Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Physical courage is bravery in the face of physical pain, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, scandal, discouragement, or personal loss; the classical virtue of fortitude is translated "courage", but includes the aspects of perseverance and patience. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers, Plato, Aristotle and Kierkegaard. In the Hindu tradition, mythology has given many examples of bravery and courage. Ramayana and Mahabharatha have in them many examples of both physical and moral courage. In the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology. Daniel Putman, a professor at the University of Wisconsin - Fox Valley, wrote an article titled "The Emotions of Courage". Using a text from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics as the basis for his article, he discusses the relationship between fear and confidence in the emotion of courage.
He states that "courage involves deliberate choice in the face of painful or fearful circumstances for the sake of a worthy goal". With this realization, Putman concludes that "there is a close connection between fear and confidence". Fear and confidence in relation to courage can determine the success of a courageous goal, they can be seen as the independent variables in courage, their relationship can affect how we respond to fear. In addition, the confidence, being discussed here is self-confidence. Putman states that: The ideal in courage is not just a rigid control of fear, nor is it a denial of the emotion; the ideal is to judge a situation, accept the emotion as part of human nature and, we hope, use well-developed habits to confront the fear and allow reason to guide our behavior toward a worthwhile goal. When trying to understand how fear and confidence play into courage, we need to look back at Aristotle's quote. According to Putman, Aristotle is referring to an appropriate level of fear and confidence in courage.
"Fear, although it might vary from person to person, is not relative and is only appropriate if it "matches the danger of the situation". The same goes for confidence in that there are two aspects to self-confidence in a dangerous situation. "a realistic confidence in the worth of a cause that motivates positive action." "knowing our own skills and abilities. A second meaning of appropriate confidence is a form of self-knowledge."Without an appropriate balance between fear and confidence when facing a threat, one cannot have the courage to overcome it. Putman states "if the two emotions are distinct excesses or deficiencies in either fear or confidence can distort courage." As noted above, an "excess or deficiency of either fear or confidence, can distort courage". According to Putman, there are four possibilities: "Higher level of fear than a situation calls for, low level of confidence". Someone like this would be perceived as coward. Someone like this would be perceived as rash; the third possibility can occur if someone experienced a traumatic experience that brought about great anxiety for much of their life.
The fear that they experience would be inappropriate and excessive. Yet as a defensive mechanism, the person would show excessive levels of confidence as a way to confront their irrational fear and "prove" something to oneself or other". So this distortions could be seen as a coping method for their fear. "Excessively low level of fear and low level of confidence." For the last possibility, it can be seen as hopelessness. Putman says this is similar to "a person on a sinking ship". "This example is of a person who has low confidence and low self-regard who loses all fear". The distortion of low fear and low confidence can occur in a situation where an individual accepts what is going to happen to them. In regards to this example, they lose all fear because they know death is unavoidable and the reason it is unavoidable is because they do not have the ability to handle or overcome the situation. Thus, Daniel Putman identifies fear and courage as being intertwined and that they rely on distinct perceptions: "the danger of the situation" "the worthiness of the cause" "and the perception of one's ability."
The early Greek philosopher Plato set the groundwork for how courage would be viewed to future philosophers. Plato's early writings found in Laches show a discussion on courage, but they fail to come to a satisfactory conclusion on what courage is. During the debate between three leaders, including Socrates, many definitions of courage are mentioned. "…a man willing to remain at his post and to defend himself against the enemy without running away…""…a sort of endurance of the soul…" "…knowledge of the grounds of fear and hope..." While many definitions are given in Plato's Laches, all are refuted, giving the reader a sense of Plato's argument style. Laches is an early writing of Plato's. In this early writing, Plato is still developing his ideas and shows influence from his teachers like Socrates. In one of his writings, The Republic, Plato gives more concrete ideas of what he believes courage to be. Civic courage is described as
