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Country rock

Country rock is a subgenre of popular music, formed from the fusion of rock and country. It was developed by rock musicians who began to record country-flavored records in the late 1960s and early 1970s; these musicians recorded rock records using country themes, vocal styles, additional instrumentation, most characteristically pedal steel guitars. Country rock began with artists like Bob Dylan, the Byrds, Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, the Flying Burrito Brothers, The International Submarine Band and others, reaching its greatest popularity in the 1970s with artists such as Emmylou Harris, the Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Michael Nesmith and Pure Prairie League. Country rock influenced artists in other genres, including the Band, the Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, the Rolling Stones, George Harrison's solo work, as well as playing a part in the development of Southern rock. Rock and roll has been seen as a combination of rhythm and blues and country music, a fusion evident in 1950s rockabilly.

There has been cross-pollination throughout the history of both genres. John Einarson states, that "rom a variety of perspectives and motivations, these musicians either played rock & roll attitude, or added a country feel to rock, or folk, or bluegrass, there was no formula". Country influences can be heard on rock records through the 1960s, including the Beatles' 1964 recordings "I'll Cry Instead", "Baby's in Black" and "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party", the Byrds' 1965 cover version of Porter Wagoner's "Satisfied Mind", on the Rolling Stones "High and Dry", as well as Buffalo Springfield's "Go and Say Goodbye" and "Kind Woman". According to The Encyclopedia of Country Music, the Beatles' "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party", their cover of the Buck Owens country hit "Act Naturally" and their 1965 album Rubber Soul can all be seen "with hindsight" as examples of country rock. In 1966, as many rock artists moved towards expansive and experimental psychedelia, Bob Dylan spearheaded the back-to-basics roots revival when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde, using notable local musicians like Charlie McCoy.

This, the subsequent more country-influenced albums, John Wesley Harding and Nashville Skyline, have been seen as creating the genre of country folk, a route pursued by a number of acoustic, folk musicians. Dylan's lead was followed by the Byrds, who were joined by Gram Parsons in 1968. Parsons had mixed country with rock and folk to create what he called "Cosmic American Music". Earlier in the year Parsons had released Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band, which made extensive use of pedal steel and is seen by some as the first true country-rock album; the result of Parsons' brief tenure in the Byrds was Sweetheart of the Rodeo considered one of the finest and most influential recordings in the genre. The Byrds continued for a brief period in the same vein, but Parsons left soon after the album was released to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming the Flying Burrito Brothers. Over the next two years they recorded the albums The Gilded Palace of Sin and Burrito Deluxe, which helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre, before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career.

Country rock was a popular style in the California music scene of the late 1960s, was adopted by bands including Hearts and Flowers and New Riders of the Purple Sage. Some folk-rockers followed the Byrds into the genre, among them the Beau Brummels and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. A number of performers enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds, including: the Beatles, who re-explored elements of country in songs such as "Rocky Raccoon" and "Don't Pass Me By" from their 1968 self-titled double album, "Octopus's Garden" from Abbey Road. One of the few acts to move from the country side towards rock were the bluegrass band the Dillards; the greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s, with the Doobie Brothers mixing in elements of R&B, Emmylou Harris becoming the "Queen of country-rock" and Linda Ronstadt creating a successful pop-oriented brand of the genre. Pure Prairie League, formed in Ohio in 1969 by Craig Fuller, had both critical and commercial success with 5 straight Top 40 LP releases, including Bustin' Out, acclaimed by Allmusic critic Richard Foss as "an album, unequaled in country-rock" and Two Lane Highway, described by Rolling Stone as "a worthy companion to the likes of the Byrds' Sweetheart of the Rodeo and other gems of the genre".

