SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Human genome

The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. These are treated separately as the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome. Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells consist of three billion DNA base pairs, while diploid genomes have twice the DNA content. While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals, these are smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the bonobos and chimpanzees; the first human genome sequences were published in nearly complete draft form in February 2001 by the Human Genome Project and Celera Corporation. Completion of the Human Genome Project's sequencing effort was announced in 2004 with the publication of a draft genome sequence, leaving just 341 gaps in the sequence, representing highly-repetitive and other DNA that could not be sequenced with the technology available at the time.

The human genome was the first of all vertebrates to be sequenced to such near-completion, as of 2018, the diploid genomes of over a million individual humans had been determined using next-generation sequencing. These data are used worldwide in biomedical science, anthropology and other branches of science; such genomic studies have led to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, to new insights in many fields of biology, including human evolution. Although the sequence of the human genome has been determined by DNA sequencing, it is not yet understood. Most genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression, organization of chromosome architecture, signals controlling epigenetic inheritance.

Prior to the acquisition of the full genome sequence, estimates of the number of human genes ranged from 50,000 to 140,000. As genome sequence quality and the methods for identifying protein-coding genes improved, the count of recognized protein-coding genes dropped to 19,000-20,000. However, a fuller understanding of the role played by genes expressing regulatory RNAs that do not encode proteins has raised the total number of genes to at least 46,831, plus another 2300 micro-RNA genes. By 2012, functional DNA elements that encode neither RNA nor proteins have been noted, and another 10% equivalent of human genome was found in a recent population survey. Protein-coding sequences account for only a small fraction of the genome, the rest is associated with non-coding RNA genes, regulatory DNA sequences, LINEs, SINEs, sequences for which as yet no function has been determined. In June 2016, scientists formally announced a plan to synthesize the human genome; the total length of the human genome is over 3 billion base pairs.

The genome is organized into 22 paired chromosomes, termed autosomes, plus the 23rd pair of sex chromosomes in the female, in the male. These are all large linear DNA molecules contained within the cell nucleus; the genome includes the mitochondrial DNA, a comparatively small circular molecule present in each mitochondrion. Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. Table 1 summarizes the physical organization and gene content of the human reference genome, with links to the original analysis, as published in the Ensembl database at the European Bioinformatics Institute and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Chromosome lengths were estimated by multiplying the number of base pairs by 0.34 nanometers, the distance between base pairs in the DNA double helix. A recent estimation of human chromosome lengths based on updated data reports 205.00 cm for the diploid male genome and 208.23 cm for female, corresponding to weights of 6.41 and 6.51 picograms, respectively.

The number of proteins is based on the number of initial precursor mRNA transcripts, does not include products of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, or modifications to protein structure that occur after translation. The number of genes in the human genome is not clear because the function of numerous transcripts remains unclear; this is true for non-coding RNA. The number of protein-coding genes is better known but there are still on the order of 1,400 questionable genes which may or may not encode functional proteins encoded by short open reading frames. Table 2 shows these discrepancies. Variations are unique DNA sequence differences that have been identified in the individual human genome sequences analyzed by Ensembl as of December 2016; the number of identified variations is expected to inc

Key Largo (film)

Key Largo is a 1948 American film noir crime drama directed by John Huston and starring Humphrey Bogart, Edward G. Robinson and Lauren Bacall; the supporting cast features Claire Trevor. The film was adapted by Richard Brooks and Huston from Maxwell Anderson's 1939 play of the same name, which played on Broadway for 105 performances in 1939 and 1940. Key Largo was the fourth and final film pairing of actors Bogart and Bacall, after To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, although they appeared together in a television version of The Petrified Forest with Henry Fonda, as a 1955 episode of the anthology series Producer's Showcase. Claire Trevor won the 1948 Oscar for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for her performance as a drunken ex-singer, a former moll of Robinson's character. Army veteran Frank McCloud arrives at the Hotel Largo in Key Largo, visiting the family of George Temple, a friend who served under him and was killed in the Italian campaign several years before, he meets with the friend's widow Nora father James, who owns the hotel.

