Christianization is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages; the conversion of the ruler was followed by the compulsory baptism of his subjects. Some were evangelization by monks or priests, organic growth within an partly Christianized society, or by campaigns against paganism such as the conversion of pagan temples into Christian churches or the condemnation of pagan gods and practices. A strategy for Christianization was Interpretatio Christiana – the practice of converting native pagan practices and culture, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar to Christian uses, due to the Christian efforts at proselytism based on the Great Commission. Reformatting native religious and cultural activities and beliefs into a Christianized form was sanctioned. In essence, it was intended that the traditions and practices still existed, but that the reasoning behind them was altered.
The existence of syncretism in Christian tradition has long been recognized by scholars. Since the 16th century and till modern days, significant scholarship was devoted to deconstruction of interpretatio christiana, i.e. tracing the roots of some Christian practices and traditions to paganism. Early works of this type have tended to be downplayed and dismissed as a form of Protestant apologetics aimed at "purification" of Christianity; the Council of Jerusalem, according to Acts 15, agreed that lack of circumcision could not be a basis for excluding Gentile believers from membership in the Jesus community. Rather, they instructed new believers to avoid "pollution of idols, things strangled, blood", expecting them to hear Moses read on the Sabbath days; these clarifications were put into writing, distributed by messengers present at the Council, were received as an encouragement to the growth of these gentiles' trust in the God of Israel as revealed in the Gospel. The Apostolic Decree thus helped to establish nascent Christianity as a unique alternative among the forms of Judaism for prospective Proselytes.
The Twelve Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers initiated the process of transforming the Jewish sect into a diaspora of communities composed of both Jews and gentiles, united by their trust in Jesus. The Armenian and Ethiopian churches are the only instances of imposition of Christianity by sovereign rulers predating the council of Nicaea; the initial conversion of the Roman Empire occurred in urban areas of Europe, where the first conversions were sometimes among members of the Jewish population. Conversions happened among the Grecian-Roman-Celtic populations over centuries initially among its urban population, with rural conversions taking place some time later; the term "pagan" is from Latin and means "villager, civilian." It is derived from this historical transition. The root of that word is present in today's word "paisan" or "paisano"; the Christianization of the Roman Empire is divided into two phases and after the year 312, which marked the momentous conversion of Constantine. By this date, Christianity had converted a significant but unknown proportion of at least the urban population of the empire including a small number of the elite classes.
Constantine ended the intermittent persecution of Christianity with the Edict of Milan, in fact a quote from a letter of the emperor Licinius by Eusebius, which granted tolerance to all religions, but mentions Christianity. Under Constantine's successors, Christianization of Roman society proceeded by fits and starts, as John Curran documented in detail. Constantine's sons did not close the temples. Although all state temples in all cities were ordered shut in 356, there is evidence that traditional sacrifices continued. Under Julian, the temples were state religious sacrifices performed once more; when Gratian, emperor 376-383, declined the office and title of Pontifex Maximus, his act brought an end to the state religion due to the position's authority and ties within the Imperial administration. Again, this process ended state official practices but not private religious devotion; as Christianity spread, many of the ancient pagan temples were defiled, destroyed, or converted into Christian sites by such figures as Martin of Tours, in the East by militant monks.
However, many temples remained open until Theodosius I's edict of Thessalonica in 381 banned haruspices and other pagan religious practices. From 389 to 393 he issued a series of decrees which led to the banning of pagan religious rites, the confiscation of their property and endowments; the Olympic Games were banned in 392 because of their association with the old religion. Further laws were passed against remaining pagan practices over the course of the following years; the effectiveness of these laws empire-wide is debatable. Christianization of the central Balkans is documented at the end of the 4th century, where Nicetas the Bishop of Remesiana brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves"
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Chilenization of Tacna, Arica and Tarapacá
Chilenization of Tacna and Tarapacá describes a process of forced transculturation or acculturation in the areas which were invaded and incorporated by Chile since the War of the Pacific. The aim of the Chilenization was to create a dominance of Chilean traditions and culture in that region, in preference to those of the Peruvian population; the British desire to reunite all saltpeter mines under one political administration was a major factor that influenced the outcome of the war. After the failure of Chile to ratify the Billinghurst-Latorre protocol, Chile began in the provinces of Tacna and Arica a policy, called "Chilenization"; this has consisted in the closing of school conducted by Peruvians, the extension of the military zone to Tacna, the dismissal of Peruvian prelates and interference with Peruvian religious establishments, the initiation of a Chilean press propaganda and restrictions upon Peruvian press and political agitation, a colonization policy for Chileans. Starting from the Chilean silver rush in the 1830s, Atacama was prospected and populated by Chileans backed by Chilean and European capital.
