Craps is a dice game in which the players make wagers on the outcome of the roll, or a series of rolls, of a pair of dice. Players may wager money against a bank; because it requires little equipment, "street craps" can be played in informal settings. While shooting craps, players may use slang terminology to place actions. In 1788 "Krabs" was an English variation on the dice game Hasard. Craps developed in the United States from a simplification of the western European game of hazard; the origins of hazard may date to the Crusades. Hazard was brought from London to New Orleans in 1805 by the returning Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville, the young gambler and scion of a family of wealthy landowners in colonial Louisiana. Although in hazard the dice shooter may choose any number from five to nine to be his main number, de Marigny simplified the game such that the main number is always seven, the mathematically optimal choice. Both hazard and its simpler derivative were unfamiliar to and rejected by Americans of his social class, leading de Marigny to introduce his novelty to the local underclass.
Fieldhands taught their friends and deckhands carried the new game up the Mississippi River and its tributaries. Celebrating the popular success of his novelty, de Marigny gave the name Rue de Craps to a street in his new subdivision in New Orleans; the central game, called Pass from the French word Pas meaning pace or step, has been supplemented over the decades by many companion games which can be played with Pass. Now applied to the entire collection of games, the name craps derives from an underclass Louisiana mispronunciation of the word crabs, which in aristocratic London had been the epithet for the numbers two and three. In hazard, both crabs are always instant losing numbers for the first dice roll regardless of the shooter's selected main number. In hazard, if the main number is seven the number twelve is added to the crabs as a losing number on the first dice roll; this structure is retained in the simplified game called Pass. All three losing numbers on the first roll of Pass are jointly called the craps numbers.
For a century after its invention, craps was abused by casinos using unfair dice. To remedy the problem, in 1907 a dice maker named John H. Winn in Philadelphia introduced a layout which featured bets on Don't Pass as well as Pass. All modern casinos use his innovation, which provides incentive for casinos to use fair dice. Craps exploded in popularity during World War II, which brought most young American men of every social class into the military; the street version of craps was popular among servicemembers who played it using a blanket as a shooting surface. Their military memories led to craps becoming the dominant casino game in postwar Las Vegas and the Caribbean. After 1960 a few casinos in Europe and Macau began offering craps and after 2004 online casinos extended its spread globally. Bank craps or casino craps is played by one or more players betting against the casino rather than each other. Both the players and the dealers stand around a large rectangular craps table. Sitting is discouraged by most casinos.
Players use casino chips rather than cash to bet on the Craps "layout," a fabric surface which displays the various bets. The bets vary somewhat among casinos in availability and payouts; the tables resemble bathtubs and come in various sizes. In some locations, chips may be called tokens, or plaques. Against one long side is the casino's table bank: as many as two thousand casino chips in stacks of 20; the opposite long side is a long mirror. The U-shaped ends of the table have duplicate layouts and standing room for eight players. In the center of the layout is an additional group of bets which are used by players from both ends; the vertical walls at each end are covered with a rubberized target surface covered with small pyramid shapes to randomize the dice which strike them. The top edges of the table walls have one or two horizontal grooves in which players may store their reserve chips; the table is run by up to four casino employees: a boxman seated behind the casino's bank, who manages the chips, supervises the dealers, handles "coloring up" players.
Each employee watches for mistakes by the others because of the sometimes large number of bets and frantic pace of the game. In smaller casinos or at quiet times of day, one or more of these employees may be missing, have their job covered by another, or cause player capacity to be reduced; some smaller casinos have introduced "mini-craps" tables. Responsibility of the dealers is adjusted: the stickman continuing to handle the center bets, the base dealer handling the other bets as well as cash and chip exchanges. By contrast, in "
Zephyrhills Municipal Airport is a public use airport in Pasco County, United States. It is owned by the City of Zephyrhills and located one nautical mile southeast of its central business district; this airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. Opened in January 1942, the airport was used by the United States Army Air Forces the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics tactical combat simulation school headquartered at Orlando Army Air Base; the military use of the airport ended on October 31, 1944, in 1947 the airport was deeded to the city, which has run it since. Zephyrhills Municipal Airport covers an area of 813 acres at an elevation of 90 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways with asphalt surfaces: 5/23 is 4,999 by 100 feet and 19/01 is 4,954 by 100 feet. For the 12-month period ending December 11, 2009, the airport had 37,750 aircraft operations, an average of 103 per day: 98% general aviation, 1.6% military, 0.4% air taxi.
At that time there were 174 aircraft based at this airport: 82% single-engine, 11% multi-engine, 3% glider, 2% helicopter, 1.7% ultralight. This airport has a long history of skydiving the longest continuous history of skydiving at any U. S. airport. Skydive City, Inc. founded in 1990, operates a skydiving center, or drop zone, on the southeast side of the airport. The predecessor drop zone was Phoenix Parachute Center, operated by George Kabeller, just north of the current drop zone. Prior to that, a drop zone was operated on the southwest side of the airport. Jim Hooper became the manager of Zephyrhills Parachute Center in December, 1976. Si Fraser owned The Zephyrhills Parachute Center; the drop zone was managed by Searles. On March 23, 2013, two skydivers at Skydive City, Orvar Arnarson, 41, student Andrimar Pordarson, 25 were found dead after their reserve parachutes did not inflate before impact. On April 20, 1993, Douglas C-47B N8056 of Phoenix Air was written off in a wheels-up landing at Zephyrhills following an engine failure while engaged in a parachuting flight based at the airport.
An investigation by the NTSB found. The pilot's type rating for the DC-3 was suspended following the accident with the requirement that he should pass a Federal Aviation Administration proficiency check before it was restored. List of airports in the Tampa Bay area Zephyrhills Municipal Airport at City of Zephyrhills website Aerial image as of May 2002 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for ZPH, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for ZPH AirNav airport information for KZPH ASN accident history for ZPH FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Lamotrek is a coral atoll of three islands in the central Caroline Islands in the Pacific Ocean, forms a legislative district in Yap State in the Federated States of Micronesia. The atoll is located 11 kilometres east of Elato; the population of Lamotrek was 373 in 2000, living on 1 km2. The atoll is 11.5 kilometres long northeast-southeast, up to 6.5 kilometres wide. Its total land area is only 0.982 square kilometres, but it encloses a lagoon of 32 square kilometres. Among the individual islets are the following: Falaite Pugue Lamotrek Before European rule, Lamotrek was invaded by Ifalik during Mweoiush's reign, with aid from the Mailiyas; as with all of the Caroline Islands, sovereignty passed to the Empire of Germany in 1899. The island came under the control of the Empire of Japan after World War I, was subsequently administered under the South Pacific Mandate. Following World War II, the island came under the control of the United States of America and was administered as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands from 1947, became part of the Federated States of Micronesia from 1979.
Werle, Kerstin J. S.: Landscape of Peace: Mechanisms of Social Control on Lamotrek Atoll, Micronesia.. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS, 2014. ISBN 978-3-658-05831-9. Vol. 1, p. 900 Entry at Oceandots.com at the Wayback Machine Lamotrek Site on Triton Films