click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Craig Venter

John Craig Venter is an American biotechnologist and businessman. He is known for leading the first draft sequence of the human genome and assembled the first team to transfect a cell with a synthetic chromosome. Venter founded Celera Genomics, The Institute for Genomic Research and the J. Craig Venter Institute, where he serves as CEO, he was the co-founder of Human Longevity Synthetic Genomics. He was listed on Time magazine's 2007 and 2008 Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. In 2010, the British magazine New Statesman listed Craig Venter at 14th in the list of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010", he is a member of the USA Engineering Festival's Advisory Board. Venter was born in Salt Lake City, the son of Elizabeth and John Venter. In his youth, he did not take his education preferring to spend his time on the water in boats or surfing. According to his biography, A Life Decoded, he was said to never be a engaged student, having Cs and Ds on his eighth-grade report cards.

He graduated from Mills High School in California. Although he opposed the Vietnam War, Venter was drafted and enlisted in the United States Navy where he worked in the intensive-care ward of a field hospital. While in Vietnam, he attempted suicide by swimming out to sea, but changed his mind more than a mile out. Being confronted with injured and dying marines on a daily basis instilled in him a desire to study medicine, although he switched to biomedical research. Venter began his college education at a community college, College of San Mateo in California, transferred to the University of California, San Diego, where he studied under biochemist Nathan O. Kaplan, he received a BS in biochemistry in 1972 and a PhD in physiology and pharmacology in 1975 from UCSD. After working as an associate professor, as full professor, at the State University of New York at Buffalo, he joined the National Institutes of Health in 1984. While an employee of the NIH, Venter learned how to identify mRNA and began to learn more about those expressed in the human brain.

The short cDNA sequence fragments he was interested in are called ESTs. The NIH Office of Technology Transfer and Venter decided to take the ESTs discovered by others in an attempt to patent the genes identified based on studies of mRNA expression in the human brain; when Venter disclosed this strategy during a Congressional hearing, a firestorm of controversy erupted. The NIH stopped the effort and abandoned the patent applications it had filed, following public outcry. Venter was passionate about the power of genomics to radically transform healthcare. Venter believed that shotgun sequencing was the fastest and most effective way to get useful human genome data; the method was rejected by the Human Genome Project however, since some geneticists felt it would not be accurate enough for a genome as complicated as that of humans, that it would be logistically more difficult, that it would cost more. Venter viewed the slow pace of progress in the Human Genome project as an opportunity to continue his interest in patenting genes, so he sought funding from the private sector to birth Celera Genomics.

The company planned to profit from their work by creating genomic data to which users could subscribe for a fee. The goal put pressure on the public genome program and spurred several groups to redouble their efforts to produce the full sequence. Venter's effort won him renown as he and his team at Celera Corporation shared credit for sequencing the first draft human genome with the publicly funded Human Genome Project. In 2000, Venter and Francis Collins of the National Institutes of Health and U. S. Public Genome Project jointly made the announcement of the mapping of the human genome, a full three years ahead of the expected end of the Public Genome Program; the announcement was made along with U. S. President Bill Clinton, UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. Venter and Collins thus shared an award for "Biography of the Year" from A&E Network. On 15 February 2001, the Human Genome Project consortium published the first Human Genome in the journal Nature, was followed, one day by a Celera publication in Science.

Despite some claims that shotgun sequencing was in some ways less accurate than the clone-by-clone method chosen by the Human Genome Project, the technique became accepted by the scientific community. Venter was fired by Celera in early 2002. According to his biography, Venter was fired due to a conflict with the main investor, Tony White barring him from attending the White House ceremony celebrating the achievement of sequencing the human genome; the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition is an ocean exploration genome project with the goal of assessing the genetic diversity in marine microbial communities and to understand their role in nature's fundamental processes. Begun as a Sargasso Sea pilot sampling project in August 2003, Venter announced the full Expedition on 4 March 2004; the project, which used Venter's personal yacht, Sorcerer II, started in Halifax, circumnavigated the globe and returned to the U. S. in January 2006. In June 2005, Venter co-founded Synthetic Genomics, a firm dedicated to using modified microorganisms to produce clean fuels and biochemicals.