Former members of Ronstadt's backing band went on to form the Eagles, who emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time

Taiyuan massacre

The Taiyuan massacre took place during the Boxer Rebellion, July 9, 1900, in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, North China. Reports at the time alleged that Yuxian, governor of Shanxi, ordered the killings of 45 Christian missionaries and village Christians, including children. Recent research, raises questions. Roger Thompson, in his article about Yuxian, the supposed "Butcher of Shanxi", found that there were no eye-witnesses accounts and that both the missionary sources and the Chinese official reports hide the full truth, he concludes, "The weight of the evidence leads to a conclusion that mob violence, not Yuxian, was responsible" for the massacre. Another study finds that the accounts from the time offered different accounts of the executions, though agreed on the skeletal narrative. Protestant and Catholic missionaries and their Chinese parishioners were massacred throughout northern China, some by Boxers and others by government troops and authorities. After the declaration of war on Western powers in June 1900, named governor in March, implemented a brutal anti-foreign and anti-Christian policy.

On 9 July, reports circulated that he had executed forty-four foreigners from missionary families whom he had invited to the provincial capital Taiyuan under the promise to protect them. Roger Thompson points out that the circulated accounts were by people who could not have seen the events and that these accounts followed well known earlier martyr literature. In any case, this event became a notorious symbol of Chinese anger. By the summer's end, more foreigners and as many as 2,000 Chinese Christians had been put to death in the province. Journalist and historical writer Nat Brandt has called the massacre of Christians in Shanxi "the greatest single tragedy in the history of Christian evangelicalism." By the late 19th century, there were long-established Christian communities. Catholic missionaries first came to Shanxi in 1633, Protestant churches were established in 1865. Dr. and Mrs. Schofield, with Mr. R. J. Landale, 1 an Oxford man, sailed for China, via America, on April 7, 1880, the Doctor and his wife reaching Shanghai on June 30, Mr. Landale some days earlier.

Dr. and Mrs. Schofield, after a brief period of study at Chefoo, left for Taiyuanfu at the end of October, Mr. and Mrs. Landale following them early the next year. At that time there were only two stations in Shansi: Taiyuanfu, the capital, Pingyangfu in the south of the province. Mr. Hudson Taylor had long wished and made many attempts to reach Shansi, at length found his way opened in the summer of 1886. Accompanied by Mr. Orr-Ewing, his son, Herbert Taylor, he reached Taiyuanfu on Saturday 3 July 1886, where they were warmly welcomed by Dr & Mrs Edwards, by the other workers, among whom were Mr Taylor's niece and nephew and Hudson Broomhall; as the workers from the south of the province had reached the capital, a Conference was held from Monday 5 July to Wednesday 14 July, which period proved to be " days of blessing " and spiritual refreshment. A report of this conference was made and includes the following note of those present: We were warmly received, kindly entertained by Dr. and Mrs. Edwards, soon met the remainder of our T’ai-yüen missionaries Miss Kemp, or Roachdale, on a visit to her sister Mrs. Edwards.

Our workers from the P’ing-yang plain had come up, viz.: Mr. William Key, five of the Cambridge band, the Rev. W. W. Cassels, Mr. Stanley P. Smith, Mr. D. E. Hoste, Mr. Montagu Beauchamp, Mr. C. T. Studd; the usual Saturday afternoon prayer meeting for the scattered members of our mission, was a happy and interesting one. A series of special meetings were commenced on the Monday and from notes taken by Mr. Stanley P. Smith and Mr. Lewis, the following account has been compiled by Mr. Montagu Beauchamp, as the friends present asked to have a permanent record. Mr. Orr Ewing kindly offered to present a copy to any missionary desiring it. Others having expressed a wish for it, the book has been prepared for more general circulation. Mr J J Turner and Mr F James travelled from Chianking on 17 Oct 1876 arriving in "Taiyuanfu" in April 1877 to discover the region was suffering from 3 years of famine, they left on 28 Nov, two days before the arrival of Timothy Richard with famine relief. Returning the following March 1878 with famine relief were Mr Turner, Rev A Whiting and Rev David Hill.

