SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Courthouse

A courthouse is a building, home to a local court of law and the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English-speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are called "courts" or "court buildings". In most of Continental Europe and former non-English-speaking European colonies, the equivalent term is a palace of justice. In most counties in the United States, the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may house county governmental offices; the courthouse is located in the county seat, although large metropolitan counties may have satellite or annex offices for their courts. In some cases this building may be renamed in some way or its function divided as between a judicial building and administrative office building. Many judges officiate at civil marriage ceremonies in their courthouse chambers. In some places, the courthouse contains the main administrative office for the county government, or when a new courthouse is constructed, the former one will be used for other local government offices.

Either way, a typical courthouse will have one or more courtrooms and a court clerk's office with a filing window where litigants may submit documents for filing with the court. Each United States district court has a federally owned building that houses courtrooms and clerk's offices. Many federal judicial districts are further split into divisions, which may have their own courthouses, although sometimes the smaller divisional court facilities are located in buildings that house other agencies or offices of the United States government; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California has a courthouse in Yosemite to hear misdemeanors and petty crimes for Yosemite National Park. The courthouse is part of the iconography of American life and is equivalent to the city hall as the symbol of the municipium in European free cities. Courthouses are shown in American cinema, they range from small-town rural buildings with a few rooms to huge metropolitan courthouses that occupy large plots of land.

The style of American architecture used varies, with common styles including federal, Greek Revival and modern. Due to concerns over potential violence, many courthouses in American cities have security checkpoints where all incoming persons are searched for weapons through the use of an X-ray machine for all bags and a walk-through metal detector, much like those found at airports. For example, the Los Angeles Superior Court added such checkpoints to all entrances to its main courthouse in Downtown Los Angeles after a woman was shot and killed by her ex-husband in open court in September 1995; the Supreme Court of California ruled in 2002 that Los Angeles County was not liable to her three children under the California Government Tort Claims Act. After the Oklahoma City bombing, the federal government proceeded to fortify all large federal buildings, including many urban courthouses; some courthouses in areas with high levels of violent crime have redundant layers of security. For example, when the Supreme Court of California hears oral argument in San Francisco or Los Angeles, visitors must pass through one security checkpoint to enter the building, another to enter the courtroom.

In Canada each municipality constructs several in the case of large cities. In smaller communities the court is in the same building as the city hall and other municipal offices. In the past many courthouses included the local prison. One well-known court house in Canada is the Romanesque Revival Old City Hall in Ontario. Designed by E. J. Lennox, Old City Hall was completed in 1899 and has been functioning as a municipal building since, it was constructed to facilitate Toronto’s City Council and municipal offices and the city's courts however following the construction of the fourth city hall the building's purpose was limited to being a courthouse for the Ontario Court of Justice. This building can be described as Romanesque Revival due to multiple characteristics it shares with Romanesque architecture; these characteristics include the materiality in terms of large stone construction, the repetitive rhythmic use of windows containing various sized arches and barrel vaults directing attention towards them, decorated spandrels and the inclusion of gabled walls.

Old City Hall has been designated a National Historical Site since 1989. Court Courts of England and Wales List of courthouses

D102 road

D102 is a state road connecting the mainland to island of Krk and terminating at the southern tip of the island in Baška. The road is 48.3 km long. D102 is the main road route on the island of Krk; the northern terminus of the road is located near Kraljevica, at an intersection with D8 state route - the Adriatic Highway. The road includes Krk bridge. In the northern part of the island, between Omišalj and Malinska it runs parallel to the shore at a distance of 2 km. In that section, short D103 state road connects D102 to Rijeka Airport. Further to the south, D102 extends through the centre of the island to the city of Krk. In that section, another state road, D104 branches off to the southwest towards Valbiska ferry port. D102 bypasses the city of Krk, proceeds southeast to Baška; the road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, a state-owned company. However, Krk Bridge is managed by Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb company. Traffic is counted and reported by Hrvatske ceste, operator of the road.

