The Graian Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. The name Graie comes from the Graioceli Celtic tribe, which dwelled in the area surrounding the Mont Cenis pass and the Viù valley. Other sources claim that the name comes from the Celtic "Graig" meaning rock/stone the Rocky Mountains The Graian Alps are located in France and Switzerland; the French side of the Graian Alps is drained by the river Isère and its tributary Arc, by the Arve. The Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Stura di Lanzo, tributaries of the Po; the Graian Alps can be divided into the following four groups: the Mont Blanc group the Central group the Western or French group, the Eastern or Italian group. The main peaks of the Graian Alps are: The main passes of the Graian Alps are shown in the table below; the group in which the pass is located is indicated with "MB" for Mont Blanc group, "C" for Central group, "E" for Eastern group, "W" for Western group. The western group contains the Vanoise National Park, established in 1972 and covering 1250 km².
On the Italian side is located the Parco Regionale del Monte Avic, a nature park of 5,747 ha established by Regione Valle d'Aosta. Italian official cartography. "Alps". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 742–743. Ascents in Gran Paradiso group - Czech and English Graian Alps on Summitpost - English
The Aiguilles d’Arves is a mountain in the Arves massif in the French Alps. The mountain, comprising three separate peaks, is the highest point of the massif, is located in the department of Savoie; the summits that make up the Aiguilles d'Arves are described in the following table. For reasons apparent from the picture, Aiguille Septentrionale is called the Tête de Chat; the central peak of the Aiguilles d’Arves was first climbed by the brothers Pierre Alexis and Benoît Nicolas Magnin, from nearby Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne, on 2 September 1839. As evidence they left two Sardinian coins under a rock on the summit; the southern summit was first climbed by the Swiss mountain guides Christian and Ulrich Almer and their American client, W. A. B. Coolidge from New York. During the 1870s and 1880s, Coolidge claimed a number of first ascents and worked extensively in the Dauphiné Alps. Earlier, the same party had climbed L’Auguille Centrale in 1874. On the summit, they found the cairn built by the Magnin brothers, but ascribed it to "a legendary chamois hunter".
The day after their ascent of L’Aiguille Meridionale in 1878, Benoît Magnin informed them about his ascent 39 years prior. Aiguilles d’Arves Refuge
Le Taillefer is a mountain in the Dauphiné Alps, culminating at a height of 2,857 m. It is located south-east of Grenoble, is the highest mountain in the Taillefer Massif
Pointe de Charbonnel
Pointe de Charbonnel is a mountain of Savoie, France. It lies in the Graian Alps range, it has an elevation of 3,752 metres above sea level
Pic Bayle is a summit in the Dauphiné Alps, culminating at a height of 3,465 m, the highest point of the Massif des Grandes Rousses. It is above the resort of Alpe D'Huez
Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is the capital of the department and has been the historical capital of the Savoy region since the 13th century, when Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, made the city his seat of power. Together with other Alpine towns Chambéry engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Chambéry was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2006. Chambéry was founded at a crossroads of ancient routes through the Dauphiné, Burgundy and Italy, in a wide valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse Mountains on the Leysse River; the metropolitan area has more than 125,000 residents, extending from the vineyard slopes of the fr:Combe de Savoie to the shores of the Lac du Bourget, the largest natural lake in France. The city is a major railway hub, at the midpoint of the Franco-Italian Turin–Lyon high-speed railway.
Chambéry is situated in southeast France, 523 kilometres from Paris, 326 kilometres from Marseille, 214 km from Turin, 100 kilometres from Lyon and 85 kilometres from Geneva. It is found in a large valley, surrounded by the Massif des Bauges to the east, Mont Granier and the Chaîne de Belledonne to the south, the Chaîne de l'Épine to the west and the Lac du Bourget to the north; the towns surrounding Chambéry are Barberaz, Cognin, Jacob-Bellecombette, La Motte-Servolex, La Ravoire, Saint-Alban-Leysse and Sonnaz. The history of Chambéry is linked to the House of Savoy and was the Savoyard capital from 1295 to 1563. During this time, Savoy encompassed a region that stretched from Bourg-en-Bresse in the west, across the Alps to Turin, north to Geneva, south to Nice. To insulate Savoy from provocations by France, Duke Emmanuel Philibert moved his capital to Turin in 1563, Chambéry declined. France annexed the regions that constituted the Duchy of Savoy west of the Alps in 1792; the need for urban revitalization was met by the establishment of the Société Académique de Savoie in 1820, devoted to material and ethical progress, now housed in an apartment of the ducal Château.
Chambéry and lands of the former Duchy, as well as The County of Nice, were ceded to France by Piedmont in 1860, under the reign of Napoleon III. The town known as Lemencum first changed its name in the Middle Ages during the period that the Duc de Savoie erected his castle, it was called Camefriacum in 1016, Camberiaco in 1029, Cambariacum in 1036, Cambariaco in 1044. In the next century, Cambariaco changed to Chamberium becoming Chamberi in 1603; the actual name comes from the Gaulois term camboritos. The Latin name cambarius, meaning beer brewer, may explain the name. Another hypothesis is that the Gallo-Roman name Camberiacum suggests the idea of currency changing or trade, or a room where the toll taxes are collected. Chambéry is right on the boundary between the humid subtropical and oceanic climates under the Köppen system. In spite of this it is influenced by its interior position within France, resulting in quite hot summers, winters with frequent temperatures below freezing at night.
The first counts of Savoy settled into an existing fortress in 1285 and expanded it in the early-14th century to serve as a residence, seat of power and administration, as stronghold for the House of Savoy. However, it became obsolete as a serious fortification genuinely capable of resisting a siege. Due to constant French hostilities on the château, Duke Emmanuel Philibert decided to move his capital to Turin; the château remained purely an administrative centre until Christine Marie of France, Duchess of Savoy, returned to hold court in 1640. It was the site of the 1684 marriage between Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV. Victor Amadeus II, having abdicated, lived here with his second wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana before they were imprisoned at the Castle of Rivoli for trying to reclaim the throne. In 1786, Victor Amadeus III enlarged it. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, the Aile du Midi was rebuilt and redecorated to house the imperial prefecture of the department of Mont-Blanc.
Elaborate modification to the structure were made again after Savoy was annexed by France in 1860. Today, the political administration of the department of Savoie is located in the castle, it is open for tours and concerts; the Fontaine des Éléphants is the most famous landmark in Chambéry. It was built in 1838 to honour Benoît de Boigne's feats; the monumental fountain has strikingly realistic sculptures of the head and forelimbs of four lifesize elephants truncated into the base of a tall column in the shape of the savoyan cross, topped by a statue of de Boigne. At first, the landmark was mocked by the local residents who were annoyed by it, but it now is accepted as one of the city's symbols. Since the early controversy, the statue kept its nickname of les quatre sans culs. A total restoration was done betwe
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com