Chilean and foreign enterprises in the region extended their control to the Bolivian saltpeter mines. During the 1870s, Peru capitalized on the guano exploitation and nationalized all industries in Tarapacá, but Bolivian enterprises in its territory remained in private hands. Peru controlled 58.8% of all saltpeter production, while Chile held 19% and Great Britain 13.5%. According to the 1876 census Peruvians represented the majority of the population in Tarapacá, followed by Chileans and Bolivians. Conflicts between Chilean and Bolivian miners were common in Peruvian saltpeterworks. However, there was no dispute about the Peruvian sovereignty of this territory. In fact, before the war, Peru's southern border was with Bolivia and not Chile. Treaty of Lima Patriotic Leagues Expulsion of Chileans from Bolivia and Peru in 1879
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade and culture. Globalization is an economic process of interaction and integration that's associated with social and cultural aspects; however and diplomacy are large parts of the history of globalization, modern globalization. Economically, globalization involves goods, the economic resources of capital and data; the expansions of global markets liberalize the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds. Removal of Cross-Border Trades barriers has made formation of Global Markets more feasible; the steam locomotive, jet engine, container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure.
All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe. Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some to the third millennium BC. Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew quickly; the term globalization is recent. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions and investment movements and movement of people, the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, socio-cultural resources, the natural environment.
Academic literature subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, political globalization. The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education; the term'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, in other senses since at least as early as 1944. Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects and discussions stay focused on a single aspect of globalization.
Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society." In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole."In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state: Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration.... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis.
Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term.... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity, intensity and impact. Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer.
It pertains to the increasin
Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. Colonization refers to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories". Colonization was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers formed a large majority of the population after killing or driving away indigenous peoples. Examples include the Americas and New Zealand; these colonies were called'neo-Europes'. In other places, Western European settlers formed minority groups, which used more advanced weaponry to dominate the people living in their places of settlement; when Britain started to settle in Australia, New Zealand and various other smaller islands, they regarded the landmasses as terra nullius, meaning'empty land' in Latin. Due to the absence of European farming techniques, the land was deemed unaltered by man and therefore treated as uninhabited, despite the presence of indigenous populations.
In the 19th century and ideas such as Mexico's general Colonization Law and the United States' Manifest destiny encouraged further colonization of the Americas started in the 15th century. The term colonization is derived from the Latin words colere, colonus by extension "to inhabit". Someone who engages in colonization, i.e. the agent noun, is referred to as a colonizer, while the person who gets colonized, i.e. the object of the agent noun or absolutive, is referred to as a colonizee, colonisee or the colonised. In ancient times, maritime nations such as the city-states of Greece and Phoenicia established colonies to farm what they believed was uninhabited land. Land suitable for farming was occupied by migratory'barbarian tribes' who lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, these lands were regarded as vacant. However, this did not mean that conflict did not exist between the colonizers and local/native peoples. Greeks and Phoenicians established colonies with the intent of regulating and expanding trade throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Another period of colonization in ancient times was during the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire conquered large parts of North Africa and West Asia. In North Africa and West Asia, the Romans conquered what they regarded as'civilized' peoples; as they moved north into Europe, they encountered rural peoples/tribes with little in the way of cities. In these areas, waves of Roman colonization followed the conquest of the areas. Many of the current cities throughout Europe began as Roman colonies, such as Cologne, Germany called Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium by the Romans, the British capital city of London, which the Romans founded as Londinium; the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire saw the large-scale movement of people in Eastern Europe and Asia. This is seen as beginning with nomadic horsemen from Asia moving into the richer pasture land to the west, thus forcing the local peoples there to move further west and so on until the Goths were forced to cross into the Roman Empire, resulting in continuous war with Rome which played a major role in the fall of the Roman Empire.
During this period there were the large-scale movements of peoples establishing new colonies all over western Europe. The events of this time saw the development of many of the modern day nations of Europe like the Franks in France and Germany and the Anglo-Saxons in England. In West Asia, during Sassanid Empire, some Persians established colonies in Oman; the Arabs established colonies in Northern Africa and the Levant, remain the dominant majority to this day. The Vikings of Scandinavia carried out a large-scale colonization; the Vikings are best known as raiders, setting out from their original homelands in Denmark, southern Norway and southern Sweden, to pillage the coastlines of northern Europe. In time, the Vikings began trading, established colonies; the Vikings discovered Iceland and established colonies before moving onto Greenland, where they held some colonies. The Vikings launched an unsuccessful attempt at colonizing an area they called Vinland, at a site now known as L'Anse aux Meadows and Labrador, on the eastern coastline of Canada.
