A court-martial or court martial is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court. A court-martial is empowered to determine the guilt of members of the armed forces subject to military law, and, if the defendant is found guilty, to decide upon punishment. In addition, courts-martial may be used to try prisoners of war for war crimes; the Geneva Convention requires that POWs who are on trial for war crimes be subject to the same procedures as would be the holding military's own forces. Courts-martial can be convened for other purposes, such as dealing with violations of martial law, can involve civilian defendants. Most navies have a standard court-martial. Most military forces maintain a judicial system that tries defendants for breaches of military discipline; some countries like France and Germany have no courts-martial in times of peace and use civilian courts instead. Court-martial is hyphenated in US usage, whether used as verb. However, in British usage, a hyphen is used to distinguish between the noun, "court martial", the verb, "to court-martial".
A court-martial takes the form of a trial with a presiding judge, a prosecutor and a defense attorney. The precise format varies from one country to another and may depend on the severity of the accusation. Courts-martial have the authority to try a wide range of military offences, many of which resemble civilian crimes like fraud, theft or perjury. Others, like cowardice and insubordination, are purely military crimes. Military offences are defined in the Armed Forces Act 2006 for members of the British Military. Regulations for the Canadian Forces are found in the Queen's Regulations and Orders as well as the National Defence Act. For members of the United States Armed Forces offenses are covered under the Uniform Code of Military Justice; these offences, as well as their corresponding punishments and instructions on how to conduct a court-martial, are explained in detail based on each country and/or service. In Canada, there is a two-tier military trial system. Summary trials are presided over by superior officers, while more significant matters are heard by courts martial, which are presided over by independent military judges serving under the independent Office of the Chief Military Judge.
Appeals are heard by the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Capital punishment in Canada was abolished in 1976, for military offences in 1998. Harold Pringle was the last Canadian soldier executed pursuant to a court martial, in 1945, having been convicted of murder. In Finland, the military has jurisdiction over two types of crimes: those that can be committed only by military personnel and those normal crimes by military persons where both the defendant and the victim are military persons or organizations and the crime has been defined in law as falling under military jurisdiction; the former category includes e.g. various types of disobedience and absence without leave, while the latter category includes e.g. murder, theft and forgery. However, war crimes and sexual crimes are not under military jurisdiction. In crimes where the military has jurisdiction, the military conducts the investigation. In non-trivial cases, this is done by the investigative section of Defence Command or by civilian police, but trivial cases are investigated by the defendant's own unit.
The civilian police has always the right to take the case from the military. If the case does not warrant a punishment greater than a fine or a disciplinary punishment, the punishment is given summarily by the company, battalion or brigade commander, depending on severity of the crime. If the brigade commander feels that the crime warrants a punishment more severe than he can give, he refers the case to the local district attorney who commences prosecution; the crimes with military jurisdiction are handled by the civilian district court which has a special composition. In military cases, the court consists of a civilian trained judge and two military members: an officer and a warrant officer, an NCO or a private soldier; the verdict and the sentence are decided by a majority of votes. However, the court can not give a more severe sentence; the appeals can be made as in civilian trials. If a court of appeals handles a military matter, it will have an officer member with at least a major's rank.
The Supreme Court of Finland has, in two general officers as members. Courts-martial proper are instituted only by the decree of the government; such courts-martial have jurisdiction over all crimes committed by military persons. In addition, they may handle criminal cases against civilians in areas where ordinary courts have ceased operation, if the matter is urgent; such courts-martial have a learned judge as a president and two military members: an officer and an NCO, warrant officer or a private soldier. The verdicts of a war-time court-martial can be appealed to a court of appeals; the Basic Law establishes in Art. 96 para. 2 that courts-martial can be established by federal law. Such courts-martial would take action in a State of Defense and only against soldiers abroad or at sea. However, no such law has been passed to date and German soldiers are tried before civil courts. There are four kinds of courts-martial in India; these are the General Court Martial, District Court Martial, Summ
The proposed Kajiado Wind Power Station Kipeto Wind Power Project, is a potential 100 megawatts wind-powered electricity power station in Kenya. The power station would be located in the foothills of Ngong Hills, in Kajiado County 30 kilometres, by road, southwest of Nairobi, the capital and largest city in the country; the power station was owned by a consortium of investors and interest groups, including the International Finance Corporation, a local community trust. In July 2015, Kipeto Energy Limited, the owner/operator of the power station, signed a renewable 20 year power purchase agreement with Kenya Power, the national electricity distributor and retailer. In December 2018, Actis Capital of the United Kingdom, acquired majority shareholding in the special purpose vehicle company, for an undisclosed sum. Kipeto Energy Limited is the special purpose vehicle created by the consortium of shareholders, to construct and manage the power station; the shareholding in KEL, before December 2018, was as depicted in the table below: As of December 2018, the shareholding in Kipeto Energy Limited is as illustrated in the table below.
In January 2016, KEL contracted the Chinese company "China Machinery Engineering Corporation" to perform engineering design and construction of the wind farm, at a contract price of KSh22.6 billion. The Overseas Private Investment Corporation has committed to lend $233 million towards this project; the American conglomerate General Electric Wind Energy, was contracted in December 2018 to supply 60 GE 1.7-103 wind turbines for the power station. In August 2018, the Kipeto Wind Energy Company, represented by Kenneth Namunje and Overseas Private Investment Corporation, represented by Ray Washburne, signed a definitive loan agreement for US$237, from OPIC to Kipeto Energy for the construction of this power station; the ceremony, that took place in Washington DC on 27 August 2017, was witnessed by Uhuru Kenyatta, the president of Kenya and Wilbur Ross, the United States secretary of commerce. List of power stations in Kenya List of power stations in Africa List of power stations Energy in Kenya Website of Kipeto Energy Limited
Chagda is a rural locality, the only inhabited locality, the administrative center of Chagdinsky Rural Okrug of Aldansky District in the Sakha Republic, located 380 kilometers from Aldan, the administrative center of the district. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 218, down from 368 recorded during the 2002 Census and 682 recorded during the 1989 Census. Chagda had urban status until May 18, 2001. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Aldansky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г