Cream were a British rock band formed in London in 1966. The group consisted of bassist Jack Bruce, guitarist Eric Clapton, drummer Ginger Baker. Bruce was the primary songwriter and vocalist, although Clapton and Baker sang and contributed songs. Formed from members of successful bands, they are regarded as the world's first supergroup. Cream were regarded for the instrumental proficiency of each of their members. Tensions between Bruce and Baker led to their decision in May 1968 to break up, though the band were persuaded to make a final album, to tour, culminating in two final farewell concerts at the Royal Albert Hall on 25 and 26 November 1968 which were filmed by the BBC and shown in theatres in 1977 released as a home video, Farewell Concert, their music spanned many genres of rock music, including blues rock, psychedelic rock, hard rock. In their career, they sold more than 15 million records worldwide; the group's third album, Wheels of Fire, is the world's first platinum-selling double album.
In 1993, Cream were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. They were included in both Rolling Stone and VH1's lists of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", at number 67 and 61 respectively, they were ranked number 16 on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock". By July 1966, Eric Clapton's career with the Yardbirds and John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers had earned him a reputation as the premier blues guitarist in Britain. Clapton, found the environment of Mayall's band confining, sought to expand his playing in a new band. In 1966, Clapton met Ginger Baker the leader of the Graham Bond Organisation, which at one point featured Jack Bruce on bass guitar and piano. Baker felt stifled in the Graham Bond Organisation and had grown tired of Graham Bond's drug addictions and bouts of mental instability. "I had always liked Ginger", explained Clapton. "Ginger had come to see me play with the Bluesbreakers. After the gig he drove me back to London in his Rover. I was impressed with his car and driving, he was telling me that he wanted to start a band, I had been thinking about it too."Each was impressed with the other's playing abilities, prompting Baker to ask Clapton to join his new, then-unnamed group.
Clapton agreed, on the condition that Baker hire Bruce as the group's bassist. Clapton had met Bruce when the bassist/vocalist played with the Bluesbreakers in November 1965. Impressed with Bruce's vocals and technical prowess, Clapton wanted to work with him on an ongoing basis. In contrast, while Bruce was in Bond's band, he and Baker had been notorious for their quarrelling, their volatile relationship included the sabotage of one another's instruments. After Baker fired Bruce from the band, Bruce continued to arrive for gigs. Baker and Bruce tried to put aside their differences for the good of Baker's new trio, which he envisioned as collaborative, with each of the members contributing to music and lyrics; the band was named "Cream", as Clapton and Baker were considered the "cream of the crop" amongst blues and jazz musicians in the exploding British music scene. The group were referred to and billed as "The Cream", but starting with its first record releases, the trio came to be known as "Cream".
Despite this, the band was referred to as "The Cream" on several occasions by promoters and disc jockeys, on occasion by the band members themselves. Before deciding upon "Cream", the band considered calling themselves "Sweet'n' Sour Rock'n' Roll". Of the trio, Clapton had the biggest reputation in England; the band made its unofficial debut at the Twisted Wheel on 29 July 1966. Its official debut came two nights at the Sixth Annual Windsor Jazz & Blues Festival. Being new and with few original songs to its credit, they performed blues reworkings that thrilled the large crowd and earned it a warm reception. In October the band got a chance to jam with Jimi Hendrix, who had arrived in London. Hendrix was a fan of Clapton's music, wanted a chance to play with him onstage, it was during the early organisation that they decided Bruce would serve as the group's lead vocalist. While Clapton was shy about singing, he harmonised with Bruce and, in time, took lead vocals on several Cream tracks including "Four Until Late", "Strange Brew", "World of Pain", "Outside Woman Blues", "Crossroads", "Badge".