In July 2009, ExxonMobil announced a $600 million collaboration with Synthetic Genomics to research and develop next-generation biofuels. Venter continues to work on the creation of engineered diatomic microalgae for the production of biofuels. Venter is seeking to patent the first synthetic species to be named Mycoplasma laboratorium. There is speculation that this line of research could lead to producing bac

Women in UniĆ³n General de Trabajadores in Francoist Spain

Women in Unión General de Trabajadores in Francoist Spain played important roles in the union dating back to the Second Republic period as their specific needs like maternity leave, childcare provisions and equal pay were subverted for the improvement of better overall working conditions. Women UGT leaders in the Civil War period included Claudina García Perez. In the post-Civil War period, the Franco regime confiscated other assets. Many members of UGT went into exile. Women who remained faced repression, harassment and were disappeared. Feminism and socialism continued to have a fraught relationship. An interior UGT body was formed in 1943, with Claudina García Perez, Julia Vigre and Carmen Guelin some of the most important women inside Spain in this period. Socialist women worked as messengers for clandestine PSOE and UGT activities. In the exterior, the biggest groups were in Mexico; the 1950s and 1960s continued a period where women's issues were ignored as part of broader political ideologies.

PSOE found itself having little control over UGT despite a huge overlap in leadership. Mining strikes in Asturias were some of the biggest labor challenges faced by the regime in this period, with UGT activists at the center of this. Josefina Arrillaga on the interior would begin to set the stage for the fissure that would erupt in 1970 between those in Spain and those in leadership in exile. In the interior, Carmen Romero, Carmen Muriana and Manuela Moreno would be some of those most influential women. On the exterior, Carmen García Bloise would play a pivotal role in getting UGT to change leadership to the interior. Leadership was formally changed from the exterior to the interior by 1971 with the help of Asturian unionists and militants. Franco dided in 1975; the involvement of women in the movement assisted in a push for more democratic ideals that would come about in the 1970s, which would see feminism merge politically with the movement as part of individual and collective goals towards creating a more democratic society following the death of Franco.

In 2019, UGT declared itself as an explicitly feminist union. Francoist Spain was a pseudo-fascist state whose ideology rejected what it considered the inorganic democracy of the Second Republic, it was an embrace of organic democracy, defined as a reassertion of traditional Spanish Roman Catholic values that served as a counterpoint to the Communism of the Soviet Union during the same period. It came into exist in 1939 following the end of the Spanish Civil War. Misogyny and heteronormativity where linchpins of fascism in Spain, where the philosophy revolved around patria and fixed gender roles that praised the role of strong male leadership. In July 1936, the Spanish Civil War started with a military coup attempt launched from the Spanish enclave of Melilla. In October of that same year, Franco took over as the Generalissimo and Chief of State in Nationalist zones. On 19 April 1937, Catholic and Falangist parties were merged, making Falange Española Tradicionalista the official state party behind Nationalist lines.

On 30 January 1938, the first National State Cabinet meeting was held, with the Spanish Civil War formally coming to an end on 1 April 1939 and an official government formalized on 8 August 1939. The Franco regime banned all trade unions; the only permissible type organization was Falange, founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933. An election was held in 1966, where people were given the option to affirm or deny Franco's leadership. With more voters than electors, Franco was affirmed as Head of State. Prince Juan Carlos was appointed as Franco's official successor in 1970, with Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco being the unofficial successor. Carrero Blanco was assassinated in 1973 by ETA. Franco died in November 1975. Pablo Iglesias founded Unión General de Trabajadores on 12 August 1888 in Barcelona as a trade union affiliate to his socialist party, PSOE, that he had founded in Madrid in 1879. Early growth for UGT was slowed as it was in competition with an anarchist trade union that focused on reaching out to Spain's working class.

UGT's connection with PSOE gave the union a rigid Marxist ideology coupled with anti-clericalism. This was sometimes difficult for Spain's small industrial working class population who had many other left-wing political options to chose from. In 1921, a split developed inside PSOE. Despite this, during the 1920s the party continued to grow and was the largest one in the country by 1931 when the Second Republic was founded. Women were involved in UGT during the 1930s, playing important roles in events like the Asturian miners' strike of 1934; the strike was one of the first major conflicts of the Second Republic, when workers' militias seized control of the mines in Asturias. Planned as a nationwide strike, the workers collective action only took place in Asturias; some women were involved in propaganda and others in assisting the miners. After the government quelled the insurrection by bringing in Moroccan legionaries, some 30,000 people found themselves in prison and another 1,000 were put into graves.

