The term country refers to a political state or nation or its territory. It is referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence, or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or sovereign political division, a physical territory with a government, or a geographic region associated with sets of independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics, it is not inherently sovereign. Countries can refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it can refer only to states. For example, the CIA World Factbook uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states"; the largest country in the world is Russia. The newest country is South Sudan; the word country comes from Old French contrée, which derives from Vulgar Latin contrata, derived from contra.
It most entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century. In English the word has become associated with political divisions, so that one sense, associated with the indefinite article – "a country" – through misuse and subsequent conflation is now a synonym for state, or a former sovereign state, in the sense of sovereign territory or "district, native land". Areas much smaller than a political state may be called by names such as the West Country in England, the Black Country, "Constable Country", the "big country", "coal country" and many other terms; the equivalent terms in French and other Romance languages have not carried the process of being identified with political sovereign states as far as the English "country", instead derived from, which designated the territory controlled by a medieval count, a title granted by the Roman Church. In many European countries the words are used for sub-divisions of the national territory, as in the German Bundesländer, as well as a less formal term for a sovereign state.
France has many "pays" that are recognized at some level, are either natural regions, like the Pays de Bray, or reflect old political or economic entities, like the Pays de la Loire. A version of "country" can be found in the modern French language as contrée, based on the word cuntrée in Old French, used to the word "pays" to define non-state regions, but can be used to describe a political state in some particular cases; the modern Italian contrada is a word with its meaning varying locally, but meaning a ward or similar small division of a town, or a village or hamlet in the countryside. The term "country" can refer to a sovereign state. There is no universal agreement on the number of "countries" in the world since a number of states have disputed sovereignty status. By one application of the declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood, there are 206 sovereign states; the latest proclaimed state is South Sudan since 2011. The degree of autonomy of non-sovereign countries varies widely.
Some are possessions of sovereign states, as several states have overseas territories, with citizenry at times identical and at times distinct from their own. Such territories, with the exception of distinct dependent territories, are listed together with sovereign states on lists of countries, but may nonetheless be treated as a separate "country of origin" in international trade, as Hong Kong is. A few states consist of a union of smaller polities which are considered countries: The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four separate countries: Netherlands, Curaçao, Sint Maarten; the United Kingdom includes England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Crown Dependencies, which are not part of the UK itself, are sometimes referred to as countries; the Kingdom of Denmark includes three separate countries: Faroe Islands and Greenland. Several organizations seek to identify trends. Countries are distinguished as developing countries or developed countries; the United Nations The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs annually produces the World Economic Situation and Prospects report that classified states as developed countries, economies in transition, or developing countries.
The report classifies country development based on per capita gross national income. Within the broad categories, the United Nations identified subgroups based on geographical location or ad hoc criteria; the UN outlines the geographical regions for developing economies as Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. The 2019 report recognizes only developed countries in North America and Asia and the Pacific; the majority of economies in transition and developing countries are found in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. The UN additionally recognizes multiple trends that impact the developmental status of countries in the World Economic Situation and Prospects; the report highlights fuel-exporting and fuel-importing countries, as well as small island developing states and landlocked developing countries. It also
The Scouts Battalion is a battalion of the Estonian Land Forces. It acts as its rapid response unit; the battalion is based at Tapa and is commanded by Major Eero Aija. In November 1918, Estonian American entrepreneur and scouting enthusiast Henry Reissar returned to Estonia and turned to the Ministry of Defence with a proposition of forming a voluntary military unit, financed by himself, in order to help defend Estonia. Having received such permission, the unit was formed on 21 December 1918, in Viljandi, where the first volunteers took their oaths in the ruins of Viljandi Castle, Friedrich-Karl Pinka was appointed commander of the newly formed unit. On 3 January 1919, the company-sized unit was sent to the front against the Red Army. On 23 January 1919, a 43-man unit of Scouts captured the Pikksaare Train Station, defended by 524 Red Army troops; the Scouts fought alongside armoured train units and acquitted themselves well in combat, manifesting greater morale than the regular conscript units.
The Scouts took part in several major battles including the attack against the Krasnaya Gorka fort in October 1919 and the Battle of Krivasoo in November – December 1919. On 1 December 1919, the Scouts Regiment was formed as a part of the Armoured Train Division. After the signing of the Peace Treaty of Tartu, many servicemen were demobilized and returned to civilian life. From 1921-28, the Scouts unit was reduced in size and continued to serve as a part of the 2nd, 5th, 6th and 10th Infantry Regiment. On 1 October 1928, the unit was renamed Scouts Single Infantry Battalion; the battalion was based at Tallinn, from where it was moved to Uuemõisa in 1932. After the Soviet occupation in 1940, the battalion was disbanded; the Scouts Battalion was restored on 29 March 2001, as a professional unit. The Scouts Battalion has participated in international operations together with other NATO, European Union and United Nations member states, including the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan; the battalion is equipped with Combat Vehicle 90 infantry fighting vehicles and Patria Pasi armoured personnel carriers.
Scouts Battalion: Battalion Headquarters A Infantry Company B Infantry Company C Infantry Company Combat Support Company Staff and Support Company Artur Tiganik 2001–2004 Indrek Sirel 2005–2006 Aivar Kokka 2006–2009 Vahur Karus 2009–2013 Andrus Merilo 2013–2016 Tarmo Kundla 2016–2019 Eero Aija 2019-present 1st Infantry Brigade Official website
James Ferdinand Izlar was a U. S. Representative from South Carolina. Born near Orangeburg, South Carolina, Izlar attended the common schools, he graduated from Emory College in Oxford, Georgia, in 1855. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1858, he served as an officer in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. After the war, he resumed the practice of law in Orangeburg, he served as member of the State senate 1880-1890, was elected by the general assembly to be judge of the first judicial circuit in 1889. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1884. Izlar was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-third Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of William H. Brawley and served from April 12, 1894, to March 3, 1895, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1894. He again engaged in the practice of law in Orangeburg until 1907, he was interred in the Episcopal Cemetery. United States Congress. "James F. Izlar". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress