Duchies of Silesia
The Duchies of Silesia were a crown land of the Bohemian Crown, that were formed when Duchy of Silesia joined the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1335 under the Treaty of Trentschin. The duchies were ruled by the Dukes of Silesia, consisted of the Duchy of Lower Silesia, beside which, the Seniorate Province with the residence of Kraków was reserved for the eldest, who according to the principle of agnatic seniority was to be High Duke of all Poland. This act inadvertently started the process known as Fragmentation of Poland, Bolesławs son Władysław II received the Duchy of Silesia and, as the eldest, was granted the title of a High Duke among with the Seniorate Province. Nevertheless, after he had tried to control over all Poland. Bolesławs second eldest son Bolesław IV the Curly, Duke of Masovia, when, in 1163, Władysławs three sons, backed by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa returned to Poland, Bolesław IV had to restore their heritage. After ten years of joint rule, Władysławs sons finally divided Silesia in 1173, Bolesław I the Tall, in 1180, he granted the Duchy of Opole to his son Jarosław, who ruled until his death in March 1201.
Upon Bolesławs death in December 1201, his lands were inherited by his remaining son Henry I the Bearded Mieszko I Tanglefoot became Duke of Racibórz and received Bytom. Konrad Spindleshanks, the youngest, in 1177 claimed his rights and received the Duchy of Głogów from his brother Bolesław, after his brother Bolesław I had died, Miezsko I Tanglefoot conquered and took the Duchy of Opole from his nephew Henry I the Bearded. He ruled over the Racibórz and Opole duchies, which emerged as Upper Silesia, High Duke of Poland from 1232, he conquered further Greater Polish territories around Santok in 1234. Mieszkos heir was Duke Casimir I of Opole, who died in 1230, Henry I managed to reunite whole Silesia under his reign. He was succeeded by his son Henry II the Pious in 1238 and he and his younger brother, Władysław Opolski, had already received Greater Polish Kalisz in 1234. Henry II was killed at the Battle of Legnica in 1241 and his eldest son and heir, Duke Bolesław II the Bald temporarily gave Lubusz Land to his younger brother Mieszko.
He reconciled with his Greater Polish cousin Duke Przemysł I and finally returned Santok in 1247, Mieszko II the Fat, of Upper Silesia, in 1244, returned Kalisz to Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland. He died in 1246 and his possessions were inherited by his brother Władysław Opolski, Silesia was subsequently divided among the descendants and successors of the Piast dynasty, until they died out in 1675. Those Silesian Piasts, known as Dukes of Silesia, and territories they ruled were known as Duchies of Silesia, after the Piasts had become extinct, the duchies were State Countries of the Bohemian Crown, which fell to the House of Habsburg in 1526. In 1742, most of Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia following the First Silesian War, this list may not be complete
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile, eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesławs testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province, the history of the Silesian Piasts began with the feudal fragmentation of Poland in 1138 following the death of the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. Władysław soon entered into conflicts with his brothers and the Polish nobility. When in 1146 he attempted to control of the whole of Poland, he was excomunicated by Archbishop Jakub ze Żnina of Gniezno. He was received by King Conrad III of Germany, his brother-in-law by Władysławs consort Agnes of Babenberg and the Seniorate Province came under the control of second-born Bolesław IV the Curly, Duke of Masovia. In the same year King Conrad III attempted to power for Władysław. He died in 1159 without returning to Poland, the Duchy of Silesia remained within the Polish seniorate constitution, but Władysławs sons were obliged to pay a yearly tribute to the Holy Roman Emperor.