A large number of those put into prison were women. Women played an advocacy role in trying to see their husbands and male relatives released. Among the UGT women involved in the strike was María Lacrampe, who had joined the union in 1932. Near the end of 1931, workers at a shoe factor in the village of Arnedo near Logroño were fired because they were members of Unión General de Trabajadores. Villagers decided to protest their firing outside the townhall, were fired upon for no discernible reason by th

Beekeeping in New Zealand

Beekeeping in New Zealand is reported to have commenced in 1839. It has since become an established industry as well a hobby activity. New Zealand had 6,735 registered beekeepers in June 2016, who owned more than 600,000 hives in over 42,000 apiaries. In 2015/16 total honey production was 19.8 thousand tonnes. The production of manuka honey, valued for its antibacterial properties, is important. Pollen and propolis are produced and exported. Beekeepers provide pollination services to horticulturists, which used to generate more income than the products of bee culture. However, rising honey prices have pushed pollination fees to keep up. 42 thousand live queen bees, 38 tonnes of packaged bees are exported live each year. The National Beekeepers' Association of New Zealand established "National Bee Week"; the Green Party are calling for a phase out of pesticides that are toxic to bees as is happening in the European Union. Honey containing the poisonous tutin can be produced by bees feeding on honeydew produced by sap-sucking vine hopper insects feeding on tutu, a plant native to New Zealand.

The last recorded deaths from eating honey containing tutin were in the 1890s. In May 2011 there were fears. Losses of up to 30 % had been reported with Poverty Bay being hardest hit; this suspicion was not confirmed, but high losses with an aetiology matching CCD could be observed in parts of the North Island in 2015, reigniting these fears. Pests include Malpighamoeba mellifica and acarine mites. American foulbrood is present in a small percentage of hives with Sac brood and Chalk brood occurring in isolated cases. American foulbrood has been present in New Zealand since 1877. European foulbrood is not present in New Zealand. In the 1990s suspected cases of European foulbrood were found and a wider survey of hives was carried out but the samples proved to be negative; the Varroa destructor mite, a parasite that attacks honey bees, was discovered in the North Island of New Zealand in 2000 and the South Island in 2008. The Varroa mite is classed as a "Notifiable Organism" under the Biosecurity Act.

Former or current legislation relevant to beekeeping in New Zealand include: Apiaries Act 1908 Apiaries Act 1969 Resource Management Act 1991 Biosecurity Act 1993 Local Government Act 2002There is legislation relating to the bee products themselves. Agriculture in New Zealand Biosecurity in New Zealand Manuka honey, a honey marketed for its health benefits Beekeeping Walsh, R. S.. Nectar and Pollen Sources of New Zealand. National Beekeepers Association of New Zealand. Goodwin, Mark. Control of Varroa: A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. ISBN 0-478-07958-3. Goodwin, Mark. Elimination of American foulbrood without the use of drugs: A Practical Manual for Beekeepers. National Beekeepers Association of New Zealand Inc. Biosecurity New Zealand – Varroa mite page American Foulbrood Pest Management Strategy Apiaries Act 1969 Beekeeping Clubs in New Zealand – A Map for kiwi Beekeepers Apiculture New Zealand New Zealand Beekeepers Forum Auckland Hobbyist Beekeepers Club Christchurch Hobbyist Beekeepers Club Wellington Beekeepers Association

Jenica Atwin

Jenica Atwin is a Canadian politician, elected to represent the riding of Fredericton in the House of Commons of Canada in the 2019 Canadian federal election, defeating incumbent MP Matt DeCourcey. She is an education consultant and researcher at a First Nations Education Centre, completed a Master's in Education at the University of New Brunswick, she is the first Member of Parliament of the Green Party of Canada to be elected outside of British Columbia, the first "third party" candidate to win the electoral district of Fredericton or its predecessor districts, the first woman to be elected in the riding of Fredericton. Jenica Atwin grew up in Oromocto, New Brunswick, her father, Bob Powell, is the mayor of Oromocto. In high school, she was class president, her stepfather is the Wolastoq Grand Chief. In 2016, Atwin co-organized a spin-off of We Day focused on introducing First Nations youth to one another and helping those who have moved off of reserves; this took place during Atwin's four years as a cultural transition coordinator with First Nation Education Initiative Incorporated.