Substantial variations between annual and summer traffic volumes are attributed to the fact that the road serves as a connection to A6 motorway and D8 state road carrying substantial tourist traffic. Media related to Državna cesta 102 at Wikimedia Commons Hrvatske ceste Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb Krk Bridge

Sviatoslav Knushevitsky

Sviatoslav Nikolayevich Knushevitsky was a Soviet-Russian classical cellist. He was noted for his partnership with the violinist David Oistrakh and the pianist Lev Oborin in a renowned piano trio from 1940 until his death. After Mstislav Rostropovich and Daniil Shafran, he is spoken of as one of the pre-eminent Russian cellists of the 20th century. Sviatoslav Knushevitsky was born at Petrovsk, Saratov Oblast, on 6 January 1908, he studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Semyon Kozolupov. He joined the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra in 1929, remaining their principal cellist until 1943. In 1933 Knushevitsky won First Prize at the All-Union Music Competition. In 1940 he joined in partnership with the violinist David Oistrakh and the pianist Lev Oborin in a renowned piano trio referred to as the Oistrakh Trio, which concertised and recorded a great deal in many countries, he joined a string quartet with Oistrakh, Pyotr Bondarenko and Mikhail Terian, known as the Beethoven Quartet. His sonata performances with Oistrakh were considered the equal in their day of the duo of Sviatoslav Richter and Mstislav Rostropovich.

In 1941 Knushevitsky joined the staff of the Moscow Conservatory, becoming a professor in 1950. From 1954 to 1959 he was chair of cello and double bass studies, his pupils there included the cellists Stefan Popov, Mikhail Khomitser and Yevgeny Altman, the double bassist Rodion Azarkhin. Cello concertos were written for him by: Nikolai Myaskovsky Aram Khachaturian, Reinhold Glière. Other composers who wrote for him were Alexander Goedicke, his repertoire included mainstream works from concertos and chamber works through to smaller pieces and arrangements, along with contemporary and rarer works such as the Richard Strauss Cello Sonata and the Solo Cello Suites of Max Reger. He was awarded the USSR State Prize, the title of Honored Artist of the RSFSR. Sviatoslav Knushevitsky was an alcoholic, along with his frenetic lifestyle, contributed to his early death at the age of 55 in 1963, in Moscow. Sviatoslav Knushevitsky's brother Victor was a violinist and from 1936 the conductor of a renowned Russian jazz ensemble, the State Jazz Orchestra of the USSR.

His wife Natalia Spiller was a soprano soloist of the Bolshoi Theatre for over 30 years. She was a favourite of Joseph Stalin and sang at the Kremlin, she taught at the Gnessin Institute 1950-76. Stalin Prize - 1950 Honoured Artist of the RSFSR Sviatoslav Knushevitsky's many recordings include: Beethoven: Triple Concerto in C. 4, Dumky Trio, Op. 90 and Trio in F minor, Op. 65 Khachaturian: Cello Concerto in E minor Myaskovsky: Cello Sonata No. 1 in D, Op. 12 Popper: Cello Concerto in C Rachmaninoff: Cello Sonata in G minor, Op. 19 Ravel: Piano Trio in A minor Rimsky-Korsakov: Piano Trio in C Saint-Saëns: Cello Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 33 Schubert: Octet in F major, D. 803 Schubert: Piano Trio No. 1 in B-flat Schubert: Piano Trio No. 2 in E-flat Schumann: Piano Trio No. 2 in F, Op. 80 Shostakovich: Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, Op. 67 Smetana: Piano Trio in G minor, Op. 15 Tchaikovsky: Variations on a Rococo Theme, Op. 33 Tchaikovsky: Piano Trio in A minor, Op. 50 Tchaikovsky: String Sextet in D minor, Souvenir de Florence, Op. 70, with Elizaveta Gilels, Rudolf Barshai and Genrikh Talalyan, Mstislav Rostropovich.

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