Louis Vuitton Malletier referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, watches, accessories and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand, its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide; the Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used to promote water runoff, thus could not be stacked.
It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's design; the company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers, were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era; the patents proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees, it was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores opened in New York, Washington, London and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag; this bag was made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced. In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.
During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans; the family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode.
We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses and wallets, it is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched. By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs. A year the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984.
In the following
FIS Alpine World Ski Championships
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are an alpine skiing competition organized by the International Ski Federation. The first world championships in alpine skiing were held in 1931. During the 1930s, the event was held annually in Europe, until interrupted by the outbreak of World War II, preventing a 1940 event. An event was held in 1941, but included competitors only from nations from the Axis powers or nations not at war with them; the results were cancelled by the FIS in 1946 because of the limited number of participants, so they are not considered official. Following the war, the championships were connected with the Olympics for several decades. From 1948 through 1982, the competition was held in even-numbered years, with the Winter Olympics acting as the World Championships through 1980, a separate competition held in even-numbered non-Olympic years; the 1950 championships in the United States at Aspen were the first held outside of Europe and the first official championships separate of the Olympics since 1939.
The combined event was dropped after 1948 with the addition of the giant slalom in 1950, but returned in 1954 as a "paper" race which used the results of the three events: downhill, giant slalom, slalom. During Olympic years from 1956 through 1980, FIS World Championship medals were awarded in the combined, but not Olympic medals; the combined returned as a separately run event in 1982 with its own downhill and two-run slalom, the Super-G was added to the program in 1987. There were no World Championships in 1983 or 1984 and since 1985, they have been scheduled in odd-numbered years, independent of the Winter Olympics. A lack of snow in southern Spain in 1995 caused a postponement to the following year. A total of 12 countries have hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, including those which were shared with the Winter Olympics. All of the top-7 on the list of nations which have won FIS World Cup races have been selected as host at least twice; the World Championships have been held only once in the Southern Hemisphere, in 1966 in Portillo, Chile in August.
The list does not include the unofficial 1941 event. Note: The men's Super G in 1993 and the team event in 2009 were cancelled due to adverse weather conditions, no medals were awarded. Participants with five or more medals in the individual disciplines at the Alpine Skiing World Championships are: 1 Note: Medals earned in the 1930s, when it was an annual event. 1 Note: Medals earned in the 1930s. 2 Note: Medals from the non-recognized 1941 championship not included Top 10 skiers who won more gold medals at the Alpine Skiing World Championships are listed below. Boldface denotes highest medal count among all skiers per type. * including one medal in the Mixed team event ** including two medals in the Mixed team event The tables for both genders include medals won at the nine Winter Olympics from 1948 through 1980, though these were World Championships. The mixed team events is not included for both genders, therefore there is special table for these team competitions. There are two cumulative medal tables – the first one includes medals won at the nine Winter Olympics from 1948 through 1980, the second one don't includes these medals.
All tables are current through 2019. Alpine skiing at the Winter Olympics Alpine skiing World Cup FIS-ski.com – official results for the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships Ski-DB.com – Men's World Champions Ski-DB.com – Women's World Champions Neveclub.it – FIS World Champions News
Tremplin du Praz
Tremplin du Praz is a ski jumping hill at Le Praz in Courchevel, France. The complex consists of four hills: a large hill with construction point of K125, a normal hill at K90, two training hills at K60 and K25; the complex has a cross-country skiing stadium used for Nordic combined. Jörg Ritzerfeld holds the large hill winter record of 134.0 metres and Nicolas Mayer the normal hill record of 100.5 metres. La Praz received its first ski jumping hill in 1944. Ahead of the 1992 Winter Olympics, the large and normal hills were built along with a cross-country stadium to host ski jumping and Nordic combined events. Since 1997, the hill has hosted an annual summer FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix event, it has been used for one FIS Ski Jumping World Cup and two FIS Nordic Combined World Cup rounds, in addition to four events of the FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup. The medium hill opened in 2004 and the small hill in 2008; the first ski jump in Courchevel was built on the location of the large hill in 1944.
