A bar association is a professional body of lawyers. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction. The use of the bar to mean the whole body of lawyers. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall, students who officially became lawyers crossed the symbolic physical barrier and were admitted to the bar. Later, this was assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judges seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, including in England and Wales, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates, while the law society comprises solicitors. These bodies are sometimes mutually exclusive, while in other jurisdictions, in Canada, one is called to the bar after undertaking a post-law-school training in a provincial law society program, and undergoing an apprenticeship or taking articles.
Legal communities are called provincial law societies, except for Nova Scotia, where it is called the Nova Scotia Barristers Society, and Quebec and it does not play a part in the regulation of the profession, however. In India under the framework set established under the Advocates Act,1961. The process of enrollment is delegated by the Bar Council of India to the state Bar Councils wherein almost each state has a Bar Council of its own. Once enrolled with a State Bar Council, the law graduate is recognized as an Advocate, once advocate clears the test, they are entitled to appear and practice before any court within that Bar councils area. There is no requirement for further membership of any Bar Association. However Advocates do become members of local or national bar associations for reasons of recognition. Besides the Bar Council of India, other known Bar Associations in India are National Bar Association of India, All India Bar Association and Supreme Court Bar Association. Each State and local court generally has a Bar Association of its own, in Pakistan, a person becomes a licensee of a Provincial Bar Council after fulfilling certain requirements.
They must have a law degree LL. B from a recognized university, must offer certain undertakings. Further he may join any bar association as member, Bar associations work under Provincial Bar councils, such as khyber pakhtunkhwa Bar Council, Punjab Bar Council, Sindh Bar Council etc. To become an advocate, one must first complete six months pupillage with an advocate of High Court
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, located 128 miles north of London, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle and it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination, in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the thirteenth highest amount in Englands 111 statistical territories. In 2015, Nottingham had an population of 321,550 with the wider urban area. Its urban area is the largest in the east Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands, the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50. 9bn, the city is ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is a sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named Home of English Sport. The city has rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, and the Aegon Nottingham Open.
This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UKs first City of Football, on 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a Unesco City of Literature, joining Norwich, Melbourne and Barcelona as one of only a handful in the world. The title reflects Nottinghams literary heritage, with Lord Byron, DH Lawrence and it has two universities, the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University, which are attended by over 70,610 students. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog, when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as Snotingaham, the homestead of Snots people. Some authors derive Nottingham from Snottenga and ham, Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall, a settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle.
Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century. The ditch was widened, in the mid 13th century, a short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John and it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of an export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster
Bulletproof glass is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck. Like any material, however, it is not completely impenetrable and it is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic, so it can instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄2 inches, bulletproof glass is used in windows of buildings that require security, such as jewelry stores and embassies, as well as military and private vehicles. Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using layers of laminated glass, the more layers the higher the protection. When a weight reduction is needed 3mm of polycarbonate is laminated onto the safe side, the aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms.
Polycarbonate designs usually consist of such as Armormax, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak. The polycarbonate usually has one of two types of coating to resist abrasion, a coating that heals after being scratched or a hard coating that prevents scratching. The plastic in laminate designs provides resistance to impact from physical assault from blunt, the plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is harder than plastic, flattens the bullet. The ability of the layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness. Laminated glass layers are built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, when treated with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. This design has been in use on combat vehicles since World War II. It is typically thick and is extremely heavy. Bullet-resistant materials are tested using a gun to fire a projectile from a set distance into the material, levels of protection are based on the ability of the target to stop a specific type of projectile traveling at a specific speed.
When projectiles do not penetrate, the depth of the dent left by the impact can be measured and related to the projectile’s velocity and thickness of the material. Some researchers have developed models based on results of this kind of testing to help them design bulletproof glass to resist specific anticipated threats. S
In law, the term bar has two principal meanings. The area behind the bar is open to the public and this restriction is enforced in nearly all courts. In most courts, the bar is represented by a physical partition, the bar may refer to the qualifying procedure by which a lawyer is licensed to practice law in a given jurisdiction. In the United States, this procedure is administered by the individual U. S. states, in general, a candidate must graduate from a qualified law school and pass a written test, the bar examination. Nearly all states use the Multistate Bar Examination, usually with additions for that states laws, the candidate is admitted to the bar. A lawyer whose license to practice law is revoked is said to be disbarred, in the United Kingdom, the practice of law is divided between barristers and solicitors. It is usually the former who appear in a role before the court. When a lawyer becomes an advocate or barrister, he is called to the bar, the Bar commonly refers to the legal profession as a whole.