Mieszko Tanglefoot the smaller Duchy of Racibórz around Racibórz and Cieszyn and their minor brother Konrad Spindleshanks received Żagań, Głogów and Krosno from the hands of Bolesław the Tall. In the same year, Poland abolished the seniorate and the Silesian duchies became independent entities, Henry I the Bearded actively took part in the inner-Polish conflicts and expanded his dominion with determination. Henry, before securing in 1229 the sovereignty in Kraków, had no less persevering efforts to bring Greater Poland under his dominion. From the beginning of the century he had not ceased to intervene in the disputes which were carried on between the descendants of Mieszko the Old. At last in 1234, a half of that province was formally ceded to him. As a guardian of minor dukes, Henry moreover ruled over Opole and this Silesian prince not only intended to enlarge his possessions, he proposed to make them the nucleus of a restored Kingdom of Poland. He became duke of Kraków in 1232, which gave him the title of the Senior Duke of Poland, Henry expanded his realm outside Poland ruling over Barnim, Teltow as well as parts of Lower Lusatia.
Unfortunately, despite his efforts, he never gained the Polish crown, the royal crown, almost forgotten since the fall of Bolesław II, was destined by him for his eldest son, whom he associated in his rule towards the end of his life. This Henry II the Pious, who succeeded his father in 1238, was, in fact, pursuing the very able policy of Henry the Bearded, his son was moreover able to obtain the support of the clergy, with whom his father had had frequent disagreements. Following an old tradition of his dynasty, he placed himself under the protection of the Holy See, in 1241, he died as a Christian hero in the Battle of Legnica, in which he was attempting to arrest the Mongolian invasion. His death left the Silesian Piast dynasty deeply shaken, after Henrys death in 1241 his brother Bolesław II ruled on behalf of his underage brothers
Henry VI the Good
Henry VI the Good was a Duke of Wrocław since 1296. He was the son of Henry V the Fat, Duke of Legnica and Wrocław, by his wife Elisabeth, daughter of Bolesław the Pious. Henrys father died in 1296, when Henry was two years old, because he and his brothers, Bolesław III and Władysław, were minors the regency of their lands was taken over by their mother, the Dowager Duchess Elisabeth and their paternal uncle Bolko I. Between 1301–02 the official guardianship of Henry Vs sons was carried out by Henry of Wierzbna, finally the authority over the Duchy of Wrocław-Legnica was personally assumed by the King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Poland, which brought Bolesław III into his court in Prague. Is unknown what happened with Henry during this time, the first mention of Henry takes place in 1310 when he married the several years older Anna, daughter of Albert I of Habsburg, the ruler of Austria. A year later, as a result of the pressure of the nobility of both Wrocław and Legnica, the Duchy was divided into three parts, Wrocław, Legnica and Brzeg, the poorest and least important was Brzeg.
In the treaty of division, it was stipulated that the brother who takes this district would receive from the other two a payment of 50,000 fines. As the oldest, Bolesław III was able to choose first, with problems, he unexpectedly took Brzeg. As a result, Henry was allowed to take Wrocław and he had no problems with paying the debt to his older brother and kept the district. The youngest brother, Władysław, who received Legnica, wasnt able to pay his part of the debt, between 1312 and 1317, a conflict erupted between Bolesław III and the Dukes of Głogów. Henry and his brother entered into an alliance with the ruler of Lesser Poland, Władysław I the Elbow-high, as a pretext they used the fact that Henry III was directly responsible for the premature death of Henry V. In the end, Władysław I the Elbow-high managed to capture almost all of Greater Poland, in 1314 Henry supported his brother-in-law Frederick the Fair of Austria in the battle for the throne of Germany. The war with Głogów began again in 1321 and this time, Henry wasnt convinced as to the appropriateness of it, and in 1322 he signed a separated peace with the Głogów Dukes, receiving in return Smogorzew.