It was followed by a second in 1955, located in Courchevel 1850. The hills were used to incorporate ski jumping into the Alpine skiing training programs. In 1970, a larger 50-metre hill was built in Courchevel 1850, it was supplemented with a small 25-metre hill in the early 1990s. In the Albertville bid for the 1992 Winter Olympics, La Praz was designated the host of the ski jumping and Nordic combined events; the site was chosen because it was sheltered from the wind, had good exposure to the sun and predictable snowfall. Planning for the new venue started in 1988; the hills were designed so both could be used if desired. During the 1988 Winter Olympics, the ski jumps at Canada Olympic Park were subject to strong winds and several of the competitions were postponed. To avoid such inconveniences, Tremplin du Praz was built into the mountain side to minimize wind exposure. Although the size of the hills remained the same, the 1992 Olympics were the first to measure the sizes in construction points.
In 2004, the venue was upgraded for €1 million by installing a K60 inrun between the normal and large hill. This allowed the medium inrun to use the same outrun as the normal hill. In 2008, a small K25 hill, named Ninoufbakken, was installed away from the main hills; the venue's certificate was due to expire in 2011, after which the venue would have to meet the International Ski Federation's latest regulations. A €1.5 million upgrade program was initiated, which saw the inruns renovated, including installation of the Ski-Line track system and new Porsgrund ceramic tracks. The outruns saw a new sprinkler system; the Nordic House, a sports centre, was built. Construction started on the normal hill in May 2011 and on the large hill in August 2011, with completion scheduled for early 2012; the venue is located in Le Praz known as Courchevel 1300, a village at the base of the Courchevel skiing resort. The venue consists of four jumps. Since August 2017 the large hill has a new K-point of K125 and a hill size of HS137.
The normal hill has a K-point of K90 and a hill size of HS96. The medium hill, with a K-point of K60 and hill size of HS65, shares its outrun with the normal hill; the small hill, has a K-point of K-25 and a hill size of HS30 and is located away from the rest of the complex. The large and normal hill have an take-off angle of 11.5° and 10.5°, a landing angle of 37.5° and 36°, respectively. The venue covers an area of 0.4 hectares and features a judge tower and speed measuring equipment, a weather station, snowmaking equipment and athlete preparation cubicles. The venue has a VIP area and stands for 23,000 spectators. Auxiliary facilities include a medical centre, a 900 m2 press and conference centere and 7,000 m2 of parking; the Nordic House consists of rooms for organizers, accommodation for ski jumpers, stands for 200 spectators, a sports hall and a fitness centre. Adjacent to the hills is stadium used for cross-country part of Nordic combined; the stadium area is made up of a timing and jury tower and preparation cubicles.
There is capacity for 15,000 spectators. For the Olympics, a 5 km long loop was added, which ran around the village to the neighboring village of Saint-Bon and back. Roads were crossed on wooden underpasses; the loop involved an extra round around the stadium area, with an altitude difference of 84 m and a maximum climb of 43 m. The total climb for the 15 kilometre individual Olympic race was 546 metres and for the 3 × 10 kilometre 346 m. Cross-country proper was held at Les Saisies. Tremplin du Praz hosted the ski jumping events and the ski jumping part of the Nordic combined at the 1992 Winter Olympics; the format went unchanged from the previous games, but the Albertville Olympics were the first to see the mainstream use of V-style. The large hill competition was won by Austria's Ernst Vettori, the normal hill event was won by Finland's Toni Nieminen and the team event was won by Finland. Nieminen and Austria's Martin Höllwarth collected medals in all three events. In Nordic combined, France won a double with Fabrice Guy and Sylvain Guillaume in the individual event, while Japan won the team event.
The hill was scheduled to host two FIS Ski Jumping World Cup events in January 1991, but they had to be cancelled due to lack of snow. In 1993, the hills hosted a single large hill World Cup event. Since 1997, Tremplin du Praz has been used annually for the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, the premier international summer ski jumping tournament, it consisted of a single
Les Arcs is a ski resort located in Savoie, France, in the Tarentaise Valley town of Bourg-Saint-Maurice. Created by Robert Blanc and Roger Godino, it is a part of the huge Paradiski system, under ownership by Compagnie des Alpes, a French-listed company owning several other ski resorts as well as theme parks; the five areas—Bourg-Saint-Maurice, Arc 1600, Arc 1800, Arc 1950, Arc 2000—are situated at an altitude spanning from 810 to 3226 metres, although skiing is possible above 1200 metres. The ski area consists of 106 runs, 54 lifts, 200 kilometres of descent; the highest peak in the resort is the Aiguille Rouge from where is a 7 km long piste with 2026 metres in vertical drop down to the Village Villaroger. Since the opening of the Vanoise Express cable car in December 2003, Les Arcs has become part of the Paradiski group of ski-connected resorts, which includes the La Plagne area. Paradiski in total has 425 km of pistes. Les Arcs has the reputation of being one of the original French "mega-resorts".