The band's debut album, Fresh Cream, was recorded and released in 1966. The album reached number 6 in the UK charts and number 39 in the US, it was evenly split between self-penned originals and blues covers, including "Four Until Late", "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Spoonful", "I'm So Glad" and "Cat's Squirrel". The rest of the songs were written by either Jack Ginger Baker; the track "Toad" contained one of the earliest examples of a drum solo in rock music as Ginger Baker expanded upon his early composition "Camels and Elephants", written in 1965 with the Graham Bond Organisation. Early Cream bootlegs display a much tighter band showcasing more songs. All of the songs are reasonably short, including five-minute versions of "N. S. U.", "S
State Highway 214 or SH 214 is a Texas state highway that runs from Adrian to Seminole. The route was designated on January 18, 1935 from Muleshoe to the Bailey County Line. On July 15, 1935, SH 214 was cancelled. SH 214 was restored on May 18, 1937, extended south to Morton on May 24, 1938. SH 214 was extended to Plains on December 1, 1938. SH 214 was extended north to Friona on December 21, 1938. SH 214 was extended to Seminole on April 1, 1939. On March 27, 1940, The section from Friona south to Muleshoe was removed. On August 27, 1940, the section of SH 214 through Yoakum County was cancelled. On December 19, 1940, the section from Plains south to the Yoakum/Gaines County Line was added back. On May 29, 1941, the section from the Yoakum/Cochran County Line to Plains was added back. On December 13, 1956, an extension of SH 214 to Adrian along FM 299 to Friona, FM 1412 and FM 290 to Adrian was signed, but not designated. On June 10, 1966, the extension to Friona was designated, replacing FM 299.
On January 30, 1976 SH 214 was rerouted in Friona with the old route transferred to FM 2397 Spur and Spur 270. On August 29, 1990, the extension to Adrian was designated, replacing part of FM 1412 and all of FM 290
"Coca-Cola Cowboy" is a song written by Steve Dorff, Sandy Pinkard, Sam Atchley and Bud Dain, recorded by American country music artist Mel Tillis. It was released in June 1979 as the first single from the album Mr. Entertainer; the song was featured in the film, Every Which Way but Loose, starring Clint Eastwood and the film Bandit Goes Country starring Brian Bloom. "Coca-Cola Cowboy" was Tillis' fifth number one on the U. S. country singles chart, where it spent one week at the top and a total of eleven weeks on the chart. When Tillis performs the song in Every Which Way but Loose, one line of the lyrics is changed; the line "You've got an Eastwood smile and Robert Redford hair," is changed to "You've got a sexist smile and Robert Redford hair," to avoid referencing the film's star Clint Eastwood, in the audience as part of the film
The Shaughraun is a melodramatic play written by Irish playwright Dion Boucicault. It was first performed at Wallack's Theatre, New York, on 14 November 1874. Boucicault played Conn in the original production; the play was a huge success. Robert Ffolliott, fiancé of Arte O'Neale, has returned to Ireland after escaping from transportation to Australia, he was in part sent as a result of Kinchela's desire for ownership of the O’Neale property. However, two things stand in Kinchela's way: a curse on the property that brings death to all inhabitants that are not a part of certain Irish gentry families, the engagement of Robert to Arte. Kinchela thus conspires with police informant Harvey Duff to have Robert arrested as a Fenian fugitive, sent on a ship to Australia; however the true nature of Robert’s possible Fenian political status and theoretical involvement is left ambiguous throughout the play. Kinchela defrauds Claire and Arte by lowering the rent of the properties surrounding theirs, deceitfully forcing them to have him purchase the property.
Robert escapes due to Conn the Shaughraun conning his way onto the ship. The two of them con their way onto another ship heading back to Ireland and Robert is reunited with Arte at Father Dolan’s. Robert sees Duff’s face in the window and begins to panic, but Duff flees before the others can see him as well. Molineaux searches the house for Robert with great disdain, willing to call off the search if he receives the trustworthy word of a catholic priest. Father Dolan struggles unable to lie, Robert gives himself up so that the Father does not need to. Kinchela receives a letter detailing the Queen's pardoning of the Fenians. Kinchela and Duff fear the freedom of Robert foiling their plans, so they plot to kill him by having Kinchela come to Robert as a'friend' and convince him of an escape plan having the police intercept and shoot him due to their current inclination to result to "extreme measures". Conn interferes with their plans, bursting Robert out of prison and playing the red herring so the henchmen shoot him dead.
