Flambé is a type of ceramic glaze. Flambé is a cooking procedure; the word means "flamed" in French. Flambéing is associated with tableside presentation of certain liqueur-drenched dishes set aflame, such as Bananas Foster or Cherries Jubilee, when the alcohol is ignited and results in a flare of blue-tinged flame. However, flambéing is a step in making coq au vin, other dishes and sauces, using spirits, before they are brought to the table. By burning off the volatile alcohol, flambéing reduces the alcoholic content of the dish while keeping the flavors of the liquor. Modern flambéing became popular in the 19th century; the English Christmas pudding was served flaming in Charles Dickens' 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol: "the pudding... blazing in half of half-a-quarter of ignited brandy". The most common flambé dish appears to have been sweet omelette with kirsch. Ida Joscelyne's book, The Marvellous Little Housekeepers, mentions both kirsch. G. Payne's English cookbook, Choice Dishes at Small Cost, of 1882: "Make a sweet omelet, heat a tablespoonful of kirsch, by holding a light under the spoon.
As soon as the spirit catches fire pour it round the omelet, serve flaming." The most famous flambé dish, Crêpe Suzette, was invented in 1895 as an accident. Cognac, rum, or other flavorful liquors that are about 40% alcohol are considered ideal for flambé. Wines and beers have too little alcohol and will not flambé. High-alcohol liquors, such as Bacardi 151 or Everclear, are flammable and considered too dangerous by professional cooks. Cinnamon is sometimes added not only for show, as the powder ignites when added; the alcoholic beverage must be heated before lighting it on fire. This is because at room temperature, the liquid is still below the flash point, there are not enough alcoholic vapors to ignite. By heating it, the vapor pressure increases. Flambéing reduces the alcohol content of the food modestly. In one experimental model, about 25% of the alcohol was boiled off; the effects of the flames are modest: although the temperature within the flame may be quite high, the temperature at the surface of the pan is lower than that required for a Maillard browning reaction or for caramelization.
Whether or not there is a change in flavor. Some claim that because the flame is above the food, since hot gases rise, it cannot affect the flavor. Indeed, experimental work shows; that said, in an informal taste test conducted by the Los Angeles Times of two batches of caramelized apples, one tester declared the "flambéed dish was for adults, the other for kids". Others, dispute this and quote celebrated French chefs who claim that flambéing is a show-biz aspect of restaurant business that ruins food but is done to create an impressive visual presentation at a dramatic point in the preparation of a meal. For safety, it is recommended that alcohol not be added to a pan on a burner, that the cook use a long fireplace match to ignite the pan. Examples of popular flambé dishes include: Bananas Foster Bombe Alaska Cherries Jubilee Christmas pudding Crêpes Suzette Flaming beverages Gundel Palacsinta Steak Diane List of cooking techniques
Crêpes Suzette is a French dessert consisting of a crêpe with beurre Suzette, a sauce of caramelized sugar and butter, tangerine or orange juice and Grand Marnier, triple sec or orange Curaçao liqueur on top, prepared in a tableside performance, flambé. The origin of the dish and its name is disputed. One claim is that it was created from a mistake made by a fourteen-year-old assistant waiter Henri Charpentier in 1895 at the Maitre at Monte Carlo's Café de Paris, he was preparing a dessert for the Prince of Wales, the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, whose guests included a beautiful French girl named Suzette. This story was told by Charpentier himself in Life à la Henri, his autobiography, although contradicted by the Larousse Gastronomique, it was quite by accident. I thought; the Prince and his friends were waiting. How could I begin all over? I tasted it, it was, I thought, the most delicious medley of sweet flavors I had tasted. I still think so; that accident of the flame was what was needed to bring all those various instruments into one harmony of taste...
He ate the pancakes with a fork. He asked me the name of that. I told him, he recognized that the pancake controlled the gender and that this was a compliment designed for him. She was alert and rose to her feet and holding her little skirt wide with her hands she made him a curtsey. "Will you," said His Majesty, "change Crêpes Princesse to Crêpes Suzette?" Thus was born and baptized this confection, one taste of which, I believe, would reform a cannibal into a civilized gentleman. The next day I received a present from a jeweled ring, a panama hat and a cane. Different sources however doubt that Charpentier, rather than the head waiter, was serving the prince, because he would have been too young. A less fantastical version emerges from Elsie Lee's interview with him in the 1950s. There, Charpentier explained at length that his complicated version began as the dish of pancakes with fruit sauce his foster mother made on special occasions; the addition of liqueur was au courant among chefs in Paris at the time.