All of them have a convenient and varied network of pistes. Les Arcs has the specificity of a unique "avant-garde" modernist architecture labelled as "heritage of the 20th century". Most of its resorts are built following this modernist architecture, with the exception of latest—Arc 1950—which is built following the traditional architecture in the Alps and with a more defined village ambiance; the ski domain provides a mixture of wooded runs. Its terrain park has a good reputation, with green and black jumps and rails, it is good for snowboarders, with few drag lifts. The ski lifts have been updated so all critical lifts are modern and comfortable. Modelled on the accelerated progress of the Sophringham Method, Les Arcs' ESF ski school teaches ski evolutif. Les Arcs is regarded as having excellent beginner ski areas in each resort, although absolute beginners have little to progress to. Les Arcs is regarded by many as the home of snowboarding in Europe. Local instructor Régis Rolland popularized the snowboard in France with the Apocalypse Snow series of films made in the resort in the early 1980s.
The ski area of Arc 2000 and 1950 consists of a broad valley, with these two resorts at the bottom of its broader part. One of the sides of the valley is the ridge with the Aiguille Rouge; the other side is a ridge to Arc 1600, 1800, Peisey-Vallandry, which hold a wide range of runs. There are a lot of safe off-piste possibilities available in addition to those where a skier would require a mountain guide. In Arc 2000 is the famous speed skiing course used in the 1992 Olympics, it is 2000 metres long with an additional 700 metres for stopping. 1968: Arc 1600 resort opening. 1974: Arc 1800 resort opening with the inauguration of the Hotel du Golf. 1979: Arc 2000 resort opening with the Club Med. 2003: Inauguration of the first tourist residences in Arc 1950. The village was completed 2008. Thanks to a successful collaboration in the early 60s between Roger Godino and constructor in mountain tourism, Robert Blanc, born in the area and a ski instructor and high mountain guide, Les Arcs took shape with the help of well-known engineers and town planners sharing the same creative spirit.
Three fundamental rules were followed in order to create a functional and aesthetic construction in keeping with the tourist development of that time: Respect for the area and the natural surroundings The conservation of existing old mountain chalets which were not to be copied for more authenticity The use of local materialLes Arcs is integrated into the mountain setting and distinguished by an exterior architecture avoiding buildings overlooking one another and by an interior open-plan concept which paved the way for a new style of living. In 1999, the Ministry for the Arts and Communications introduced new policies in favour of the architectural and urban heritage of the 20th century: protection, public awareness, restoration. Living proof of modernity working hand in hand with the mountains and nature, Les Arcs town planning is being studied by the Grenoble School of Architecture. Charlotte Perriand designed and built Arc 1600, Arc 1800, Arc 2000, she led the Les Arcs design team that included Roger Godino, Robert Blanc, Gaston Regairaz, Guy Rey-Millet, Bernard Taillefer.
She designed the resorts to have minimal rooms, with the idea that most guests spend their time outside. Instead the buildings have great rooms that are open to nature. At 1600 metres, this is the lowest of the resort areas and is linked directly to the Bourg Saint Maurice TGV train station by the "Arc en Ciel" funicular railway; the journey time is 7 minutes and many trains call at two intermediate stations, serving the villages of Montrigron and Les Granges. It is connected to the other villages by regular free shuttle buses and ski lifts. Arc 1600 was the first area to be built on and is referred to as "Arc Pierre Blanche". Arc 1600 now has 30 shops and meeting rooms to offer its guests. Arc 1800 is the biggest of the resort areas and consists of four "villages" known as "Charvet", "Villards", "Charmettoger", "Chantel", it has around 100 shops, shuttle services, meeting rooms, a two-screen cinema and an ice rink. There is a good selection of restaurants catering to most tastes including Casa Mia, voted r
Vanoise National Park
Vanoise National Park, is a French national park between the Tarentaise and Maurienne valleys in the French Alps, containing the Vanoise massif. It was created in 1963, is the first French national park; the Vanoise National Park is in the département of Savoie. Small villages like Champagny-le-Haut, Termignon, La Chiserette, Sollières-Sardières, Pralognan-la-Vanoise and Séez, lie near the park; the park is bordered by several large French ski resorts. On the Italian side of the border, the park is continued by the Gran Paradiso National Park. Together, these two parks cover over 1250 km ²; the park is well known for its population of Alpine ibex, bouquetin in French, its emblem. The alpine chamois, like the ibex, spend most of the year above the tree line, they descend the snow line in early spring and late fall to enjoy the grass uncovered by the ice and snow. Alpine marmot, Eurasian lynx, mountain hare, Eurasian badger and weasel are the other mammals present in Vanoise. There are more than 100 bird species in the protected area.