Numerous cities, towns and streets around the world are named after Armenia. Some of them are listed below. Americas Armenia, Colombia Armenia, Colombia Armenia, Belize Armenia, Ecuador Armenia, Sonsonate, El Salvador Nueva Armenia, Honduras Armenia Bonito, Atlántida, Honduras Armenia, Wisconsin Armenia Gardens Estates, Florida Armenia Township, Bradford County, Pennsylvania Little Armenia, East Hollywood, Los Angeles, CaliforniaAsia Armanitola, Bangladesh Ermenikend, Azerbaijan Europe Armeniș, Romania Armenoi, Greece San Lazzaro degli Armeni, Italy Armyansk, Ukraine Armyanskiy, Apsheronskiy rayon, Krasnodar Krai, Russia Armyanskiy, Krymskiy rayon, Krasnodar Krai, Russia Örményes, Hungary Ormos Armenis, Greece Urmeniș, Romania Metro stations Armênia, a São Paulo Metro stationParks Armenian Heritage Park, Massachusetts Parc de l'Arménie, MontrealRivers Ormeniș, tributary of the Mureş River in Transylvania, Romania Ormeniș, tributary of the Olt River, Romania
Gir Gadhada Taluka is a taluka of Gir Somnath district in the state of Gujarat, India. Before 2013 the area was part of Una Taluka, but it became a taluka in its own right with the creation of Gir Somnath District in August of that year. Gir Gadhada Taluka has population around 15,600; the village of Gir Gadhada became its administrative headquarters. Revenue records list forty-two villages for Gir Gadhada Taluka. By Train Gir Gadhara Rail Way Station. Distance from Somnath to Girgadhada: 76 km Junagadh to Girgadhada: 110 km Rajkot to Girgadhada: 171 kmBy Bus Junagadh to Girgadhada: 119 km Diu to Girgadhada: 37 km Una to Girgadhada: 18 km Veraval to Girgadhada: 78 km Talala to Girgadhada: 78 km Kodinar to Girgadhada: 45 km Idea Airtel Bsnl Vodafone Videocon Uninor Tata Docomo Tata Indicom Virgin Mobile Jio
Dietmar Kühbauer is an Austrian former professional football midfielder and current head coach of SK Rapid Wien. Born in Heiligenkreuz, Burgenland, Kühbauer started his professional career at Admira Wacker, making his Austrian Football Bundesliga debut in 1987, at 16 years of age. After five years he moved to city rivals Rapid Wien with whom he won a league and domestic cup title, he played in the 1996 UEFA Cup Winners Cup Final against Paris St Germain in Brussels, which Rapid lost. "Don Didi" is still considered a star among the Rapid fans. In 1999, he was chosen in Rapid's Team of the Century. In 1997, he moved abroad to join La Liga side Real Sociedad and in 2000 he signed for German Bundesliga outfit VfL Wolfsburg. Two years he returned to Austria to play for his childhood team SV Mattersburg where he finished his playing career after the 2007–08 season, he made his debut for Austria in a May 1992 friendly match against Poland and was a participant at the 1998 FIFA World Cup. He earned 55 caps.
On 4 September 2005, he announced his retirement from international matches. His final international was a September 2005 World Cup qualification match against Poland. On 16 February 1997, Kühbauer's three months-pregnant wife Michaela drove to Schwechat to pick him up after Rapid had enjoyed a winter break in Dubai. Tragedy happened when her car slewed off the road near Eisenstadt and she was rushed to hospital, with three ribs having punctured her lung, she died a half year later. A disillusioned Kühbauer left Austria to start a new career abroad. On 18 November 2008, he signed a contract by Trenkwalder Admira II as head coach. In 2010, he became coach of the first squad and led the team to the promotion to the Austrian Football Bundesliga. From September 2013 to November 2015 he was the trainer of Wolfsberger AC. On 1 October 2018, Kühbauer was announced to become the new head coach of SK Rapid Wien, after only a half year at SKN St. Pölten. Rapid Wien Austrian Football Bundesliga: 1995–96 Austrian Cup: 1994–95 FC Admira Mödling Austrian Football First League: 2010–11 Dietmar Kühbauer at Rapid Archiv Dietmar Kühbauer at National-Football-Teams.com
Jadu is a software company based in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. It is a proprietary web experience management platform used for non-technical management of web-based content and electronic documents. Jadu develops web applications related to document management and publishing; the company's global business is based in the UK under Jadu, Inc. based in Chicago, USA and a business based in Australia servicing the Asia Pacific region. The company was founded by Suraj Kika and Richard Chamberlain in 1999; the system was first developed for the Department of Trade and Industry for the UK consultation portal for Oil and Gas and Renewable Energy. The software developed for the Offshore-SEA website, an environmental portal managed by geological and oceanographic specialists Geotek became Jadu Content Management Engine Version 1 — and was implemented for scientific organisations in the UK as a means to publish complex electronic documents generated in MS Word and PDF formats. In 2001 the system was redeveloped in PHP and MySQL and a Version 2 was deployed for UK Government and Local Authorities.