With a modifier, it may refer to a branch or division of the profession, as for instance, in conjunction with bench, bar may differentiate lawyers who represent clients, from judges or members of a judiciary. In this sense, the bar advocates and the bench adjudicates, judges commonly remain members of the bar, and lawyers are commonly referenced as Officers of the Court. The phrase bench and bar denotes all judges and lawyers collectively, Admission to practise law Admission to the bar in the United States Bar Association Bench Call to the bar Courtroom Importance of Bar & Bench relationship, Available at learningthelaw. in
In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. The term is used, with this or similar meanings, in scientific and technical disciplines, including physics, acoustic engineering, telecommunications, statistical forecasting. White noise refers to a model for signals and signal sources. Depending on the context, one may require that the samples be independent and have identical probability distribution. In particular, if each sample has a distribution with zero mean. The samples of a noise signal may be sequential in time. The concept can be defined for signals spread over more complicated domains, an infinite-bandwidth white noise signal is a purely theoretical construction. The bandwidth of noise is limited in practice by the mechanism of noise generation, by the transmission medium. Thus, a signal is considered white noise if it is observed to have a flat spectrum over the range of frequencies that is relevant to the context.
For an audio signal, for example, the relevant range is the band of sound frequencies. Such a signal is heard as a sound, resembling the /sh/ sound in ash. In music and acoustics, the white noise may be used for any signal that has a similar hissing sound. White noise draws its name from white light, although light that appears white generally does not have a spectral power density over the visible band. The term white noise is used in the context of phylogenetically based statistical methods to refer to a lack of phylogenetic pattern in comparative data. It is sometimes used in non technical contexts, in the sense of random talk without meaningful contents. Being uncorrelated in time does not restrict the values a signal can take, any distribution of values is possible. Even a binary signal which can take on the values 1 or –1 will be white if the sequence is statistically uncorrelated. Noise having a distribution, such as a normal distribution
Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendments reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism the Court, for the first time since the 1930s, the last 11 years of Rehnquists term as chief justice marked the second-longest tenure of a single unchanging roster of the Supreme Court, exceeded only between February 1812 and September 1823. He is the justice in Supreme Court history. Rehnquist was born William Donald Rehnquist in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 1,1924 and he grew up in the suburb of Shorewood. Rehnquist changed his name to Hubbs, a family name. His paternal grandparents immigrated from Sweden, Rehnquist graduated from Shorewood High School in 1942. He attended Kenyon College, in Gambier, for one quarter in the fall of 1942 and he served from March 1943 –1946, mostly in assignments in the United States. He was put into a program and assigned to Denison University until February 1944. He served three months at Will Rogers Field in Oklahoma City, three months in Carlsbad, New Mexico, and went to Hondo, for a few months.
He was chosen for training program, which began at Chanute Field, Illinois. The program was designed to teach the maintenance and repair of weather instruments, in the summer of 1945, Rehnquist went overseas as a weather observer in North Africa. After the war ended, Rehnquist attended Stanford University with assistance under the provisions of the G. I, in 1948, he received both a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts degree in political science. In 1950, he attended Harvard University, where he received another Master of Arts and he returned to Stanford, and graduated from the Stanford Law School in the same class as Sandra Day OConnor, with whom he would serve on the Supreme Court. Rehnquist graduated first in his class, Rehnquist went to Washington, D. C. to work as a law clerk for Justice Robert H. Jackson of the United States Supreme Court during the courts 1952–1953 term. Rehnquists 1952 memo, entitled A Random Thought on the Segregation Cases, Rehnquist said, I believe that the memorandum was prepared by me as a statement of Justice Jacksons tentative views for his own use.