However, he is not dead, but uses the faking of his death and following wake to assist in catching the culprits. Meanwhile and Duff abduct Arte and Moya, planning to take them away with them. Robert's sister, Claire Ffolliott, is in love with an English soldier, Captain Molineaux, tracking down Fenians in the area, she can not decide whether or not to betray the Captain. She takes the side of her brother, fooling Molineaux and leading him away, but cannot go through with it and comes clean to him; the wake is held for Conn, allowing him to eavesdrop on the henchmen and discover Arte and Moya's location. Molineaux, having received news of the pardon, joins Conn to catch the culprits. Meanwhile and Moya overthrow Duff and Kinchela, all ends well; the Fenians receive a general amnesty, the couples marry, Kinchela is arrested, Harvey Duff falls off a cliff. Arte O'Neale Robert Ffolliott Captain Molineux Claire Ffolliott Father Dolan Conn Corry Kinchela Harvey Duff Sergeant Jones Mrs. O'Kelly Moya The Shaughraun was met with great success upon its first production in New York.
Understandably so as the play possesses a sort of Fenian hero, the United States is credited as the country where the Fenian movement was first initiated. It was met with equal success in its London production; the original production and cast is praised by the protagonist, Newland Archer, in Edith Wharton's 1920 novel The Age of Innocence, set in 1870s New York. Theatre poster from performances at Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh in 1885
The Torneo Gran Alternativa was the first CMLL Torneo Gran Alternativa professional wrestling tournament held by the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The tournament was held on June 7, 1996, in Mexico City, Mexico at Arena México; the Gran Alternativa tournament features tag teams composed of a rookie, or novato, a veteran wrestler for an elimination tournament. The idea is to feature the novato wrestlers higher on the card that they work and help elevate one or more up the ranks; the tournament would be the first of two Gran Alternativa tournaments that CMLL would hold in 1996, with a subsequent tournament held November. It was one of only two years. Since It is a professional wrestling tournament, it is not won or lost competitively but instead by the decisions of the bookers of a wrestling promotion, not publicized prior to the shows to maintain the illusion that professional wrestling is a competitive sport; the veteran group consisted of Dos Caras, Bestia Salvaje, El Felino, El Hijo del Santo, El Brazo and Apolo Dantés while the rookie group included Bronco, Chicago Express, Astro Rey Jr. Olímpico, Guerrero de la Muerte and Rey Bucanero.
The final saw Bestia Salvaje and Chicago Express defeat Atlantis and Atlantico to win the tournament. The win did not signal anything major for Chicago Express as he remained in the low card matches while in CMLL. Starting in 1994 the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre created a special tournament concept where they would team up a novato, or rookie, with a veteran for a single-elimination tag team tournament with the purpose of increasing the profile of the rookie wrestler. CMLL had used a similar concept in August 1994 where Novato Shocker teamed up with veterans Ringo Mendoza and Brazo de Plata to defeat novato Apolo Dantés and veterans Gran Markus Jr. and El Brazo in the finals of a six-man tag team tournament. CMLL would modified the concept to two-man tag teams instead, creating a tournament that would be known as El Torneo Gran Alternativa, or "The Great Alternative Tournament", which became a recurring event on the CMLL calendar. CMLL did not hold a Gran Alternativa tournament in 1997 and 2000 held on each year from 2001 through 2014, opting not to hold a tournament in 2015.