Birds of prey include golden eagle and Eurasian eagle-owl. Other birds found in the park are black woodpeckers, rock ptarmigans, Alpine accentors, nutcrackers and black grouses; the wallcreeper is found on steep cliffs for nesting. Vanoise Massif Media related to Vanoise National Park at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as the French colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of all of France except for Alsace-Lorraine, the German and Italian militarily occupied northern and south-eastern France. While Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town of Vichy, 360 km to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was militarily occupied by Germany and Italy to protect the Mediterranean coastline. Petain's government remained in Vichy as the nominal government of France, albeit one, obliged by circumstances to collaborate with Germany from November 1942 onwards.
The government at Vichy remained there until late 1944, when it lost its de facto authority due to the Allied invasion of France and the government was compelled to relocate to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, where it continued to exist on paper until the end of hostilities in Europe. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain's cabinet agreed to end the war and signed an Armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940. On 10 July, the French Third Republic was dissolved, Pétain established an authoritarian regime when the National Assembly granted him full powers; the Vichy government reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, calling for "National Regeneration", with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under tight government control. Conservative Catholics became clerical input in schools resumed. Paris lost its avant-garde status in European culture; the media were controlled and stressed virulent anti-Semitism, after June 1941, anti-Bolshevism.
The French State maintained nominal sovereignty over the whole of French territory, but had effective full sovereignty only in the unoccupied southern zone libre. It had only civil authority in the northern zones under military occupation; the occupation was to be a provisional state of affairs, pending the conclusion of the war, which at the time appeared imminent. The occupation presented certain advantages, such as keeping the French Navy and French colonial empire under French control, avoiding full occupation of the country by Germany, thus maintaining a degree of French independence and neutrality. Despite heavy pressure, the French government at Vichy never joined the Axis alliance, remained formally at war with Germany. Germany kept two million French soldiers prisoner, carrying out forced labour, they were hostages to ensure that Vichy would reduce its military forces and pay a heavy tribute in gold and supplies to Germany. French police were ordered to round up Jews and other "undesirables" such as communists and political refugees.
Much of the French public supported the government, despite its undemocratic nature and its difficult position vis-à-vis the Germans seeing it as necessary to maintain a degree of French autonomy and territorial integrity. In November 1942, the zone libre was occupied by Axis forces, leading to the disbandment of the remaining army and the sinking of France's remaining fleet and ending any semblance of independence, with Germany now supervising all French officials. Most of the overseas French colonies were under Vichy control, but with the Allied invasion of North Africa it lost one colony after another to Charles de Gaulle's Allied-oriented Free France. Public opinion in some quarters turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, resistance to them increased. Following the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 and the liberation of France that year, the Free French Provisional government of the French Republic was installed by the Allies as France's government, led by de Gaulle.
Under a "national unanimity" cabinet uniting the many factions of the French Resistance, the GPRF re-established a provisional French Republic, thus restoring continuity with the Third Republic. Most of the legal French government's leaders at Vichy fled or were subject to show trials by the GPRF, a number were executed for "treason" in a series of purges. Thousands of collaborators were summarily executed by local communists and the Resistance in so-called "savage purges"; the last of the French state exiles were captured in the Sigmaringen enclave by de Gaulle's French 1st Armoured Division in April 1945. Pétain, who had voluntarily made his way back to France via Switzerland, was put on trial for treason by the new Provisional government, received a death sentence, but this was commuted to life imprisonment by de Gaulle. Only four senior Vichy officials were tried for crimes against humanity, although many more had participated in the deportation of Jews for internment in Nazi concentration camps, abuses of prisoners, severe acts against members of the Resistance.
In 1940, Marshal Pétain was known as the victor of the battle of Verdun. As the last premier of the Third Republic, being a reactionary by inclination, he blamed the Third Republic's democracy for France's sudden defeat by Germany, he set up a paternalistic, authoritarian regime that collaborated with Ger