Justice Jackson did not ask law clerks to express his views and he expressed his own and they expressed theirs. That is what happened in this instance, the papers of Justices Douglas and Frankfurter indicate that Justice Jackson voted for Brown in 1954 only after changing his mind. However, Rehnquist acknowledged defending Plessy in arguments with fellow law clerks, several commentators have concluded that the memo reflected Rehnquists own views rather than those of Justice Jackson
A courthouse is a building that is home to a local court of law and often the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America, in most other English-speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are simply called courts or court buildings. In most of Continental Europe and former non-English-speaking European colonies, the equivalent term is a palace of justice, in most counties in the United States, the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may house county governmental offices. The courthouse is located in the county seat, although large metropolitan counties may have satellite or annex offices for their courts. In some cases this building may be renamed in some way or its function divided as between a building and administrative office building. Many judges officiate at marriage ceremonies in their courthouse chambers. Either way, a typical courthouse will have one or more courtrooms, each United States district court has a federally owned building that houses courtrooms and clerks offices.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of California has a courthouse in Yosemite to hear misdemeanors, the courthouse is part of the iconography of American life and is equivalent to the city hall as the symbol of the municipium in European free cities. Courthouses are often shown in American cinema and they range from small-town rural buildings with a few rooms to huge metropolitan courthouses that occupy large plots of land. The style of American architecture used varies, with styles including federal, Greek Revival, neoclassicist. The Supreme Court of California ruled in 2002 that Los Angeles County was not liable to her three children under the California Government Tort Claims Act, after the Oklahoma City bombing, the federal government proceeded to heavily fortify all large federal buildings, including many urban courthouses. Some courthouses in areas with high levels of violent crime have redundant layers of security, see the category, Courthouses in Canada In Canada each municipality constructs its own courthouse, or several in the case of large cities.
In smaller communities the court is in the building as the city hall. In the past many courthouses included the local prison, one well-known court house in Canada is the Romanesque Revival Old City Hall in Toronto, Ontario. Lennox, Old City Hall was completed in 1899 and has been functioning as a municipal building ever since and this building can be described as Romanesque Revival due to multiple characteristics it shares with Romanesque architecture. Old City Hall has been designated a National Historical Site since 1989, appomattox Court House Court Courts of England and Wales List of courthouses
Closed-circuit television, known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may point to point, point to multipoint. Videotelephony is seldom called CCTV but the use of video in distance education, Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance, video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals right to privacy even when in public. In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a control room. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event, a more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features.
More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016, about 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia. The growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years, the first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets. The noted German engineer Walter Bruch, Wayne Cox, and Tashara Arnold were responsible for the technological design, in the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Very little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit, marie Van Brittan Brown invented the home security system. The patent was granted in 1969, browns system had a set of 4 peep-holes and a camera that could slide up and down to look through each one. The system included a device that enabled a homeowner to use a set to view the person at the door.
The earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record, the development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread, VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, and use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse. This increased savings of time and money and the led to an increase in the use of CCTV, recently CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, and other technological developments. In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main street in an effort to fight crime
A judge presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, method of appointment, the judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. In some jurisdictions, the judges powers may be shared with a jury, in inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate. A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation, in many parts of the world, judges wear long robes and sit on an elevated platform during trials. In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs, the long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a wig would be worn in court. This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts, American judges frequently wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs, however, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing.
Today, some members of state courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal both judges and lawyers wear black robes. In Oman, the judge wears a stripe, while the attorneys wear the black gown. In Hong Kong, court proceedings are conducted in either English or Cantonese Chinese, Judges of Hong Kong retain many of the English traditions such as wearing wigs and robes in trials. In the lower courts, magistrates are addressed as Your worship, in writing, the post-nominal letters PJ is used to refer to a permanent judge of the Court of Final Appeal and NPJ to a non-permanent judge. In the High Court, the abbreviation JA is used to denote a justice of appeal, Masters of the High Court are addressed as Master. When trials are conducted in Chinese, judges were addressed, in Cantonese, as Fat Goon Dai Yan before the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China, and as Fat Goon Gok Ha since 1997. In India, judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts were addressed as Your Lordship or My Lord and Your Ladyship or My Lady, the Bar Council of India had adopted a resolution in April 2006 and added a new Rule 49 in the Advocates Act.