The Gran Alternativa tournament victory marked the highlight of Chicago Express' tenure in CMLL, he remained in the mid-card and would lose his three Luchas de Apuestas between 1996 and 1999 when he retired
Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, created in 2009 by Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, aims in gathering and manage the iron fund from which income shall finance long-term, global preservation program of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial Site. The main objective of the Foundation is to look after the Memorial Site – the grounds and remnants of the former concentration camp KL Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II Birkenau concentration camp supervised by the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, as well as to support the Museum's mission; the aim is to be accomplished through the collection of funds for conservation and financing the conservation works. The funds are collected for the Foundation's Perpetual Fund. According to the objectives of the Foundation, the annual interest from the Fund of 120 million EUR, would allow for planned and systematic conservation work; the Foundation was registered in Warsaw, Poland in April 2009, but 2 months earlier, the Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk sent letters to dozens countries requesting assistance in the construction of a proposed iron fund of 120 million euro.
On December 16, 2009, Germany took a joint decision, federal-lands, to donate to the fund 60 million euros in five equal installments from 2011 to 2015. However, in June 2010, Germany decided to send additional 120,000 euros to cover the costs of running the office of the Foundation. At a 2019 ceremony marking the 10th anniversary of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany announced another 60 million euro donation to help preserve the site. In February 2010, Austria announced a payment of 6,000,000 euros. In July 2010, United States pledged $15,000,000. In July 2010, United States of America declared donation of US$15 million. In May 2011 Great Britain declared support of the fund in the amount of 2,15 million GBP. On October 5, 2011 President of Poland, Bronisław Komorowski, signed special act according to which Poland supported the fund in the amount of 10 million EUR. Prime Minister of State of Israel, Benyamin Netanyahu, declared support of 3.6 million NIS. In December 2011, prime minister of France declared 5 million EUR of support for the fund.
Smaller amounts to the fund had been donated by Australia, Azerbaijan, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Vatican. And by the cities of Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, Kołobrzeg. Four separate bodies of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation ensure the transparency and accountability of their respective work, all of, of crucial importance to the Foundation; the Foundation's Statutes regulate the structural and functional integrity of the process behind the creation and management of the Perpetual Capital. Moreover, the Foundation has established a professional relationship with two renowned companies that advise it on legal matters and bookkeeping. All of these factors emphasize the Foundation's primary objective of securing the safety of the Perpetual Capital and guaranteeing transparency with respect to the disposal of funds. Current President of the Management Board of the Foundation is Piotr Cywiński, PhD. In the Management Board sit also: Łukasz Rozdeiczer, Rafał Pióro and Jacek Kastelaniec, the Director General of the Auschwitz Birkenau Foundation.
The Foundation's Council sit: Władysław Bartoszewski - Council's Chairman and Founder, Eleonora Bergman, Henry Flug, Piotr Kadlčik, Serge Klarsfeld, Edward Kosakowski, Paweł Machcewicz, Agnieszka Magdziak-Miszewska, Zbigniew Nosowski, Jürgen Rüttgers, Kalman Sultanik, Józef Wancer, Marek Zając, abp. Józef Życiński; the work of the Foundation's is being supervised by the International Committee, composed by representatives of countries whose governments have donated for the Perpetual Fund of the Foundation. So far, these countries are: Germany, the United States, and also: Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Sweden, Kingdom of Norway, the Swiss Confederation and the Republic of Estonia. The Council The Foundation's Council is the decision-making and opinion forming body; the tasks of the Council include appointing and recalling members of the Foundation's Management Board, supervising its decisions and defining the main aims of the Foundation's activities. Members of the Council Władysław Bartoszewski - former prisoner of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, co-founder of the Żegota Jewish Aid Council, chairman of the International Auschwitz Council and the Board for the Protection of the Memory of Combat and Martyrdom, Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Government of the Polish Republic, Secretary of State in the Chancellery of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Plenipotentiary for International Dialogue.
Eleonora Bergman – director of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, member of the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, member of the International Consultative Council creating the new main exhibition at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Henryk Flug – former prisoner of Nazi concentration camps, chairman of the Center of Organizations of Holocaust Survivors and the International Auschwitz Committee, member of the International Auschwitz Council. Piotr Kadlčik – chairman of the Union of Jewish Religious Communities in the Polish Republic, chairman of the Jewish Community in Warsaw, member of the board