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Coureur des bois

A coureur des bois or coureur de bois was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader who traveled in New France and the interior of North America to trade with First Nations peoples by exchanging various European items for furs. Some learned the practices of the Native peoples; these expeditions were part of the beginning of the fur trade in the North American interior. They traded for beaver coats and fur but, as the market grew, coureurs de bois were trapping and trading prime beavers whose skins were to be felted in Europe. While the French had been trading and living among the natives since the earliest days of New France, coureurs des bois reached their apex during the second half of the 17th century. After 1681, the independent coureur des bois was replaced by state-sponsored voyageurs, who were workers associated with licensed fur traders, they traveled extensively by canoe. Coureurs des bois lost their importance in the fur trade by the early 18th century, yet while their numbers were dwindling, the coureur des bois developed as a symbol of the colony, creating a lasting myth that would continue to define New France for centuries.

Shortly after founding a permanent settlement at Quebec City in 1608, Samuel de Champlain sought to ally himself with the local native peoples or First Nations. He decided to send French boys to live among them to learn their languages in order to serve as interpreters, in the hope of persuading the natives to trade with the French rather than with the Dutch, who were active along the Hudson River and Atlantic coast; the boys learned native languages and skills, tended to assimilate to their new environments. A year after leaving Étienne Brûlé in 1610, with a Huron tribe, Champlain visited him, was surprised to find the young man attired in native clothing and able to converse fluently in the Huron language. Early explorers such as Brûlé educated the French colonists on the complex trading networks of the natives, serve as interpreters, encourage the burgeoning fur trade. Between 1610 and 1629, dozens of Frenchmen spent months at a time living among the natives. Over time, these early explorers and interpreters played an active role in the fur trade, paving the way for the emergence of the coureurs des bois proper in the mid-17th century.

The term "coureur des bois" is most associated with those who engaged in the fur trade in ways that were considered to be outside of the mainstream. Early in the North American fur trade era, this term was applied to men who circumvented the normal channels by going deeper into the wilderness to trade. Traditionally, the government of New France preferred to let the natives supply furs directly to French merchants, discouraged French settlers from venturing outside the Saint Lawrence valley. By the mid-17th century, Montreal had emerged as the center of the fur trade, hosting a yearly fair in August where natives exchanged their pelts for European goods. While coureurs des bois never disappeared, they were discouraged by French colonial officials. In 1649, the new governor Louis d'Ailleboust permitted Frenchmen familiar with the wilderness to visit "Huron country" to encourage and escort Hurons to Montreal to participate in the trade. While this did not sanction coureurs des bois to trade independently with the natives, some historians consider d'Ailleboust's encouragement of independent traders to mark the official emergence of the coureurs des bois.

In the 1660s, several factors resulted in a sudden spike in the number of coureurs des bois. First, the population of New France markedly increased during the late 17th century, as the colony experienced a boom in immigration between 1667–84. Of the new engagés, discharged soldiers, youthful immigrants from squalid, class-bound Europe arriving in great numbers in the colony, many chose freedom in the life of the coureur des bois. Furthermore, renewed peaceful relations with the Iroquois in 1667 made traveling into the interior of Canada much less perilous for the French colonists; the companies, monopolizing and regulating the fur trade since 1645, the Cent Associés and the Communautés des Habitants, went bankrupt after the Iroquois war. The Compagnie des Indes occidentales, which replaced them, was much less restrictive of internal trade, allowing independent merchants to become more numerous. A sudden fall in the price of beaver on the European markets in 1664 caused more traders to travel to the "pays d'en haut", or upper country, in search of cheaper pelts.

During the mid-1660s, becoming a coureur des bois became both more feasible and profitable. This sudden growth alarmed many colonial officials. In 1680, the intendant Duchesneau estimated there were eight hundred coureurs des bois, or about 40% of the adult male population. Reports like that were wildly exaggerated: in reality at their zenith coureurs des bois remained a small percentage of the population of New France. In 1681, to curb the unregulated business of independent traders and their burgeoning profits, French minister of marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert created a system of licenses for fur traders, known as congés; this system granted 25 annual licenses to merchants traveling inland. The recipients of these licenses came to be known as "voyageurs", who canoed and portaged fur trade goods in the employ of a licensed fur trader or fur trading company; the congé system, created the voyageur, the legal and respectable counterpart to the coureur des bois. Under the voyageurs, the fur trade began to favor a more organized

Dagami, Leyte

Dagami the Municipality of Dagami, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Leyte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 35,147 people. Waray-Waray is the language spoken by the residents called Dagamin-on, it is classified as a third class municipality and mere dependent on agriculture such as coconut and corn farming. The employment rate is 63% of the total population workforce in the municipality, its total land area of 161.5 square kilometers, equivalent to 16,165 hectares. More than half of its plains on the eastern side is cultivated for rice and corn farming while the western side is planted with coconut with the westernmost area as forestland. Coconut is a major source of income form Paml wine and copra - the raw material for production of coconut oil; the town of Dagami is famous for its local delicacies called "Binagol", "Moron" and "Sagmani". The town of Dagami, Leyte celebrates its feast on the 27th of May, to honor the town patron St. Joseph, they celebrate this feast with the town festival the Dinagamihan Festival According to legend, the island of Leyte was once divided into kingdoms or sultanates: The most powerful sultanate in the island was Dagaran, the sultanate ruled by Diwaranda Mohammed.