As per the rule, lawyers can address the court as Your Honour, if it is a subordinate court, lawyers can use terms such as sir or any equivalent phrase in the regional language concerned. Explaining the rationale behind the move, the Bar Council had held that the such as My Lord
A duplex communication system requires a pair of channels/frequencies hence the term duplex meaning two parts. The two channels are defined as uplink/downlink or reverse/forward, in a full-duplex system simultaneous transmission/reception is available, i. e. One can transmit and receive simultaneously, in a half-duplex system, each party can communicate with the other but not simultaneously, the communication is one direction at a time. Half duplex systems utilize separate channels for uplink and downlink, i. e. a transmit, in a half duplex communications system one user is allowed to transmit on the uplink channel at a time. The transmitted uplink signal is frequency translated via a radio/repeater to the downlink receive frequency which is received by all other radios tuned to the downlink/receive frequency. A half-duplex system is defined as system which operates two, hence duplex, dedicated uplink/downlink channels/frequencies. In a half duplex system a single path is provided for uplink, all uplink messages are broadcast via the downlink channel to all users simultaneously via a repeater which performs uplink to downlink channel/frequency translation.
All cellular and land line PSTNs and PDSNs are full duplex systems, all full duplex systems require a channel/frequency translator via a radio/repeater. This is required in order to translate the uplink/transmit transmission from one to the downlink/receive channel/frequency of user two. Full duplex systems are one to one private systems unlike half duplex systems which broadcast to all users and this effectively makes the cable itself a collision-free environment and doubles the maximum total transmission capacity supported by each Ethernet connection. Time-division duplexing is commonly referred to as simplex communications, a single channel/frequency is employed for bidirectional communications. The term simplex communication as applied to TDM single channel systems predates the term TDD by at least 80 years, frequency-division duplexing as with any other duplex system is defined by two channel/frequency simultaneous communication. A channel/frequency pair are assigned to individual user on the system.
An FDD system requires frequency translation from user 1 uplink/reverse frequency to user 2 downlink/forward frequency, full-duplex audio systems like telephones can create echo, which needs to be removed. Echo occurs when the coming out of the speaker, originating from the far end. The sound reappears at the source end, but delayed. This feedback path may be acoustic, through the air, or it may be mechanically coupled, echo cancellation is a signal-processing operation that subtracts the far-end signal from the microphone signal before it is sent back over the network. Echo cancellation is important to the V.32, V.34, V.56, echo cancelers are available as both software and hardware implementations
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the United States federal court system and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Chief Justice is one of nine Supreme Court justices, the eight are the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. From 1789 until 1866, the office was known as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice serves as a spokesperson for the judicial branch. The Chief Justice leads the business of the Supreme Court and presides over oral arguments, when the court renders an opinion, the Chief Justice—when in the majority—decides who writes the courts opinion. The Chief Justice has significant agenda-setting power over the courts meetings, in the case of an impeachment of a President of the United States, which has occurred twice, the Chief Justice presides over the trial in the Senate. In modern tradition, the Chief Justice has the duty of administering the oath of office of the President of the United States.
The first Chief Justice was John Jay, the 17th and current Chief Justice is John G. Roberts, Jr. The office was known as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and is still informally referred to using that title. However,28 U. S. C. §1 specifies that the title is Chief Justice of the United States, the title was changed from Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by Congress in 1866 at the suggestion of the sixth Chief Justice, Salmon P. Chase. Chase wished to emphasize the Supreme Courts role as a branch of government. The first Chief Justice commissioned using the new title was Melville Fuller in 1888, use of the previous title when referring to Chief Justices John Jay through Roger B. Taney is technically correct, as that was the title during their time on the court. The other eight members of the court are officially Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Chief Justice is the only member of the court to whom the Constitution refers as a Justice, and only in Article I. Article III of the Constitution refers to all members of the Supreme Court simply as Judges, the Chief Justice is nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed to sit on the Court by the United States Senate.
The salary of the Chief Justice is set by Congress, the Constitution prohibits Congress from lowering the salary of any judge, including the Chief Justice, while that judge holds office. As of 2015, the salary is $258,100 per year, which is higher than that of the Associate Justices. Three serving Associate Justices have received promotions to Chief Justice, Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, Associate Justice Abe Fortas was nominated to the position of Chief Justice of the United States, but his nomination was filibustered by Senate Republicans in 1968. Despite the failed nomination, Fortas remained an Associate Justice until his resignation the following year, there have been 21 individuals nominated for Chief Justice, of whom 17 have been confirmed by the Senate, although a different 17 have served