Australia against the Barbarians at Cardiff Arms Park. Campese was a member of the Wallabies that won the 1991 Rugby World Cup, during which he was the tournament's equal leading try scorer with six, acclaimed'player of the tournament'. Campese was a member of the 1992 Bledisloe Cup winning Wallabies that defeated the All Blacks 2-1. During the 1992 Australia rugby union tour of South Africa he became the first rugby player to score 50 Test tries against South Africa in Cape Town, he was a member of the 1994 Bledisloe Cup winning Wallabies that defeated the All Blacks in a one-off Test. During the 1996 Australia rugby union tour of Europe, Campese became the first Australian rugby union player, second international player, to reach the milestone of playing 100 Tests, he retired from international Test-match rugby at the end of tour, having played 101 Tests and scored a world-record 64 Test tries.
This record has since been overtaken by Bryan Habana. At state level, Campese represented both New South Wales. In 1983, he scored two tries, four conversions, a penalty goal, in an Australian Capital Territory victory over Argentina. In 1991, he scored five tries for New South Wales in a 71-8 victory over Wales. At club level, Campese played for the Queanbeyan Whites from 1979 until 1986, Randwick from 1987 to 1999, he won three consecutive grand finals with the Queanbeyan Whites from 1981-3, in the 1983 grand final he scored all of his teams points in a 29-12 victory, scoring four tries, two conversions and three penalty goals. He won eight grand finals with Randwick, including six consecutive victories from 1987–92, as well as triumphs in 1994 and 1996. Campese was a renowned rugby sevens player, he made 12 appearances at the Hong Kong Sevens, during which he played in three victorious Australian campaigns, was awarded the Leslie Williams Award for Player of the Tournament in 1988. In 1990 he participated in the 100th Melrose Sevens tournament playing for the victorious Randwick rugby club, during which he scored 44 of Randwick’s 92 points.
In 1998 he captained Australia to its first rugby sevens tournament victory in ten years, winning the Paris Sevens. He captained the Australian rugby sevens team at the 1998 Commonwealth Games to a bronze medal. In 2015 the Hong Kong Rugby Football Union announced Campese as one of seven members of ‘The Hong Kong Magnificent Sevens', the HKRFU's commemorative campaign to recognise the seven most formative players to have played in the past 40 Years of Sevens in Hong Kong in 2015, he is famous for his "goose-step" — a hitch-kick motion which left opponents stumbling to try to tackle him. David Campese was born on 21 October 1962, in Queanbeyan, New South Wales to Gianantonio and Joan Campese, his older brother Mario was born in 1959. Campese has two sisters and Corrina. Lisa was born in 1964 and Corrina was born in 1965. In 1966 his family moved back to Montecchio Precalcino in northern Italy for eighteen months before moving back to Australia and settling in Queanbeyan, New South Wales. Campese attended his local public school and high school and played rugby league from the ages of eight to sixteen for the Queanbeyan Blues.
At age 16 he gave up all forms of rugby to play golf. In 1978 he won the ACT-Monaro Schoolboys golf title. David Campese played his first game of rugby union for the Queanbeyan Whites in 1979 in fourth grade. During 1980 he was promoted to first grade. After two years of first-grade rugby, in 1981 Campese was promoted to the Australian under-21 squad to tour New Zealand, beaten 37-7. Shortly after, Campese was selected in a'trial match' prior to the 1981–82 Australia rugby union tour of Britain and Ireland, but did not achieve national selection. In 1982 the Scottish Test side toured Australia for a two-Test series. Prior to both Tests, David Campese was a standout performer at fullback playing for the Australian under 21s side. Australian coach Bob Dwyer's first exposure to Campese was at an Australian under 21s game against Fiji. Dwyer wrote in his autobiography The Winning Way that,'A few months earlier Campese had played for the Australian under-21s against the Fijian under-21s in a curtain-raiser to the first Test against Scotland in Brisbane, he had cut the Fijian defence to shreds.
I asked at once who he was told he was a rising star in the Canberra competition. I saw him play a second time in the curtain-raiser to the second Test
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
Tonga the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres scattered over 700,000 square kilometres of the southern Pacific Ocean; the sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu. Tonga stretches across 800 kilometres in a north-south line, it is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east, Kermadec to the southwest, New Caledonia and Vanuatu to the farther west. It is about 1,800 kilometres from New Zealand's North Island. Tonga became known in the West as the "Friendly Islands" because of the congenial reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773, he arrived at the time of the ʻinasi festival, the yearly donation of the First Fruits to the Tuʻi Tonga and so received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.
From 1900 to 1970, Tonga had British protected state status, with the United Kingdom looking after its foreign affairs under a Treaty of Friendship. The country never relinquished its sovereignty to any foreign power. In 2010, Tonga took a decisive path towards becoming a constitutional monarchy rather than a traditional absolute kingdom, after legislative reforms passed a course for the first partial representative elections. In many Polynesian languages, including Tongan, the word tonga comes from fakatonga which means "southwards", as the archipelago is the southernmost group of the islands of central Polynesia; the word tonga is cognate to the Hawaiian region of Kona, meaning leeward in the Hawaiian language. An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archaeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and inhabited Tonga around 1500–1000 BC. Scholars have much debated the exact dates of the initial settlement of Tonga, but Thorium dating confirms that the first settlers came to the oldest town, Nukuleka, by 888 BC, ± 8 years.
Not much is known before European contact because of the lack of a writing system, but oral history has survived and been recorded after the arrival of the Europeans. By the 12th century and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted; the Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht, captained by Willem Schouten, made a short visit to trade. Came other Dutch explorers, including Jacob Le Maire. Noteworthy European visitors included James Cook in 1773, 1774, 1777; the US Exploring Expedition visited in 1840. In 1845, the ambitious young warrior and orator Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom, he held the chiefly title of Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but had been baptised by Methodist missionaries with the name Siaosi in 1831. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy.
Tonga became a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship with Britain on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. The treaty posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul. Under the protection of Britain, Tonga maintained its sovereignty, remained the only Pacific nation to retain its monarchical government; the Tongan monarchy follows an uninterrupted succession of hereditary rulers from one family. The 1918 flu pandemic, brought to Tonga by a ship from New Zealand, killed 1,800 Tongans, reflecting a mortality rate of about eight per cent; the Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protection status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970, became a member of the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has always governed itself, which makes it unique in the Pacific; as part of cost-cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nukuʻalofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interests to the High Commissioner in Fiji.
The last resident British High Commissioner was Paul Nessling. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. Reverence for the monarch replaces that held in earlier centuries for the sacred paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga. Criticism of the monarch is held to be contrary to Tongan etiquette. King Tupou VI, his family, powerful nobles and a growing non-royal elite caste live in much wealth, with the rest of the country living in relative poverty; the effects of this disparity are mitigated by education and lan