"Colonialism" in this context refers to Western European countries' colonization of lands in the Americas, Africa and Oceania. Most of these countries had a period of complete power in world trade at some stage in the period from 1500 to 1900. Beginning in the late 19th century, Imperial Japan engaged in settler colonization, most notably in Hokkaido and Korea; some reports characterize Chinese activities in Tibet as colonization. While many European colonization schemes focused on shorter-term exploitation of economic opportunities or addressed specific goals, a tradition developed of careful long-term social and economic planning for both parties, but more on the colonizing countries themselves, based on elaborate theory-building (note James Oglethorpe
Arabization or Arabisation is either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arabic and Islamic culture influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of the culture Islamic or Arab identity. Elements of Arabian origin were combined in various forms with elements from conquered regions and denominated "Arab". Arabization continued in modern times, most prominently being enforced by the Arab nationalist regimes of Iraq, Sudan, Mauritania and Libya and enforcement of Arab identity and culture upon non-Arab populations, in particular by means of not permitting autochthonous mother tongues other than Arabic in education. After the rise of Islam in the Hejaz, the Arabic culture and language were spread outside the Arabian peninsula through conquest and intermarriages between members of the non-Arab local population and the peninsular Arabs; the Arabic language began to serve as a lingua franca in these dialects were formed.
Although Yemen is traditionally held to be the homeland of the Arabs, most of the Yemeni population in fact did not speak Old Arabic prior to the spread of Islam, but instead South Semitic languages. The influence of Arabic has been profound in many other countries whose cultures have been influenced by Islam. Arabic was a major source of vocabulary for various languages; this process reached its zenith between the 10th and 14th centuries, the high point of Arab culture, although many Arabic words have since fallen out of use, many still remain. After Alexander the Great, the Nabataean kingdom emerged and ruled a region extending from north of Arabia to the south of Syria; the former originating from the Arabian peninsula, who came under the influence of the earlier Aramaic culture, the neighbouring Hebrew culture of the Hasmonean kingdom, as well as the Hellenistic cultures in the region. The pre-modern Arabic language was created by Nabateans, who developed the Nabataean alphabet which became the basis of modern Arabic script.
The Nabataean language, under heavy Arab influence, amalgamated into the Arabic language. The Arab Ghassanids were the last major non-Islamic Semitic migration northward out of Yemen in late classic era, they were Greek Orthodox Christian, clients of the Byzantine Empire. They arrived in Byzantine Syria which had a Aramean population, they settled in the Hauran region spreading to modern Lebanon and Jordan securing governorship of parts of Syria and Transjordan away from the Nabataeans. The Arab Lakhmid Kingdom was founded by the Lakhum tribe that emigrated from Yemen in the 2nd century and ruled by the Banu Lakhm, hence the name given it, they adopted the religion of the Church of the East, founded in Assyria/Asōristān, opposed to the Ghassanids Greek Orthodox Christianity, were clients of the Sasanian Empire. The Byzantines and Sasanians used the Ghassanids and Lakhmids to fight proxy wars in Arabia against each other; the earliest and most significant instance of "Arabization" was the first Muslim conquests of Muhammad and the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates.
They built a Muslim Empire that grew well beyond the Arabian Peninsula reaching as far as Spain in the West and Central Asia to the East. Old South Arabian was driven to extinction by the Islamic expansion, being replaced by Classical Arabic, written with the Arabic script; the South Arabian alphabet, used to write it fell out of use. A separate branch of south semitic, the Modern South Arabian languages still survive today as spoken languages. Although Yemen is traditionally held to be the homeland of Arabs, most of the sedentary Yemeni population did not speak Arabic prior to the spread of Islam; the sedentary people of pre-Islamic Eastern Arabia were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language. According to Serjeant, the indigenous Bahrani people are the Arabized "descendants of converts from the original population of Christians and ancient Persians inhabiting the island and cultivated coastal provinces of Eastern Arabia at the time of the Arab conquest".