Because the winter vacation season has ended and a hurricane is approaching, the hotel has only six guests: dapper Toots, boorish Curly, stone-faced Ralph, servant Angel, attractive but aging alcoholic Gaye Dawn, a sixth man who remains secluded in his room. The visitors claim to be in the Florida Keys for fishing. Frank tells Nora and James about George's heroism under fire and shares some small and cherished details that George had spoken of. Nora and her father-in-law seem taken with Frank, stating that George mentioned Frank in his letters. While preparing the hotel for the hurricane, the three are interrupted by Sheriff Ben Wade and his deputy Sawyer, they are searching for a pair of fugitive American Indians. Soon after the police leave, the local Seminoles seek shelter at the hotel, among them the Osceola brothers; as the storm approaches, Ralph and Toots pull guns and take the Temples and Frank hostage. They explain that the sixth member of their party is notorious gangster Johnny Rocco, exiled to Cuba some years before.

Rocco is waiting for his Miami contacts to arrive to conclude a deal. The gang discover Deputy Sawyer capture him. A tense standoff ensues. Frank declines to fight a duel with Rocco, stating his belief in self-preservation over heroics and that "one Rocco more or less isn't worth dying for”. Rocco shoots Sawyer, Rocco's men take Sawyer's body out on a rowboat in the approaching storm and drop it in the ocean; the storm rages outside. Inside, Rocco forces his former moll, Gaye, to sing for them but demeans her. In contrast, Frank politely ignores Rocco's slaps. Nora understands that Frank's heroism matches her husband's, killed around Monte Cassino in Italy. Mr. Temple invites Frank to live with them at a prospect that intrigues Nora; the storm subsides. Sheriff Wade returns looking for Deputy Sawyer; when the sheriff discovers his deputy's body washed up by the storm on the hotel driveway in his car's headlights, Rocco blames Sawyer's death on the Osceola brothers. Wade kills them both before leaving with Sawyer's body.

Rocco's contact Ziggy arrives to buy a large amount of counterfeit money. Rocco forces Frank, a skilled seaman, to take him and his henchmen back to Cuba on the smaller hotel boat; as the gang prepares to board the boat, Gaye covertly passes it to Frank. Out on the Straits of Florida, Frank uses seamanship and the stolen gun to kill the gang members one by one, he heads back to Key Largo, while radioing for Coast Guard help and to get a message to the hotel. Meanwhile, Gaye tells Wade. Wade mentions that Ziggy's gang leaves with Gaye to identify them; the phone rings: James and Nora are delighted to hear that Frank is returning safely. Nora opens the shutters to the sun. In addition, Jay Silverheels and Rodd Redwing appear in uncredited roles as John and Tom Osceola, respectively; the script was adapted from a 1939 play by Maxwell Anderson. In the play, the gangsters are Mexican bandidos, the war in question is the Spanish Civil War, Frank is a disgraced deserter who dies at the end. Robinson had top billing over Bogart in their four previous films together: Bullets or Ballots, Kid Galahad, The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse and Brother Orchid, but the situation switched for the billing in this final film.

In at least one trailer for the film, Robinson is billed above Bogart in a list of the actors' names at the end of the preview, photographs exist of Robinson being billed above Bogart on some theatre marquees. In the film itself and in posters, Robinson's name is between Bogart's and Bacall's but higher than the other two. In some posters, Robinson's picture is larger than Bogart's, in the foreground while Bogart is in the background; the film was shot at the Warner Bros. studio in Burbank, California, in order to keep costs down. The beach and hotel exterior were constructed on the Warner Bros. backlot. Exterior shots of the hurricane were taken from stock footage used in Night Unto Night, a Ronald Reagan melodrama which Warner Bros. produced in 1948. Filming took 78 days; the boat used by Rocco'

RC Bystrc

RC Bystrc is a Czech rugby club in Brno. As the name implies, they are based in the Bystrc district of the city, they play in the KB Extraliga, having won the KB První Liga in 2008. Rugby in the Czechoslovakia was much affected following the nationwide restructuring of Physical Education and Sport in 1953; the Sokol Zbrojovka Brno club split in Spartak Zbrojovka Brno and Slavia VŠ Brno. The club played in the Řečkovice, Pisárky, Tuřany, Kníničky areas of Brno as well as the town of Šlapanice and the village of Troubsko, before managing to secure their present home ground, the Sportovní areá Ondreje Sekory, at Bystrc. První KB Liga 2008 1953 - 1959 Slavia VŠ Brno 1960 - 1975 Slavia VSŽ Brno 1976–1981 Ingstav Brno 1982–1999 Lokomotiva-Ingstav Brno 2000 – RC Bystrc Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Head Coach: Pavel Vrána Assistant Coach: Roman Bačík Conditioning Coach: Karel Walter RC Bystrc