The other claim states that the dish was named in honour of French actress Suzanne Reichenberg, who worked professionally under the name Suzette. In 1897, Reichenberg appeared in the Comédie Française in the role of a maid, during which she served crêpes on stage. Monsieur Joseph, owner of Restaurant Marivaux, provided the crêpes, he decided to flambé the thin pancakes to attract the audience's attention and keep the food warm for the actors consuming them. Joseph was subsequently director of the Paillard Restaurant in Paris and was with the Savoy Hotel in London. In 1896, Oscar Tschirky published the recipe as "Pancakes, Casino Style" with everything in place except the final flambée. Escoffier described Crêpes Suzette in the English version of his Guide Culinaire in 1907 the same way without the final flambée; the dish was a specialty of the French restaurant Marie's by 1898
Candlemas known as the Feast of the Presentation of Our Lord Jesus and the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Christian Holy Day commemorating the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It is based upon the account of the presentation of Jesus in Luke 2:22–40. In accordance with Leviticus 12: a woman was to be presented for purification by sacrifice 33 days after a boy's circumcision, it falls on February 2, traditionally the 40th day of the Christmas–Epiphany season. While it is customary for Christians in some countries to remove their Christmas decorations on Twelfth Night, those in other Christian countries remove them on Candlemas. On Candlemas, many Christians bring their candles to their local church, where they are blessed and used for the rest of the year; the Feast of the Presentation is one of the oldest feasts of the Christian church, celebrated since the 4th century AD in Jerusalem. There are sermons on the Feast by the bishops Methodius of Patara, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory the Theologian, Amphilochius of Iconium, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom.
It is mentioned in the pilgrimage of Egeria, where she confirmed that the celebrations took place in honor of the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. XXVI, but the Feast of the Purification is celebrated here with the greatest honour. On this day there is a procession to the Anastasis. All the priests preach, the bishop, always treating of that passage of the Gospel106 where, on the fortieth day and Mary brought the Lord into the Temple, Simeon and Anna the prophetess, the daughter of Famuhel, saw Him, of the words which they said when they saw the Lord, of the offerings which the parents presented, and when all things have been celebrated in order as is customary, the sacrament is administered, so the people are dismissed. Christmas was, in the West, celebrated on December 25 from at least the year AD 354 when it was fixed by Pope Liberius. Forty days after December 25 is February 2. In the Eastern parts of the Roman Empire, Roman consul Justin established the celebration of the Hypapante on February 2, AD 521.
Pope Gelasius I contributed to the spread of the celebration, but did not invent it. Moreover, the link made by Caesar Baronius between the presentation of Jesus and Lupercalia is inaccurate since Lupercalia was not celebrated in Jerusalem and it was only there that one finds some celebrations of the presentation of Jesus around this date, but it appears that it became important around the time of the Plague of Justinian in 541, before spreading West. The ancient Romans celebrated the Lupercalia in mid-February, in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility and shepherds; the celebration of Feralia occurred at the same time. The Lupercalia have been linked to the presentation of Jesus at the temple by Cardinal Caesar Baronius in the 16th century because of the theme of purification that the two festivals share. In fact, Pope Gelasius I had much earlier written a letter to a senator Andromachus, who wanted to reestablish the Lupercalia for the purpose of purification; however the Gelasian Sacramentary shows a strong Gallican influence and was compiled between AD 628 and AD 731, so it is possible that the addition of the celebration was not due to Pope Gelasius at all.
Moreover, when Gelasius addressed Andromachus, he did not try to use his authority, but contented himself to arguing for example that the Lupercalia would no longer have the effect it once had and was incompatible with Christian ideals. This could be interpreted as evidence. Centuries around the year 1392 or 1400, an image of the Virgin Mary that represented this invocation, was found on the seashore by two Guanche shepherds from the island of Tenerife. After the appearance of the Virgin and its iconographic identification with this biblical event, the festival began to be celebrated with a Marian character in the year 1497, when the conqueror Alonso Fernández de Lugo celebrated the first Candlemas festival dedicated to the Virgin Mary, coinciding with the Feast of Purification on February 2. Before the conquest of Tenerife, the Guanche aborigines celebrated a festivity around the image of the Virgin during the Beñesmen festival in the month of August; this was the harvest party. The feast of the Virgin of Candelaria in the Canary Islands is celebrated in addition to February 2 on August 15, the day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic calendar.
