A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures, Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a division of the human habitat. Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings. The word building is both a noun and a verb an adverb, the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place, there was a building on the corner. In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not necessarily have walls.
Structure is more likely to be used for a fence, as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level, depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included, the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200000 to 400000 years ago have called into question. There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18000 BC, Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes, residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex, apartment building to differentiate them from individual houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents, houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters, they may be converted to another use e. g. an office or a shop.
Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people, increasing settlement density in buildings is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone, if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison, or in group housing like barracks or dormitories
The Inca Empire, known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru, the Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572, from 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the son of the sun, the Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old world. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, the Incan economy has been described as feudal, socialist. The economy functioned largely without money and without markets, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals and Inca rulers.
Taxes consisted of an obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food, the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, the four suyu. The four suyu were, Antisuyu and Kuntisuyu, the name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu, the term Inka means ruler or lord in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000. The Spanish adopted the term as a term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered, the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells a story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu Tuqu was named Qhapaq Tuqu, the other caves were Maras Tuqu and Sutiq Tuqu.
Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave and they were, Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awqa and Ayar Uchu, and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaco and Mama Qura. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans, Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live and they traveled for a long time
Hooper House (Baltimore County, Maryland)
Breuer had designed an addition to the Hoopers prior home in Baltimore in 1948, this is often referred to as Hooper House I, which is why this newer residence is often called Hooper House II. Ground was broken on the project in 1958 and the house was completed in 1959, in the two images below, the living area/bedrooms are to the right, and the living room/kitchen/dining room are on the left. The perspective is actually backwards, in that these images are looking from the rear of the house towards the front door, the living room actually has three such doors because there is so much glass. The original glass, which has no such mode, remains clear after 50 years. A Powerful Design in Fieldstone, Architectural Record Houses of 1961, pp. 70–73 Marcel Breuer Digital Archives, http, //breuer. syr. edu/project. php. id=566
Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging and, usually and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway, Inns in Europe were possibly first established when the Romans built their system of Roman roads two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are several centuries old, in addition to providing for the needs of travelers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. Historically, inns in Europe provided not only food and lodging, famous London examples of inns include the George and the Tabard. There is however no longer a distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use the name inn, either because they are established and may have been formerly coaching inns. Inns were like bed and breakfasts, with a community dining room which was used for town meetings or rented for wedding parties. The front, facing the road was ornamental and welcoming for travelers, the back usually had at least one livery barn for travelers to keep their horses.
There were not lobbies as in modern inns, but the innkeeper would answer the door for each visitor, many inns were simply large estates that had extra rooms for renting. During the 19th century the inn played a role in the growing transportation system of England. Industry was on the rise and people were traveling more in order to keep, the English Inn was considered an important part of English infrastructure as it helped maintain a smooth flow of travel throughout the country. As modes of transport have evolved, tourist lodging has adapted to each generation of traveller. A stagecoach made frequent stops at roadside coaching inns for water, food, a passenger train stops only at designated stations in the city centre, around which were built grand railway hotels. The lodging aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, the Inns of Court in London were once accommodations for members of the legal profession. Other forms of inn exist throughout the world, among them are the honjin and ryokan of Japan, and caravanserai of the Ottoman Empire.
In Asia Minor, during the periods of rule by the Seljuq and Ottoman Turks and these inns provided accommodation for people and their vehicles or animals and served as a resting place for people, whether travelling on foot or by other means. These inns were built between towns if the distance between them was too far for one days travel and these structures were called caravansarais which were inns with large courtyards with ample supplies of water for both drinking and other uses. They would contain a café in addition to supplies of food
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
The Munich Residenz is the former royal palace of the Bavarian monarchs of the House of Wittelsbach in the centre of the city of Munich, Germany. The Residenz is the largest city palace in Germany and is open to visitors for its architecture, room decorations. The complex of buildings contains ten courtyards and displays 130 rooms, the three main parts are the Königsbau, the Alte Residenz and the Festsaalbau. A wing of the Festsaalbau contains the Cuvilliés Theatre since the reconstruction of the Residenz after World War II and it houses the Herkulessaal, the primary concert venue for the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. The Byzantine Court Church of All Saints at the east side is facing the Marstall, the building for the former Court Riding School and the royal stables. The first buildings at this site were erected in the year 1385 and were financed by the township of Munich as a sanction for an uprising against Stephen III. The Silver Tower, as the strongest bastion, was situated next to the inner walls protecting the castle against the city.