Sarah Alice Young nee Troyer, known as Alice or Sade to her familyLetters from Sarah Troyer home to her family are archived as "Papers of Sarah Alice Young. Most of her work was in Lugan Fu in "Shansi". Included is a letter from 1899 with a paragraph starting "My last letter was sent you from Tai üen hu about a week ago.". The previous letter appears to be missing but details of other missionaries working in the area are given. John and Sarah Troyer died in 16 July 1900 in Shanxi. Moir Black Duncan and Jessie Chalmers Duncan and their daughtersArchives held at the Angus Library under code GB 0469 DUN about which the library reports thatIn October 1888 Moir Duncan set sail for China under the auspices of the Baptist Missionary Society, he was assigned to the province of Shanxi, where the renowned missionary Timothy Richard had famously worked for famine relief on behalf of the BMS during the 1870s. For two years Moir Duncan studied Chinese at Taiyuan in Shanxi. In 1890 Jessie

The Trumpet Kings Meet Joe Turner

The Trumpet Kings Meet Joe Turner is an album by vocalist Big Joe Turner with trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie, Roy Eldridge, Harry "Sweets" Edison and Clark Terry recorded in 1974 and released on the Pablo label. The Allmusic review stated: "This is an excellent collaboration by three established, outstanding trumpeters, plus rollicking Joe Turner near the end of a wonderful career". All compositions by Joe Turner except as indicated "Mornin', Noon and Night" - 4:13 "I Know You Love Me Baby" - 15:48 "TV Mama" - 13:57 "'Tain't Nobody's Bizness If I Do" - 7:35 Big Joe Turner - vocals Dizzy Gillespie, Roy Eldridge, Harry "Sweets" Edison, Clark Terry - trumpet Pee Wee Crayton - guitar Jimmy Robins - piano Chuck Norris - bass Washington Rucker - drums

1918 Vancouver general strike

The 1918 Vancouver General Strike was the first general strike in Canadian history and took place on 2 August 1918. There had been talks of organizing a general strike for quite some time due to federal conscription, censorship of socialist publications, workers demands for higher wages. War-time inflation reduced real income profoundly and throughout the First World War Vancouver shipbuilders experienced a labor shortage. Numerous government policies had suppressed the work of labour activists such as strikes and certain presses being banned. Workers were inspired by factors such as the Bolshevik Revolution the previous year and the rising cost of living; the strike was organized as a one-day political protest after the killing of draft evader and labour activist Albert "Ginger" Goodwin on July 27th. He had called for a general strike in the event that any worker was drafted against their will; the strike was met with violence from returned soldiers, mobilized and supplied with vehicles to storm the Labour Temple at 411 Dunsmuir Street.

Some opposition claimed. Three hundred men ransacked the offices of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council. After attempting to throw VTLC secretary Victor Midgely out of a window, the solidiers forced him and a longshoreman to kiss the Union Jack. A woman working in the office was badly bruised when she prevented Midgely from being thrown out the window. Prominent suffragette and member of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council Helena Gutteridge was at the scene. Strike leaders could point to the vote by VTLC delegates that supported the strike 117 to 1. After the strike, in response to opposition from the business and middle class, all the strike leaders resigned. Nearly all were re-elected in the ensuing election, demonstrating widespread support for the general strike among organized workers. Although the strike call was province-wide, it was only in the city of Vancouver that it took general strike proportions. Numerous other strikes took place in the city that year, the general strike was as much a show of labour strength as it was a political protest over Goodwin's death.