For some historians, the celebrations celebrated in honor of the Virgin during the month of August are a syncretized reminiscence of the ancient feasts of the Beñesmen. Candlemas feast transfers to February 3 if February 2 is a pre-Lenten Sunday, but the blessing of candles still takes place on February 2. Candlemas never falls in Lent, because the earliest possible Ash Wednesday is February 4. In Swedish and Finnish Lutheran Churches, Candlemas is always celebrated on a Sunda
Ratatouille is a French Provençal stewed vegetable dish, originating in Nice, sometimes referred to as ratatouille niçoise. The word ratatouille derives from the Occitan ratatolha and is related to the French ratouiller and tatouiller, expressive forms of the verb touiller, meaning "to stir up". From the late 18th century, in French, it indicated a coarse stew; the modern ratatouille – tomatoes as a foundation for sautéed garlic, zucchini, bell peppers, marjoram and basil, or bay leaf and thyme, or a mix of green herbs like herbes de Provence – does not appear in print until c. 1930. The Guardian's food and drink writer, Felicity Cloake, wrote in 2016 that, considering ratatouille's relative recent origins, there exists a great variety of methods of preparation for it; the Larousse Gastronomique claims "according to the purists, the different vegetables should be cooked separately combined and cooked together until they attain a smooth, creamy consistency", so that "each will taste of itself."
As well as confit byaldi, related dishes exist in many Mediterranean cuisines: pisto, tombet, ciambotta and peperonata, briám and tourloú, şakşuka and türlü, lecsó and zaalouk. Different parts of Indian subcontinent have their own versions of winter vegetable stew. Gujarat makes Undhiyu out of its seasonal produce; the Kerala region makes Avial and the Bengali cuisine makes Sukto. Ciambotta French tian List of stews List of vegetable dishes Recipe from Larousse Cuisine https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0382932/ See ya epic gamers
Lunch, the abbreviation for luncheon, is a meal eaten around midday. During the 20th century, the meaning narrowed to a small or mid-sized meal eaten midday. Lunch is the second meal of the day, after breakfast; the meal varies in size depending on the culture, significant variations exist in different areas of the world. The abbreviation lunch is taken from the more formal Northern English word luncheon, derived from the Anglo-Saxon word nuncheon or nunchin meaning'noon drink'; the term has been in common use since 1823. The Oxford English Dictionary reports usage of the words beginning in 1580 to describe a meal, eaten between more substantial meals, it may mean a piece of cheese or bread. In medieval Germany, there are references to similariar, a sir lunchentach according to the OED, a noon draught – of ale, with bread – an extra meal between midday dinner and supper during the long hours of hard labour during haying or early harvesting. Meals have become ingrained in each society as being logical.
What one society eats may seem extraordinary to another. The same is true of what was eaten long ago in history as food tastes, menu items and meal periods have changed over time. For example, the word supper means soup. In general, during the Middle Ages the main meal for everyone took place late in the morning, after several hours of work, when there was no need for artificial lighting. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this meal, called dinner, was pushed back into the evening, creating a greater time gap between breakfast and dinner. A meal called. A formal evening meal, artificially lit by candles, sometimes with entertainment, was a supper party as late as the Regency era. Up until the early 19th century, luncheon was reserved for the ladies, who would have lunch with one another when their husbands were out; as late as 1945, Emily Post wrote in the magazine Etiquette that luncheon is "generally given by and for women, but it is not unusual in summer places or in town on Saturday or Sunday, to include an equal number of men" – hence the mildly disparaging phrase, "the ladies who lunch".
Lunch was a ladies' light meal. Beginning in the 1840s, afternoon tea supplemented this luncheon at four o'clock. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management – a guide to all aspects of running a household in Victorian Britain, edited by Isabella Beeton – had much less to explain about luncheon than about dinners or ball suppers: The remains of cold joints, nicely garnished, a few sweets, or a little hashed meat, poultry or game, are the usual articles placed on the table for luncheon, with bread and cheese, butter, etc. If a substantial meal is desired, rump-steaks or mutton chops may be served, as veal cutlets, kidneys... In families where there is a nursery, the mistress of the house partakes of the meal with the children, makes it her luncheon. In the summer, a few dishes of fresh fruit should be added to the luncheon, or, instead of this, a compote of fruit or fruit tart, or pudding. With the onset of industrialisation in the 19th century, male workers began to work long shifts at the factory disrupting the age-old eating habits of rural life.
Workers were sent home for a brief dinner provided by their wives, but as the workplace was moved farther from the home, working men took to providing themselves with something portable to eat during a break in the middle of the day. The lunch meal became institutionalised in England when workers with long and fixed hour jobs at the factory were given an hour off work to eat lunch and thus gain strength for the afternoon shift. Stalls and chop houses near the factories began to provide mass-produced food for the working class, the meal soon became an established part of the daily routine, remaining so to this day. In many countries and regions lunch is main meal. Prescribed lunchtimes allow workers to return to their homes to eat with their families. Where lunch is the customary main meal of the day, businesses close during lunchtime. Lunch becomes dinner on special days, such as holidays or special events, for example, Christmas dinner and harvest dinners such as Thanksgiving. Among Christians, the main meal on Sunday, whether at a restaurant or at home, is called "Sunday dinner", is served after morning church services.