In pre-Islamic times, the population of eastern Arabia consisted of Christianized Arabs, Aramean agriculturalists and, Persian-speaking Zoroastrians. Zorastarianism was one of the major religions of pre-Islamic eastern Arabia. After the rise of Islam, the Arab tribes unified under the banner of Islam and conquered modern Jordan, Palestine and Syria; however before the emergence of Islam, the Levant was a home for several pre-Islamic Arabian kingdoms. The Nabateans kingdom of Petra, based in Jordan, the Ghassanids kingdom, based in the Syrian desert; some of these kingdoms were under the indirect influence of the Romans and the Persian Sassanids. The Nabateans transcript developed in Petra was the base for the current Arabic transcript while the Arab heritage is full of poetry recording the wars between the Ghassanids and Lakhmids Arabian tribes in Syria. In the 7th century, after the dominance of Arab Muslims within a few years, the major garrison towns developed into the major cities; the local Arabic and Aramaic speaking population, which shared a close Semitic linguistic/genetic ancestry with the Qahtani and Adnani Arabs, was somewhat Arabized.
The indigenous Assyrians resisted Arabization in Upper Mesopotamia, The Assyrians of the nort
Miscegenation is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, sexual relations, or procreation mixing, perceived to negatively impact the purity of a particular race or culture. Anti-miscegenation is a prominent theme of white supremacy. Though the notion that racial mixing is undesirable has arisen at different points in history, it gained particular prominence in Europe during the era of colonialism; the term miscegenation entered the English language in the 19th century as racial segregation began to become more formalized in the United States. It was used to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations; the term came to be associated with laws banning interracial marriage and sex, known as anti-miscegenation laws. The term miscegenation is always used to refer to racist ideologies; when speaking about mixed-race relationships in a more neutral context, terms such as interracial, interethnic, or cross-cultural are more common in contemporary usage. In the present day, the word miscegenation is avoided by many scholars, because the term suggests that race is a concrete biological phenomenon, rather than a categorization imposed on certain relationships.
The term's historical use in contexts that implied disapproval is a reason why more unambiguously neutral terms such as interracial, interethnic or cross-cultural are more common in contemporary usage. The term remains in use among scholars when referring to past practices concerning multiraciality, such as anti-miscegenation laws that banned interracial marriages. In Spanish and French, the words used to describe the mixing of races are mestizaje, mestiçagem and métissage; these words, much older than the term miscegenation, are derived from the Late Latin mixticius for "mixed", the root of the Spanish word mestizo. These non-English terms for "race-mixing" are not considered as offensive as "miscegenation", although they have been tied to the caste system, established during the colonial era in Spanish-speaking Latin America. Today, the mixes among races and ethnicities are diverse, so it is considered preferable to use the term "mixed-race" or "mixed". In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, a milder form of caste system existed, although it provided for legal and social discrimination among individuals belonging to different races, since slavery for blacks existed until the late 19th century.
Intermarriage occurred from the first settlements, with their descendants achieving high rank in government and society. To this day, there are controversies if Brazilian class system would be drawn around socio-economic lines, not racial ones. Conversely, people classified in censuses as black, brown or indigenous have disadvantaged social indicators in comparison to the white population; the concept of miscegenation is tied to concepts of racial difference. As the different connotations and etymologies of miscegenation and mestizaje suggest, definitions of race, "race mixing" and multiraciality have diverged globally as well as depending on changing social circumstances and cultural perceptions. Mestizo are people of mixed white and indigenous Amerindian ancestry, who do not self-identify as indigenous peoples or Native Americans. In Canada, the Métis, who have Amerindian and white French-Canadian, have identified as an ethnic group and are a constitutionally recognized aboriginal people; the differences between related terms and words which encompass aspects of racial admixture show the impact of different historical and cultural factors leading to changing social interpretations of race and ethnicity.
Thus the Comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French Revolution, equated class difference in 18th-century France with racial difference. Borrowing Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", he showed his contempt for the lowest social class, the Third Estate, calling it "this new people born of slaves... mixture of all races and of all times". Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere, "to mix" and genus, "kind"; the word was coined in the U. S. in 1863, the etymology of the word is tied up with political conflicts during the American Civil War over the abolition of slavery and over the racial segregation of African-Americans. The reference to genus was made to emphasize the distinct biological differences between whites and non-whites, though all humans belong to the same genus and the same species, Homo sapiens; the word was coined in an anonymous propaganda pamphlet published in New York City in December 1863, during the American Civil War.
The pamphlet was entitled Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro. It purported to advocate the intermarriage of whites and blacks until they were indistinguishably mixed, as a desirable goal, further asserted that this was the goal of the Republican Party; the pamphlet was a hoax, concocted by Democrats, to discredit the Republicans by imputing to them what were radical views that offended against the attitudes of the vast majority of whites, including those who opposed slavery. There was much opposition to the war effort; the pamphlet and variations on it were reprinted in both the north and south by Democrats and Confederates. Only in November 1864 was the pamphlet exposed as a hoax; the hoax pamphlet was written by David Goodman Croly, managing editor of the New York World, a De