Crater Lake National Park is an American national park located in southern Oregon. Established in 1902, Crater Lake is the fifth-oldest national park in the United States and the only national park in Oregon; the park encompasses the caldera of Crater Lake, a remnant of a destroyed volcano, Mount Mazama, the surrounding hills and forests. The lake is 1,949 feet deep at its deepest point, which makes it the deepest lake in the United States, the second-deepest in North America and the ninth-deepest in the world. Crater Lake is referred to as the seventh-deepest lake in the world, but this former listing excludes the 3,000-foot depth of subglacial Lake Vostok in Antarctica, which resides under nearly 13,000 feet of ice, the recent report of a 2,740-foot maximum depth for Lake O'Higgins/San Martin, located on the border of Chile and Argentina. However, when comparing its average depth of 1,148 feet to the average depth of other deep lakes, Crater Lake becomes the deepest in the Western Hemisphere and the third-deepest in the world.
The impressive average depth of this volcanic lake is due to the nearly symmetrical 4,000-foot-deep caldera formed 7,700 years ago during the violent climactic eruptions and subsequent collapse of Mount Mazama and the moist climate, typical of the crest of the Cascade Range. The caldera rim ranges in elevation from 7,000 to 8,000 feet; the United States Geological Survey benchmarked elevation of the lake surface is 6,178 feet. The national park encompasses 183,224 acres. Crater Lake has no streams flowing out of it. All water that enters the lake is lost from evaporation or subsurface seepage; the lake's water has a striking blue hue, the lake is refilled from direct precipitation in the form of snow and rain. Volcanic activity in this area is fed by subduction off the coast of Oregon as the Juan de Fuca Plate slips below the North American Plate. Heat and compression generated by this movement has created a mountain chain topped by a series of volcanoes, which together are called the Cascade Range.
The large volcanoes in the range are called the High Cascades. However, there are many other volcanoes in the range as well. About 400,000 years ago, Mount Mazama began its existence in much the same way as the other mountains of the High Cascades, as overlapping shield volcanoes. Over time, alternating layers of lava flows and pyroclastic flows built Mazama's overlapping cones until it reached about 11,000 feet in height; as the young stratovolcano grew, many smaller volcanoes and volcanic vents were built in the area of the park and just outside what are now the park's borders. Chief among these were cinder cones. Although the early examples are gone—cinder cones erode easily—there are at least 13 much younger cinder cones in the park, at least another 11 or so outside its borders, that still retain their distinctive cinder cone appearance. There continues to be debate as to whether these minor volcanoes and vents were parasitic to Mazama's magma chamber and system or if they were related to background Oregon Cascade volcanism.
After a period of dormancy, Mazama became active again. Around 5700 BC, Mazama collapsed into itself during a tremendous volcanic eruption, losing 2,500 to 3,500 feet in height; the eruption formed a large caldera that, depending on the prevailing climate, was filled in about 740 years, forming a beautiful lake with a deep blue hue, known today as Crater Lake. The eruptive period that decapitated Mazama laid waste to much of the greater Crater Lake area and deposited ash as far east as the northwest corner of what is now Yellowstone National Park, as far south as central Nevada, as far north as southern British Columbia, it produced more than 150 times as much ash as the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens; this ash has since developed a soil type called andisol. Soils in Crater Lake National Park are brown, dark brown or dark grayish-brown sandy loams or loamy sands which have plentiful cobbles and stones, they are to moderately acidic and their drainage is somewhat excessive. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Crater Lake National Park has a Continental Subarctic - Cold Dry Summer.