Based on the e-GIF standards, using XForms, the system was deployed at the beginning of the first acceptance and adoption of open source platforms within Government. Jadu as a company has a cross platform approach, preferring to develop its software to be agnostic in terms of operating platform and development framework. In 2008, Jadu launched a. NET compliant binary of the Jadu CMS supporting IIS, MS SQL and the. NET 2.0 framework using the Phalanger which compiles PHP to CLR enabling any PHP application to run natively under the. NET framework. Jadu have funded and are supporting the development of Phalanger, including leading the development of VisualStudio. NET support as well as other upgrades to PHP support in. NET. With this new framework under. NET 2.0 and. NET 3.0, Jadu CMS can be extended in any other. NET compiled language using Visual Studio. Using the Phalanger compiler, Jadu CMS and the front end web templates are compiled down to two DLLs. - bringing together two fiercely competitive programming disciplines together - making PHP interoperable with the.
NET framework. Jadu's Head of Design and User Interface Lee Pilmore was the designer responsible for Lichfield District Council becoming the first UK Local Authority to win a Webby Award Official Honoree status and The City of Edinburgh Council website, awarded a top 4-star rating for three years running, as "the best Local Government Website in Scotland" by SOCITM. In 2007, Jadu's design for Kettering Borough Council was nominated a finalist for the CSS category in the SXSW awards - for "pushing the boundaries of CSS coding technology, bringing together top-notch design and content with standards compliant and accessible code"In 2008, Jadu launched Manchester City Council's website using the Jadu CMS, which won the BT Online Excellence award as the Best Local Government website in Britain. In January 2011, executives from Jadu were invited to a private round table discussion with UK Prime Minister, David Cameron to consult with Jadu over barriers to business growth in the UKIn October 2011, the company announced the'Weejot' Mobile web app publishing service.
Described as a network for developing and publishing mobile web apps to handheld mobile and tablet devices in real-time using HTML5, CSS3 and JQuery Mobile. In February 2012, Jadu announced that their'Jadu Universe Cloud' service, a platform for SaaS CMS, forms and mobile products was selected as a preferred supplier into the UK Government CloudStore. On its website, Jadu stated that Jadu Universe Cloud services can be purchased by public sector organisations directly from Cloudstore without an Official Journal of the European Union tender process, which represents a significant step change in UK Government procurement. Chris Chant, the Cabinet Office Executive Director confirmed that the Government was "making it easy for the public sector to buy a vast range of services – and so easy that they can try things out at nominal cost before taking it on for a whole organisation."In the Spring of 2013, the Government announced that the G-Cloud has sold over £18.2m in products and services through the Cloudstore.
Jadu were listed as 13th most purchased services with sales approaching £250,000 in just three months. In March 2013, Jadu announced a partnership with PayPal to deliver mobile payments using the Weejot.com service, starting with mobile donations. Jadu, PayPal and The Alzheimer's Society co-launched'Weejot Donate' a weejot.com template that enabled fundraising teams inside any charity to use the weejot.com mobile service to deploy mobile donations apps. Jadu launched a re-designed Manchester City Council website using its Jadu Universe Platform on 1 May 2013 as a result of a collaboration between the council's web team and Jadu; the site was designed by Jadu's in-house'Spacecraft' design agency using Responsive Web Design, reflecting Jadu's'mobile first' vision for delivering web content to all devices. In 2015, Jadu announced it had spun-out Spacecraft and created a new creative design company'Spacecraft Digital' so that it could focus on creating an ecosystem of channel partners and other agencies that could benefit from using Jadu products and technology.
Jadu collaborated with the Department for Communities and Local Government and Coventry City Council Chief Executive Martin Reeves to launch its move to Continuous Delivery, which the company said would save its Local Government customers over £2.5m in costs per year. Early in 2016, Jadu renamed the continuously released platform'Continuum' as part
Athgarvan is a village 4 km southwest of Newbridge in County Kildare, Ireland. The population of the village was 1,176 in the census of 2016. Athgarvan lies on the R416 regional road, it sits just west of the River Liffey which forms the eastern boundary of the village, while The Curragh forms its western boundary. The M7 motorway lies just beyond its northern boundary and separates it from Newbridge, which has now expanded as far south as the M7, with the result that the edges of the two settlements are now just one kilometre apart. A development plan published by Kildare County Council in 2007 proposed that the village would expand towards the Curragh; the village itself has grown since the late 20th century, increasing in population from 322 people in 1994 to over 1,100 by 2016. The local Gaelic Athletic Association club is Athgarvan GAA. Newbridge Rugby Football Club is nearby. List of towns and villages in Ireland