He had daughter named Sayajamburan, sought by men everywhere. The nearby kingdoms were Bumbaran and Kahagna, sultanates of King Mapandara and King Mabanig, respectively. King Mapandara had a son named Bantugan, the commander of his father’s army and was sought after by many women because of his strength and good looks. Sayajamaburan was secretly enamored by Bantugan’s physical and intellectual prowess. Bantugan has asked of her hand but was refused although he knew he had hopes of winning her in the end; the ruler of Kahagna, King Mabanig, was a close rival of Bantugan. He got along well with everyone; when Sayajamaburan’s father was dying, he chose Bantugan as his daughter’s husband. Two days before the scheduled wedding, there was rejoicing everywhere except for King Mabanig who declared war against Bantugan’s kingdom. Bantugan came out victorious and the wedding took place. Bumbaran and Kahagna became one by affinity and conquest; the fusion of the three kingdoms made Dagara more powerful and respected.

In 1478, two hundred years after the three sultanates unite into one kingdom, changes took place. Its capital, increased in population; the culture and social life of the kingdom further evolved with the entry of the Chinese and the Hindus. The people engaged in trade both with Europe; when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in Leyte in 1521, trade took place in the villages bordering the sea, where Dagilan was located. Locals indicate the name "Dagami" first arose during a confrontation between a group of Spaniards and a group of farmers during the Spanish colonial period: As early as 1613, the Jesuits mission established its rectory in what is now the Saint Joseph complex beside the municipal hall complex; this made the town a cabicera. When the Jesuits were expelled in the Philippines, the Augustinian mission which succeeded them transferred to Palo and declared it as a town in 1768. In 1783, Burauen was carved out from the barrios of Dagami to become a separate town. Burauen used to be a missionary church under the diocese of Dagami.

In 1883, the town of Pastrana was carved out from the barrios of Dagami. Years it reverted as part of Dagami in 1893 until it was settled as a separate municipality in 1912. In 1953, barangay Tabontabon together with other barangays of Dagami and Tanauan, were incorporated to constitute a new town of Tabontabon. In 1957, the barrios of Capahu-an and Guingawan were transferred to the newly-founded town of Tabontabon, which used to be a barangay of Dagami. Dagami is bounded in the north by Binahaan River across the municipality of Pastrana, on the north-west by Albuera and Ormoc City over the mountain range, on the south-west by Burauen, on the south by the town of Tabon-tabon, southeast by the town of Tanauan and on the north-east by Palo; the town is located 32 kilometres from Tacloban City. Dagami is politically subdivided into two non-legislative districts. For purposes of education administration, the municipality is divided into Dagami North District and Dagami South District. In the 2015 census, the population of Dagami, was 35,147 people, with a density of 220 inhabitants per square kilometre or 570 inhabitants per square mile.

The people of Dagami speak a native language of Leyte and Samar. Waray is related to other Visayan languages Hiligaynon and to a lesser extent Cebuano, spoken by people of greater geographic proximity in western municipalities of Leyte and of entire Southern Leyte. Rice and coconut production is the primary economic source of income for the townsfolk. Aside from farming, food processing is another source of income for the town of Dagami. An upsurge in labor export have contributed to remittances of income from abroad. Commercial businesses are limited to retailing while trading activities are limited to rice and copra trading. Despite popularity of its indigenous food product - the Binagol, Dagami has yet to maximize its economic potentials, such as creation of labor during its production line, income to be generated from sales, revenue for the local government in terms of income taxes. Chief economic products of the municipality are the following: Copra - Production of copra - a by-product of coconut tree fruit is the main industry of the townfolks.

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Live at the Village Vanguard Vol. II (Paul Motian album)

Live at the Village Vanguard Vol. II is a live album by Paul Motian's Trio 2000 + Two, recorded at the Village Vanguard and released on the German Winter & Winter label in 2008; the Allmusic review by Ken Dryden awarded the album 4 stars, stating: "The Vanguard audience devours this powerful music, restraining themselves until each number is complete". All compositions by Paul Motian except as indicated"Till We Meet Again" - 7:11 "Sunflower" - 5:56 "The Third Walk" - 10:28 "Ten" - 9:13 "The Divider" - 9:06 "If You Could See Me Now" - 2:25 "Fiasco" - 10:03Recorded at the Village Vanguard in New York City on December 8–10, 2006 Paul Motian - drums Chris Potter - tenor saxophone Larry Grenadier - bass+ Greg Osby - alto saxophone Mat Maneri - viola Masabumi Kikuchi - piano