At the time the strike was controversial, some saw Goodwin as a martyr for the labour movement while others saw the strike as a betrayal to Canadian ideals. Although only one day in duration, the 1918 strike was an important marker in the Canadian labour revolt that peaked with the Winnipeg General Strike the following year. A 1919 Vancouver strike in sympathy with Winnipeg would be the longest general strike in Canadian history

Tore Gustafsson

Lars Tore Gustafsson is a retired male hammer thrower from Sweden, who competed at three consecutive Summer Olympics, starting in 1988. Since his retirement from competition, he has enjoyed success as a hammer coach A member of the Mölndals Almänna Idrottsklubb he set the national record at 80.14 metres on July 4, 1989 in Lappeenranta, Finland. Gustafsson lives in Los Gatos and works as a chiropractor. Gustafsson has been involved in coaching. Koji Murofushi won the Gold Medal at 2011 World Championships in Daegu Korea and Bronze Medal at the 2012 London Olympics with Gustafsson as his Coach. In 2016, another of his athletes, Great Britain's Sophie Hitchon, won bronze in the hammer at the 2016 Olympic Games, her country's first global medal in that discipline. Sports-reference Profile Tore Gustafsson at World Athletics

Terqa

Terqa is the name of an ancient city discovered at the site of Tell Ashara on the banks of the middle Euphrates in Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria 80 kilometres from the modern border with Iraq and 64 kilometres north of the ancient site of Mari, Syria. Its name had become Sirqu by Neo-Assyrian times. Little is yet known of the early history of Terqa, though it was a sizable entity in the Early Dynastic period. In the 2nd millennium BC it was under the control of Shamshi-Adad, followed by Mari in the time of Zimri-Lim, by Babylon after Mari's defeat by Hammurabi of the First Babylonian dynasty, Terqa became the leading city of the kingdom of Khana after the decline of Babylon, it fell into the sphere of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon and the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A noted stele of Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta II was found at Terqa; the principal god of Terqa was Dagan. Proposed Rulers of Terqa The main site has a height of 60 feet; the remains of Terqa are covered by the modern town of Ashara, which limits the possibilities for excavation.

The site was excavated by Ernst Herzfeld in 1910. In 1923, 5 days of excavations were conducted by P. Dhorrne. From 1974 to 1986, Terqa was excavated for 10 seasons by a team from the International Institute for Mesopotamian Area Studies including the Institute of Archaeology at the University of California at Los Angeles, California State University at Los Angeles, Johns Hopkins University, the University of Arizona and the University of Poitiers in France; the team was led by Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati. After 1987, a French team led by Olivier Rouault of Lyon University took over the dig and continues to work there to the present time. There are 550 cuneiform tablets from Terqa held at the Deir ez-Zor Museum. Notable features found at Terqa include A city wall consisting of three concentric masonry walls, 20 feet high and 60 feet in width, fronted by a 60-foot-wide moat; the walls encompass a total area of around 60 acres, were built circa 3000 BC and were in use until at least 2000 BC. A temple to Ninkarrak dating at least as old as the 3rd millennium.

The temple finds included Egyptian scarabs. The House of Puzurum, where a large and important archive of tablets were found. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from freshly unearthed remains of 4 individuals deposited in alkaline soil of ancient Terqa and Tell Masaikh was analysed in 2013. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s India, Pakistan and Himalayas. Cities of the ancient Near East A. Ahrens, The Scarabs from the Ninkarrak Temple Cache at Tell ’Ašara/Terqa: History, Archaeological Context, Chronology and the Levant 20, 2010, 431-444. G. Buccellati, The Kingdom and Period of Khana, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 270, pp. 43–61, 1977 M. Chavalas and the Kingdom of Khana, Biblical Archaeology, vol.

59, pp. 90–103, 1996 A. H. Podany, A Middle Babylonian Date for the Hana Kingdom, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 43/45, pp. 53–62, J. N. Tubb, A Reconsideration of the Date of the Second Millennium Pottery From the Recent Excavations at Terqa, vol. 12, pp. 61–68, 1980 A. Soltysiak, Human Remains from Tell Ashara - Terqa. Seasons 1999-2001. A Preliminary Report, Athenaeum, 90, no. 2, pp. 591–594 2002 J Tomczyk, A Sołtysiak, Preliminary report on human remains from Tell Ashara/Terqa. Season 2005, Athenaeum. Studi di Letteratura e Storia dell’Antichità, vol. 95, pp. 439-441, soo7 Terqa excavation web site Terqa IIMAS website