The agreement was reinforced with the marriage of Henrys eldest daughter Elisabeth to Duke Konrad I of Oleśnica, by that time the relations between Henry and his older brother Bolesław III had seriously deteriorated. The reasons for this was Henrys refusal to support the overtly militaristic policy of his brother, Bolesław even made an official proposal to exchange his district of Legnica for Wrocław. The war between the brothers was imminent, Henry reestablished contacts with Władysław I the Elbow-high, and promised him homage and named him his heir in exchange for aid against Bolesław. However, Władysław I feared a direct confrontation with the Kingdom of Bohemia, Henry asked Emperor Louis IV for help. These decision prompted Bolesław to carry out armed attempts to settle the dispute, his homage to the Holy Roman Empire did not secure his lands, especially since the fights with Bolesław III continued
Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry II, known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B. was Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children. The son of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Gisela of Burgundy, Emperor Henry II was a great-grandson of German King Henry I, since his father had rebelled against two previous emperors, the younger Henry was often in exile. This led him to turn to the Church at an age, first finding refuge with the Bishop of Freising. He succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 995 as Henry IV, as Duke, he attempted to join his second-cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, in suppressing a revolt against imperial rule in Italy in 1002. Before Henry II could arrive, Otto III died of fever, after defeating several other claimants to the throne, Henry II was crowned as King of Germany on July 9,1002 and as King of Italy on 15 May 1004. Henry II in 1004 aided Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia against the Poles, unlike his predecessor, who had focused upon imperial attention in Italy, Henry spent most of his reign concerned with imperial territory north of the Alps.
His main focus was on a series of wars against the Polish Duke Bolesław I, on 14 February 1014, Pope Benedict VIII crowned Henry as Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. The rule of Henry II is seen as a period of centralized authority throughout the Empire and he consolidated his power by cultivating personal and political ties with the Catholic Church. He greatly expanded the Ottonian dynastys custom of employing clergy as counter-weights against secular nobles, through donations to the Church and the establishment of new dioceses, Henry strengthened imperial rule across the Empire and increased control over ecclesiastical affairs. He stressed service to the Church and promoted monastic reform, for his personal holiness and efforts to support the Church, Pope Bl. Eugene III canonized him in 1146, making Henry II the only German monarch to be a saint, Henry II married Cunigunde of Luxembourg, who became his queen and empress. As the union produced no children, after Henrys death the German nobles elected Conrad II, Conrad was the first of the Salian dynasty of Emperors.
Henry was born in May 973, the son of Duke Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, through his father, he was the grandson of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, and the great-grandson of King Henry I of Germany. By his mother, he was the grandson of King Conrad I of Burgundy, the elder Henry came into conflict with his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, in 974. After an initial failed revolt, Otto II imprisoned the elder Henry in Ingelheim, after escaping, Henry again revolted against Otto II. When this second failed, Otto II deposed Henry as Duke of Bavaria. As a consequence of his revolt, the Emperor stripped the Duchy of Bavaria of its southeastern territories bordering Italy, during his fathers exile, the younger Henry lived in Hildesheim. As a child he was educated in the Christian faith by Saint Wolfgang, bishop of Regensburg, the Emperor himself ensured the younger Henry received an ecclesiastical education in order that by becoming a religious official he would be prevented from participating in the Imperial government
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg, called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740, from the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the name as his own. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, by 1276, Count Radbots seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the familys power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Hungary. In the 16th century, the separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century, the senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine, the new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, the origins of the castles name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, in the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were able to high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century
The Eastern Neisse, known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka, is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 195 km and a basin area of 4,566 km². Before 1945 the area was part of Germany, during the Yalta Conference it was discussed by the Western Allies as one possible line of the western Polish border. Attempts were made to negotiate a compromise with the Soviets on the new Polish-German frontier and this would have meant that Germany could have retained approximately half of Silesia, including most of Wrocław. However the Soviets rejected the suggestion at the Potsdam Conference and insisted that the boundary between Germany and Poland be drawn further west, at the Lusatian Neisse. The Eastern Neisse originates in the mountain range of the Sudetes. The river has left its banks and flooded nearby towns. German names are indicated in italics, bardo Bystrzyca Kłodzka Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Kłodzko Lewin Brzeski Międzylesie - both names mean Middle Wood Nysa Otmuchów Paczków Lusatian Neisse Raging Neisse Rivers of Poland Geography of Poland