A traditional Bengali lunch is a seven-course meal. Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, now divided between Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley; the first course is shukto, a mix of vegetables cooked with few spices and topped with a coconut sauce. The second course consists of rice, a vegetable curry; the third course consists of fish curry. The fourth course is that of meat curry; the fifth course contains sweet preparations like rasgulla, rajbhog, etc. The sixth course consists of mishti doi; the seventh course is that of paan. In China today, lunch is not nearly as complicated. Rice and other mixed hot foods are eaten, either at a restaurant or brought in a container. Western cuisine is not uncommon, it is called 午饭 in most areas. Lunch in Denmark, referred to as frokost, is a light
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair. It is sold from a portable food booth, food cart, or food truck and meant for immediate consumption; some street foods are regional. Most street foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study from the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day. Today, people may purchase street food for a number of reasons, such as convenience, to get flavourful food for a reasonable price in a sociable setting, to try ethnic cuisines, or for nostalgia. Small fried fish were a street food in ancient Greece. Evidence of a large number of street food vendors was discovered during the excavation of Pompeii. Street food was consumed by poor urban residents of ancient Rome whose tenement homes did not have ovens or hearths. Here, chickpea soup with bread and grain paste were common meals.
In ancient China, street food catered to the poor, wealthy residents would send servants to buy street food and bring it back for them to eat in their homes. A traveling Florentine reported in the late 14th century that in Cairo, people brought picnic cloths made of rawhide to spread on the streets and sit on while they ate their meals of lamb kebabs and fritters that they had purchased from street vendors. In Renaissance Turkey, many crossroads had vendors selling "fragrant bites of hot meat", including chicken and lamb, spit-roasted. In 1502, Ottoman Turkey became the first country to standardize street food. Aztec marketplaces had vendors who sold beverages such as atolli 50 types of tamales, as well as insects and stews. Spanish colonization brought European food stocks like wheat and livestock to Peru, most commoners continued to eat their traditional diets. Imports were only accepted at the margins of their diet, for example, grilled beef hearts sold by street vendors; some of Lima's 19th-century street vendors such as "Erasmo, the'negro' sango vendor" and Na Aguedita are still remembered today.
During the American Colonial period, "street vendors sold oysters, roasted corn ears and sweets at low prices to all classes." Oysters, in particular, were a cheap and popular street food until around 1910 when overfishing and pollution caused prices to rise. Street vendors in New York City faced a lot of opposition. After previous restrictions had limited their operating hours, street food vendors were banned in New York City by 1707. Many women of African descent made their living selling street foods in America in the 18th and 19th centuries, with products ranging from fruit and nuts in Savannah, to coffee, biscuits and other sweets in New Orleans. Cracker Jack started as one of many street food exhibits at the Columbian Exposition. In the 19th century, street food vendors in Transylvania sold gingerbread-nuts, cream mixed with corn, as well as bacon and other meat fried on top of ceramic vessels with hot coals inside. French fries, consisting of fried strips of potato originated as a street food in Paris in the 1840s.
Street foods in Victorian London included tripe, pea soup, pea pods in butter, whelk and jellied eels. Street food culture in China was first developed in the Tang Dynasty and continued to evolve over millennia. Street food continues to play a major role in Chinese cuisine with regional street food generating a strong interest in culinary tourism; because of the Chinese diaspora, Chinese street food has had a major influence on other cuisines across Asia and introduced the concept of a street food culture to other countries. The street food culture of Southeast Asia was established by coolie workers imported from China during the late 19th century. Ramen brought to Japan by Chinese immigrants about 100 years ago, began as a street food for laborers and students. However, it soon became a "national dish" and acquired regional variations. In Thailand, street food was sold by the ethnic Chinese population of Thailand but it did not become popular among native Thai people until the early 1960s, because of rapid urban population growth, by the 1970s it had "displaced home-cooking."
The rise of the country's tourism industry is contributed to the popularity of Thai street food. In Indonesia — Java, travelling food and drink vendor has a long history, as they were described in temples bas reliefs dated from 9th century, as well as mentioned in 14th century inscription as a line of work. During colonial Dutch East Indies period circa 19th century, several street food were developed and documented, including satay and dawet street vendors; the current proliferation of Indonesia's vigorous street food culture is contributed by the massive urbanization in recent decades that has opened opportunities in food service sectors. This took place in the country's expanding urban agglomerations in Greater Jakarta and Surabaya. Street food vending is found all around the world, but varies between regions and cultures. For example, Dorling Kindersley describes the street food of Vietnam as being "fresh and lighter than many of the cuisines in the area" and "draw on herbs, chile peppers and lime", while street food of Thailand is "fiery" and "pungent with shrimp paste... and fish sauce."
New York City's signature street food is the hot dog, New