As a result, they sought to build themselves a shelter impregnable, the gothic foundation walls and the basement vaults of the old castle are the oldest surviving parts of the palace. Finally, after more than four centuries of development, the giant palace had practically replaced a former city quarter with barracks. It assembles the styles of the late Renaissance, as well as of Baroque, with the order of William IV to expand the Neuveste with the so-called Rundstubenbau and to set up the first Court Garden began the history of the Munich Residence as a representative palace. To the history cycle of this garden pavilion belonged once the Battle of Issus of Albrecht Altdorfer. Under Albert V Wilhelm Egkl built next to a hall of the Neuveste an art chamber in the building of the former ducal stables. Since there was not enough space for the collection of sculptures. It had to be built outside the castle, as there was no place in the Neuveste, William V ordered the construction of the Witwenstock for the dowager Duchess Anna and in 1581-1586 the four wings of the Grottenhof.
Around 1590 the construction of the Black Hall was begun to the southeast on the Antiquarium, under direction of Sustris the Erbprinzentrakt, north of the Witwenstock was added. Maximilian I commissioned what is now called the Maximilian Residenz, the west wing of the palace, until the 19th century, it was the only publicly visible facade and it still is preserved. The portals are guarded by two lions and a statue of the Virgin Mary as patroness of Bavaria in a niche between the portals on the west side of the residence complex. Maximilian had rebuilt and connected the existing buildings, in addition, Maximilian I had from 1612 large parts of the south and west wings of the Neuveste with the Silver Tower demolished
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard. Tetrastoon is a rarely used term for this feature. In the Christian ecclesiastical architecture that developed from Roman basilica, a courtyard peristyle, in rural settings a wealthy Roman could surround a villa with terraced gardens, within the city Romans created their gardens inside the domus. Sometimes the lararium, a shrine for the Lares, the gods of the household, was located in this portico, the courtyard might contain flowers and shrubs, benches and even fish ponds. No new peristyle houses were built after A. D.550
The Alhambra, the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Spain. It was converted into a palace in 1333 by Yusuf I. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, the became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella. Alhambras late flowering of Islamic palaces were built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain during the decline of the Nasrid dynasty who were subject to the Christian Kings of Castile. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the inspiration for many songs, Moorish poets described it as a pearl set in emeralds, an allusion to the colour of its buildings and the woods around them. The palace complex was designed with the site in mind. The park has a multitude of nightingales and is filled with the sound of running water from several fountains. These are supplied through a conduit 8 km long, which is connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above Granada, Alhambra was extended by the different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex.
However, each new section that was added followed the consistent theme of paradise on earth, column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was plain and austere. Sun and wind were freely admitted, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed. Much of this ornament is carved stucco rather than stone, tile mosaics, with complicated mathematical patterns, are largely used as panelling for the lower part. Similar designs are displayed on wooden ceilings, muqarnas are the main elements for vaulting with stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind are in the Court of the Lions halls. It is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as the Reconquista by Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus, the literal translation of Alhambra, the red, reflects the color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made.
The buildings of the Alhambra were originally whitewashed, the buildings as seen today are reddish. Another possible origin of the name is the designation of the Nasrid Dynasty, known as the Banu al-Ahmar Arabic, Sons of the Red. One of the early Nasrid ancestors was nicknamed Yusuf Al Ahmar, the first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles between the Arabs and the Muladies during the rule of the ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad. According to surviving documents from the era, the red castle was quite small, Ibn Nasr, the founder of the Nasrid Dynasty, was forced to flee to Jaén to avoid persecution by King Ferdinand III of Castile and the Reconquista supporters working to end Spains Moorish rule
Great Mosque of Kairouan
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, known as the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa and this vast space contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a huge marble-paved courtyard and a massive square minaret. In addition to its prestige, the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of both architecture and Islamic art. Under the Aghlabids, huge works gave the mosque its present aspect, the fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and repopulate increasingly. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences. Its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages, with the decline of the city of Kairouan from the mid 11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis.
Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the district of Houmat al-Jami. This location corresponded originally to the heart of the fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. But because of the nature of the land, crossed by several tributaries of the wadis. Then there are the upheavals of Kairouan following Hilalians invasions in 449 AH, for all these reasons, the mosque is not any more situated in the center of the medina, and is thereby positioned on the extremity, near the walls. The building is a vast irregular quadrilateral, longer from the side than on the opposite side. It covers a area of 9000 m2. More than a role, the buttresses and towers full serve more to enhance the stability of the mosque built on a soil subject to compaction. At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers and it was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Numan in 703.
In view of its expansion, he pulled down the mosque and it was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid Ibn Hatim, under the rule of Aghlabid sovereigns, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. In 836, Ziadet-Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more, this is when the acquired, at least in its entirety
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas.
Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.
Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St