Atwin is a poker player and placed sixth in a 2010 World Series of Poker Circuit ladies tournament in Louisiana. She is married to Oromocto First Nation band councillor Chris Atwin and has two sons

Howard W. Blakeslee

Howard Walter Blakeslee was an American journalist. He was the Associated Press's first full-time science reporter and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Reporting in 1937. Blakeslee was born in 1880 to Jennie in New Dungeness, Washington. After attending the University of Michigan, he became, in 1901, a news writer for the Detroit Journal. Between 1903 and 1905, he was a sports writer for Detroit newspapers, he joined the Associated Press in 1906. Between and 1916, he was a bureau chief in New Orleans and Dallas, he was news editor in Chicago from 1916 to 1926 moved to New York where, after two years as photo service editor, his title became Science Editor, AP's first. Blakeslee won the 1937 Pulitzer Prize for the group's collective coverage of science at Harvard University's tercentenary celebration. A better-known winner that year was Margaret Mitchell. Blakeslee reported extensively on the atomic bomb in the immediate post-war era and was among the group of reporters who witnessed the early tests at Yucca Flat.

Interested in the subject of atomic power, his book publications include Miracle of Atomics, The Atomic Future, Atomic Progress: The Hydrogen Race. In addition to the Pulitzer, his awards include the National Headliners Club award, the George Westinghouse Science Writers award of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the Howard W. Blakeslee Award of the American Heart Association is named in his honor. Blakeslee was married twice, first in 1906 to Marguerite Fortune and second, after the death of his first wife, to Rosamund Robinson in 1936. Blakeslee and Rosamund had three children: Howard and Alan, his son from his first marriage, Alton Blakeslee succeeded him as science editor at AP, retiring in 1985. His granddaughter is a long-time science reporter for the New York Times. Sandra's son Matthew Blakeslee is a full-time science writer, thus representing the fourth generation of Howard Blakeslee's notable science-reportorial dynasty. Howard Blakeslee died in 1952, shortly after returning from return a visit to the atomic bomb testing site in Nevada

Gujiao

Gujiao is a county-level city of Shanxi Province, North China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Taiyuan. The estimated population of Gujiao in 2017 is about 222,000. Gujiao is located in central Shanxi. It's a county-level city, part of the prefecture-level city of Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi province, its geographical area are in between latitude of 37° 40'-38° 8' N, longitude of 111° 43'-112° 21' E. It's connected to the Wanbailin district of Taiyuan to the east, Loufan county to the west, Yangqu county and Jingle county to the north and Qingxu county and Jiaocheng county to the south, its east-west width is about 50 kilometers, north-south length is about 53 kilometers. The total area of Gujiao is about 1551 square kilometres; the population of Gujiao in 1999 stood at 192,458. Its estimated population in 2017 is about 222,000; the economy of Gujiao is based on coal-related industries, with major companies in coal, coal-chemistry, metallic parts casting, construction materials, etc.

Gujiao is the largest production cite of coking coal in China. Gujiao was part of the State of Jin during the Spring and Autumn period, part of Zhao in the Warring States period, it was the western part of Jinyang throughout the following dynasties of Han, Wei and Northern Dynasties. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the part of Gujiao to the south of Fen River, the majority part of nowadays Gujiao, was part of Jiaocheng County and the minor part to the north of Fen River was part of Yangqu County. In the year 596 AD in Sui dynasty, the western part of Jinyang was separated to set up the county of Jiaocheng, the county seat was in Gujiao. In 691 AD, the county seat of Jiaocheng was moved to Dalingzhuang, part of today's Jiaocheng County, in order to get easier access of the national roads of Sui dynasty. In 713 AD, the northern part of Jiaocheng County is separated to set up Luchuan County, with the county seat at Luyukou at today's Gujiao. In 714, the Luchuan county was removed, divided by the Fen River, Gujiao was split between Jiaocheng County and Yangqu County after, for more than one thousand years.

In 1958, Gujiao industrial and mining district of Taiyuan was established. In 1988, the district was replaced with a county-level city, it has remained so since. Gujiao is abundant with many minerals coal; the coal mine is with the coal reserve of about 8.04 billion tons. The iron core reserve is about 30 million tons; the bauxite reserve is about 65.9 million tons. The limestone reserve is about 5.6 million tons. The dolomite reserve is about 2.65 billion tons. The coalbed methane reserve is about 5.66 billion cubic meters. - Gujiao City, Shanxi Province, Official Net