The plant hardiness zone at the lake is 6b with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of -3.7 °F. Snow is rare at low elevations in western Oregon, but it is common at higher elevations at Crater Lake. Measurements at park headquarters, 6,475 feet above sea level, show that snow falls more here than at any other long-term weather station in Oregon. Winter, which begins at the park in September and runs through June, includes an average of 98 days with measurable snowfall. Up to 37 inches of snow have fallen on the park in a single day, 313 inches in a month, 903 inches in a year. Snow accumulates in the park to depths of 10 to 15 feet by early spring. Most of the park's roads remain closed through late spring, snow lingers into the summer. In July and August, snowfall is uncommon, "one magnificent day follows another". January is the coldest month, when highs average about 35 °F and lows average about 18 °F. August is the warmest month, with an average high of 69 °F and an average low of about 40 °F.
Between 1962 and 1990, the highest recorded temperature was 90 °F, the lowest was −21 °F. Annual precipitation averages about 66 inches a year. December is the wett
The Galician People's Assembly was a political organization founded on October 10, 1976 by a splinter group of the Galician National-Popular Assembly. The APG considered AN-PG to close to the Galician People's Union, its leaders were César Portela, Carlos Vázquez and Mario López Rico. The organization held its first congress in December 1976; the APG supported the Galician Socialist Party, a splinter of the agrarian union Comisións Labregas, called Comisións Labregas Terra and the Comités de Traballadores Galegos. The APG participated in the launching of the magazine Teima; the APG ceased to exist on December 4, 1977. Beramendi, X. G. and Núñez Seixas, X. M.: O nacionalismo galego. A Nosa Terra, Vigo Beramendi, X. G.: De provincia a nación. Historia do galeguismo político. Xerais, Vigo Manuel Anxo Fernández Baz, A formación do nacionalismo galego contemporáneo, Laiovento, 2003
Monique T. D. Truong is a Vietnamese American writer living in New York. In 1975, at the age of 6, she and her mother left Vietnam for the United States as refugees of the Vietnam War, her father, a high level executive for an international oil company stayed behind for work but left the country as well after the fall of Saigon. The family lived in North Carolina and Houston, Texas. Truong completed her undergraduate studies at Yale University, graduating in 1990 with a B. A. in Literature. She attended Columbia University School of Law. Truong co-edited the anthology Watermark: Vietnamese American Poetry & Prose with Barbara Tran and Khoi Truong Luu. One of her co-editors suggested that she apply for a Van Lier fellowship, which allowed her to take two months off from her law firm to write what would become her first novel, The Book of Salt. Truong had the inspiration for this novel in college. Toklas Cookbook. Truong was intrigued to discover that Toklas and Stein had had two "Indo-Chinese" men who cooked for them at two of their French residences.
Published in 2003, The Book of Salt won numerous literary awards, including the New York Public Library Young Lions Award and the Bard Fiction Prize. It takes place in post-World War I Paris, tells the story of Binh, a Vietnamese cook, after spending years working for Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, must decide whether to travel with his employers to the United States, return to Vietnam, or remain in France; the novel explores themes of sexuality, diaspora and national identity. Truong serves as vice president of The Authors Guild. Watermark: Vietnamese American Poetry & Prose, co-edited with Barbara Tran and Khoi Truong Luu The Book of Salt Bitter in the Mouth The Sweetest Fruits Vietnam: Identities in Dialogue Bold Words: A Century of Asian American Writing An Interethnic Companion to Asian American Literature "Kelly". "Kelly", in Amerasia Journal, 17.2 Yale University's The Vietnam Forum Yale University Columbia Law School Asian American Writers' Workshop Van Lier Fellowship Lannan Foundation Writing Residency Residencies at the Liguria Study Center, Yaddo and the Fundacion Valparaiso 2011 American Academy of Art and Letters Rosenthal Family Foundation Award for Bitter in the Mouth 2010 Guggenheim Fellowship 2007 Princeton University Lewis Center for the Arts Hodder Fellowship 2004 New York Public Library Young Lions Fiction Award Winner for The Book of Salt 2004 Bard Fiction Prize for The Book of Salt 2004 PEN Oakland/Josephine Miles Award 2004 PEN/Robert Bingham Award for The Book of Salt 2004 Stonewall Book Award—Barbara Gittings Literature Award for The Book of Salt Author's website Publisher's website